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EDITED FROM THE ORIGINALS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM LIBRA.RT, &a 

BY 

FREDERICK J. FDRNIVALL, M.A., 

TBIN. HALL, OAUBBIDOE; MEMBER OF COUKOIL OF THE PHILOLOGICAL 

AND EARLY EMOIJSH TEXT SOCIETIES. 



g^0xkr0l^ ($!#♦ 



PRINTED FOR THE HONOURABLE ROBERT CURZON 

BY JOHN GHILDS AND SON, BUNOAY. 

1867. 



TO THE 



PRESIDENT Am) MEMBERS 



OF THB 



^mhnxQ^it €lnh 



giyJUS of ^iMw{i{ and liynpj^ 



ABB DBDIOATBD AND PBBBBNTBD BT 



THBIB OBEDIBNT SBBVANT, 



BOBEBT CUBZON. 



P^hamf May^ 1867. 



iUic |loxIrm[glte dpufr. 



MDCCCLXVII. 



THB 

DUKE OP BUCOiEUGH & QUEENSBERRY, K.G. 

FSESIDENT. 

HIS EXCELLENCY MONSIEUB VON DE WETBE. 

MABQFIS OP L0THLA2T. 

EABL OF CAIINAIIVON. 

EABL OP POWIS, Vico-Ppesident. 

EAEL OP CAWDOE. 

LOED VEENON. 

LOED DELAMEEE. 

LOED DTTPPEEIN, K.C.B. 

LOED WENSLETDALE. 

LOED HOUGHTON. 

HON. EOBBET CUEZON. 

SIE STEPHEN EICHAED GLTNNB, Baet. 

SIE EDWAED HULSE, Babt. 

SIE JOHN BENN WALSH, Babi. 

SIE JOHN SIMEON, Babt. 



SIK JAMES SHAW WILLES. 

GEOEGE BEISCOE, Esq. 

REV. WILLIAM EDWAED BUCKLEY. 

PAUL BUTLEE, Esq. 

REV. WILLIAM QEOEQE CLARK. 

EEV. HENET OCTAVIUS COXE. 

FEANCIS HENEY DICKINSON, Esq. 

THOMAS GAISFOED, Esq. 

HENRY HUCKS GIBBS, Esq. 

GRANVILLE LEVESON GOWER, Esq. 

RALPH NEVILLE GRENVILLE, Esq. 

JOHN BENJAMIN HEATH, Esq. 

ROBERT STAYNER HOLFORD, Esq. 

ALEXANDER JAMES BERESFORD HOPE, Esq. 

JOHN COLE NICHOLL, Esq. 

EVELYN PHILIP SHIRLEY, Esq. 

WILLIAM STIRLING, Esq. 

CHRISTOPHER SYKES, Esq. 

SIMON WATSON TAYLOR, Esq. 

GEORGE TOMLINE, Esq. 

CHARLES TOWNELEY, Esq. 



PREFACE. 



Though this Boke of Nurture by John Knssell is the most com- 
plete and elaborate of its kind, I have never seen it mentioned by 
name in any of the many books and essays on early manners and 
customs, food and dress, that have issued from the press. My own 
introduction to it was due to a chance turning over, for another 
purpose, of the leaves of the MS. containing it. Mr Wheatley then 
told me of Kitson's reference to it in his Bihliographica Poetiea, p. 
96 ; and when the text was all printed, a reference in The Glossary 
of Domestic Architecture (v. III. Pt I. p. 76, note, coL 2) sent me 
to MS. Sloane 1315 ' — in the Glossary stated to have been written 
in 1452 — ^which proved to be a different and unnamed version of 
Russell. Then the Sloane Catalogue disclosed a third MS. No. 2027 \ 
and the earliest of the three, differing rather less than No. 1315 from 
Russell's text, but still anonymous. I have therefore to thank for 
knowledge of the MSS. that special Providence which watches over 
editors as well as children and drunkards, and have not on this 
occasion to express gratitude to Ritson and Wetrton, to whom 
every lover of Early English Manuscripts is under such deep obliga- 
tions, and whose guiding hands (however faltering) in Poetiy have 
made us long so often for the like in Prose. Would that one 
of our many Historians of English Literature had but conceived the 
idea of cataloguing the materials for his History before sitting down 

1 This MS. oontains a copy of '^The Bewle of the Moone/' fol. 49-67, which I 
hope to edit for the Society. 

' The next treatise to Russell in this MS. is ** The booke off the goDtfrnaimoe 
off Kyn^ and Pryncis," or Liber Anstotiles ad AUxandrum Magnum^ a book of 
Lydgate's that we ought to print from the best MS. of it. At ful. 74 b. is a 
beading, — 

Here dyed this translatour and noble poette Lidgate and the yong follower gan 
his prolog on this wys. 

b 



11 PREFACB. 

to write it ! Would that a wise Government would commission 
another Hardy to do for English Literature what the Deputy- 
Keeper of the Public Records is now doing for English History — 
give us a list of the MSS. and early printed books of it ! What 
time and trouble such a Catalogue would save ! 

But to return to John Russell and his Boke. He describes 
himself at the beginning and end of his treatise as Usher and 
Marshal to Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, delighting in his work in 
youth, quitting it only when compelled by crooked age, and then 
anxious to train up worthy successors in the art and mystery of 
managing a well-appointed household. A man evidently who knew 
his work in every detail, and did it all with pride ; not boastful, 
though upholding his office against rebellious cooks, putting them 
down with imperial dignity, " we may allow and disallow ; our 
office is the chief ! " A simple-minded religious man too, — as the 
close of his Treatise shows, — and one able to appreciate the master 
he served, the ^' prynce fulle royalle," the learned and munificent 
Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, the patron of Lydgate, Occleve, 
Capgrave, Withamstede, Leonard Aretine^ Petrus Candidus, Petrus 
de Monte, Tito Livio, Antoyne de Beccara, &c. Ac, the lover of 
Manuscripts, the first great donor to the Oxford University Library 
which Bodley revived *, " that prince peerless," as Russell calls him, 
a man who, with all his faults, loved books and authors, and shall be 
respected by us as he was by Lydgate. But our business is with the 
Marshal, not the Master, and we will heair what John Russell says of 
himself in his own verse, 

an vsshere y Am / ye may beholde / to a prynce of highe degre, 
])at enioyetha to enf orme & teche / alle fo thatt will6 thrive & thee, 

Of suche thyngfi* as here-aftwr shalle be shewed by my diligence 
To them fat nought Can / wM-owt gret exsperience ; 
Therfore yf any mafi fat y mete withe, fat for fawt of necligence, 
y wylle hym enforme & teche, for hurtynge of my Conscience. 

To teche vertew and coTznynge, me thynketh hit charitable, 

for moche youthe in connynge / is barefi & fulle vnable. (L 3-9.) 

At the end of his Boke he gives us a few more details about him- 
self and his work in life : 

^ Warton, ii. 264-8, ed. 1840. For further details about him see the Appendix 
to this Preface. 



PRBFAOB. iii 

Now good soft, y haue shewed the / <fe hrought J>e in vre, 

to know ])e Cnrtesie of court / & these ]k)w may take in core, 

In pantiy / botery / or cellera / A in kervynge a-fore a sovereynd 

demewTd, 
A sewer / or a mershalld : in ])es science / y suppose ye byfi 8ewr«, 

Which in my dayes y lemyd withe a prynce fulle royalle, 
with wholli vschere in chambur was y, & mershalla also in halld, 
vnto whom allc Jiese officered forcseid / fey euer entende shalld, 
Evir to fulfills my commaundement when ])at y to ]>em calle : 

For we may allow & dissalow / oure office is J>e cheeff 

In cellere & spicery / & the Cooke, be he loothe or leeif. (1. 11 73-82.) 

Further on, at line 1211, he says, 

Moore of bis connynge y Cast not me to contreve : 
my tyme is not to tary, hit drawest fast to eve. 
fw tretyse )>at y haue entitled, if it ye entende to preve, 
y assayed me self in youthe w/tA-outefl any greve. 

while y was yonge y-noughe & lusty in dede, 
y enioyed pese maters foreseid / & to leme y toke good hede ; 
but croked age hatha compelled me / & leue court y must nede. 
])erfor6, sone, assay thy self / Ss god shalle be fj spede." 

And again, at line 1227, 

" Now, good soil, thy self, w^t^ other fat shalle pe succede, 
whiche Jjus boke of nurture shalle note / leme, & one?* rede, 
pray for the sowle of lohfi Husselle, pai god do hym mede, 
Som tyme seruaunde with duke vmfrey, due* of Glowcetwr in dede. 

For ])at prynce pereles prayethe / & for suche other mo, 

])e sowle of my wife / my fadur and modir also, 

vn-to Mary modyr and mayd / she fende us from owre foe, 

and brynge vs aUe to blis wheiL we shalle hens goo. AJtSS" 

Ab to his Boke, besides what is quoted above, John Russell says, 

Gk> forthe lytelle boke, and lowly ])ow me commende 

vnto alle yonge gentilmen / pat lust to leme or entende, 

and specially to )>em ])at han exsperience, praynge )'e[m] to amende 

and correcte ])at is amysse, ^re as y fawte or offende. 

And if so J>at any be founde / as J)rou3 myfi necligence, 
Cast pe cawse ofi my copy / rude / & bare of eloquence, 
whiche to drawe out [it haue do my besy diligence, 
redily to reforme hit / by resofi and bettur sentence. 

As for ryme or resofi, pe forewryter was not to blame, 
For as he founde hit aibme hyOi, so wrote he pe same, 
and ])aughe he or y in oure matere digres or degrade, 
blame neithur of vs / For we neuyre hit made ; 

1 The due has a red stroke throngli it, probably to cut it out. 

b2 



IV PREFACE. 

^ Symple as y had insight / somwhat J)e ryme y correcte ; 
blame y cowde no man / y haue no persone suspecte. 
Now, good god, graunt vs grace / oure sowles neuer to Infecte ! 
fan may we regne in fi regioun / eternally with thyne electe. 

(L 1235-50.) 

If John Russell was the writer of the Epilogue quoted above, 
lines 1235-50, then it would seem that in this Treatise he only 
corrected and touched up some earlier Book of Norture which he 
had used in his youth, and which, if Sloane 2027 be not its original, 
mjiy be still extant in its primal state in Mr Arthur Davenport's 
MS., " How to serve a Lord," said to be of the fourteenth century*, 
and now supposed to be stowed away in a hayloft with the owner's 
other books, awaiting the rebuilding and fitting of a fired house. I 
only hope this MS. may prove to be RusselFs original, as Mr Daven- 
port has most kindly promised to let me copy and print it for the 
Society. Meantime it is possible to consider John Eussell's Book of 
Norture as his own. For early poets and writers of verse seem to 
have liked this fiction of attributing their books to other people, and 
it is seldom that you find them acknowledging that they have im- 
agined their Poems on their own heads, as Hampole has it in his 
Pricke of Conacience, p. 239, 1. 8874 (ed. Morris, PhiloL Soc). Even 
Mr Tennyson makes believe that Everard Hall wrote his Mrnie dH 
Arthur, and some Leonard his Golden Tear, On the other hand, the 
existence of the two Sloane MSS. is more consistent with Eussell's 
own statement (if it is his own, and not his adapter's in the 
Harleian MS.) that he did not write his Boke himself, but only 
touched up another man's. Desiring to let every reader judge for 
himself on this point, I shall try to print in a separate text^, for con- 
venience of comparison, the Sloane MS. 1315, which difiers most 
from Russell, and which the Keeper of the MSS. at the British 
Museum considers rather earlier (ab. 1440-50 a.d.) than the MS. of 
Russell (ab. 1460-70 a.d.), while of the earliest of the three,* Sloane 
MS. 2027 (ab. 1430-40 a.d.), the nearer to Russell in phraseology, I 
shall give a collation of all important variations. If any reader of the 

I See one MS., '* How to'serve a Lord," ab. 1500 a.d., quoted in the notes to 
the Camden Society's Italian Relation of England, p. 97. 
> For' the Early English Text Society. 



PREFACE. 



present text compares the Sloanes with it, he will find the suhject 
matter of all three alike, except in these particulars : 

Sloane 1315. 
Omits hnes 1-4 of Russell. 
Inserts after L 48 of R. a passage 



Sloane 2027. 
Contains these lines. 
Inserts and omits as SI. 1315 does, 
but the wording is often different. 



Contains this stanza (fol. 42, b.). 
Contracts the Fumositees too (fol. 45 

and back). 
Has one verse of Lenvoy altered (fol. 

45 b.). 
Transfers as SI. 1315 does (see fol. 

48). 



about behaviour which it nearly 
repeats, where Russell puts it, at 

L 276, Symple Condicions. 
Omits Russell's stanza, 1. 305-8, about 

' these cuttid galauntes with their 

codware.' 
Omits a stanza, 1. 319-24, p. 137. 
Contracts R.'s chapter, on Fumositees, 

p. 139. 
Omits R.'8 Lenvoy^ under Fried Metes, 

p. 149-50. 
Transfers R.'s chapters on Sewes on 

Fische Bayes and SawcU for Fishe, 
' 1. 819-54, p. 171-6, to the end of 

his chapter on Kervyng ofFishey 1. 

649, p. 161. 
Gives different Soteltes (or Devices 

at the end of each course), and 

omits Russell's description of his 

four of the Four Seasons, p. 164-70 ; 

and does not alter the metre of the 

hues describing the Dinners as he 

does, p. 167-171. 
Winds up at the end of the Bathe or Qas 3 winding-up stanzas, as if about 

Stetoe^ 1. 1000, p. 183, R., with two to end as Sloane 1315 does, but 

stanzas of peroration. As there is yet goes on (omitting the Baihe 

no Explicit^ the MS. may be inoom- Medicinable) with the FssAer and 

plete, but the next page is blank. Marshalled K p. 185, and ends sud- 

denly, at 1. 1062, p. 188, R., in the 
middle of the chapter. 

In occasional length of line, in words and rhymes, Sloane 1316 
differs far more from Russell than Sloane 2027, which has Russell's 
long lines and rhymes throughout, so far as a hurried examination 
shows. 



Differs from R., nearly as SI. 1315 
does. 



Tl PRBFAOB. 

But the variations of both these Sloane MSS. are to me more 
like those from an original MS. of which our Harleian Russell is a 
copy, thfloi of an original which Russell altered. Why should the 
earliest Sloane 2027 start with 

" An vsschere .y. am / as ye may se : to a prynce Of hyghe degre " 

if in its original the name of the prince was not stated at the end, as 
JRussell states it, to show that he was not gammoning his readers ? 
Why does Sloane 1315 omit lines in some of its stanzas, and words in 
some of its lines, that the Harleian Russell enables us to fill up ? Why 
does it too make its writer refer to the pupil's lord and sovereign, if 
in its original the author did not clench his teaching by asserting, as 
Russell does, that he had served one ? Thin Sloane 1315 may well 
have been copied by a man like Wynkyn de Worde, who wished not 
to show the real writer of the treatise. On the whole, I incline 
to believe that John Russell's Book of Norture was written by him, 
and that either the Epilogue to it was a fiction of his, or was written 
by the superintender of the particular copy in the Harleian MS. 4011, 
Russell's own work terminating with the Amen I after line 1234. 
But whether we consider Russell's Boke another's, or as in the main 
his own, — allowing that in parts he may have used previous pieces 
on the subjects he treats of, as he has used Starts Puer (or its 
original) in his Symple Condiciona, L 277-304, — ^if we ask what the 
Boke contains, the answer is, that it is a complete Manual for the 
Valet, Butler, Footman, Carver, Taster, Dinner-arranger, Hippocras- 
maker. Usher and Marshal of the Nobleman of the time when the 
work was written, the middle of the fifteenth century. — For I take 
the date of the composition of the work to be somewhat earlier than 
that of the MS. it is here printed from, and suppose Humphrey 
Duke of Gloucester, " imprisoned and murdered 1447," to have been 
still alive when his Marshal penned it. — ^Reading it, we see " The 
Good Duke " ripe and dress *, go to Chapel and meals, entertain at 
feasts in Hall, then undress and retire to rest ; we hear how his head 
was combed with an ivory comb, his stomacher warmed, his petycote 
put on, his slippers brown as the waterleech got ready, his privy-seat 

^ I have put figures before the motions in the dreae and undresB drills, for they 
reminded me so of *' Manual and Platoon : by numbers." 



PREFACE. VU 

prepared, and liis urinal kept in waiting ; how his bath was made, his 
table laid, his guests arranged, his viands carved, and his salt 
smoothed ^ ; we are told how nearly all the birds that fly, the animals 
that walk the earth, the fish that swim in river and sea, are food for 
the pot : we hear of dishes strange to us*, beaver's tail, osprey, brewe, 
venprides, whale, swordfish, seal, torrentyne, pety perveis or pemeis, 
and gravell of beef. Bills of fare for flesh and flsh days are laid before 
us ; admired Sotiltees or Devices are described ; and he who cares to 
do so may fancy for himself the Duke &nd all his brilliant circle 
feasting in Hall, John Eussell looking on, and taking care that all 
goes right.^ I am not going to try my hand at the sketch, as I do 
not write for men in the depths of that deducated Philistinism which 
lately made a literary man say to one of our members on his printing 
a book of the 15th century, " Is it possible that you care how those 
barbarians, our ancestors, lived?" If any one who takes up this 
tract, will not read it through, the loss is his ; those who do work at 
it will gladly acknowledge their gain. That it is worthy of the 
attention of all to whose ears tidings of Early England come with 

* Mr Way says that the planere, 1. 58, is an article new to antiquarians. 

' Randle Holme's tortoise and snails, in No. 12 of his Second Course, Bk. III., 
p. 60, ooL ], are stranger still. 

' ^' It is nought all good to the goost that the gat asketh " we may well say 
with William who wrote Piers Fhughnum, y. 1, p. 17, 1. 633-4, after reading' the 
Usts of things eatable, and dishes, in Russell's pages. The later feeds that Phylotheus 
Physiologus exclaims against * are nothing to them : *^ What an Hodg^poteh do 
most that haye Abilities make in their Stomachs, which must wonderfully oppress 
and distract Nature : For if you should take Flesh of yarious sorts, Fish of as many, 
Cabbagee, Fartnope, Foiatoes, Muetardy Butter, Cheese, a Fudden that contains more 
then ten seyeral Ingredents, Tarts, Sweet-meats, Custards^ and add to these Churries, 
Fkms, Currans, Apples, Capers, Olives, Anehovi$s, Mangoes, Gaveare, ^e., and jumble 
them altogether into one Mass, what Eye would not loath, what Stomach not abhor 
such a OaUemaufrey ? pt this is done eyery Day, and counted Oallent Entertainment:* 

^ See descriptions of a dinner in Parker's Domestic Architecture of the Middle 
Ages, iii. 74-87 (with a good cut of the Cupboard, Dais, &c.)» and in Wright's 
Ihmestie Manners and Customs. Bussell's description of the Franklin's dinner, 
1. 795-818, should be noted for the sake of Chaucer's FrankUn, and we may also 
notice that Bussell orders butter and fruits to be seryed on an empty stomach before 
dinner, 1. 77, as a whet to the appetite. Modus Cenandi seryes potage first, and 
keeptf the firuits, with the spices and biscuits, for dessert. 



* Monthly Obfleryations for the preserying of Health, 1886, p. 20-1. 



Vlll PREFACE. 

welcome sound across the wide water of four hundred years, I 
unhesitatingly assert. That it has interested me, let the time its notes 
have taken on this, a fresh subject to me, testify. If any should 
object to the extent of them \ or to any words in them that may 
oifend his ear, let him excuse them for the sake of what he thinks 
rightly present. There are still many subjects and words insuffi- 
ciently illustrated in the comments, and for the names venprides (1. 
820; sprotis, ^sprats, as in Sloane 1315), and torrentille (1. 548); 
almond iardyne (1. 744) ; ginger colombyne, valadyne, and maydeh/ne 
(1. 132-3) ; leche dugard, &c., I have not been able to find meanings. 
Explanations and helps I shall gladly receive, in the hope that they 
may appear in another volume of like kind for which I trust soon to 
find more MSS. Of other MSS. of like kind I also ask for notice. 

The reason for reprinting Wynkyn de Worde*s Boke of Keruynge; 
which I had not at first thought of, was because its identity of phrase 
and word with many parts of Russell, — a thing which came on me 
with a cxirious feeling of surprise as I turned over the leaves, — ^made 
it certain that de Worde either abstracted in prose Eussell's MS., 
chopping off his lines' tails, — adding also bits here*, leaving out others 
there, — or else that both writers copied a common original. The 
most cursory perusal will show this to be the case. It was not alone 
by happy chance that when Russell had said 

O Fruture viant / Fruter sawge byii good / better is Frutwr powche ; 
Appulle fruture / is good hoot / but J>e cold ye not towche ^.501-2) 

Wynkyn de Worde delivered himself of 

" Fruyter vaunte, fruyter say be good ; better is fruyter pouche ; 
apple fruyters ben good good bote /. and all colde frutei-s, touche 
not," 

1 The extracts irom Bulleyn, Borde, Vaughan, and Harington cure in the nature of 
notes, but their length gaye one the excuse of printing them in bigger type as parts of 
a Text. In the same way I should have treated the many extracts from Laurens 
Andre\fte, had I not wanted them intermixed with the other notes, and being also 
afraid of swelling this book to an unwieldy size. 

3 The Termes of a Kerver so common in MSS. are added, and the subsequent 
arrangement of the modes of carving the birds under these Termes, p. 1'5-17. . The 
Easter- Day feast (p. 14) is also new, the bit why the heads of pheasants, partridges, 
&c., are unwholesome—* for they ete in theyr degrees foule thynges, as wormes, 
todes, and other suche '—and several other pieces. 



PREFACE. IX 

altering nofs place to save the rhyme ; or that when Eussell had 
said of the Crane 

The Crane is a fowle / that stronge is vfiih to fare ; 
J)e whynge* ye areyse / fuUe large evyn thare ; 
of hyrc trompe in J>e brest / loke fat yo beware 

Wynkyn de Worde directed his Carver thus : " A crane, reyse the 
wynges fyrst, & beware of the trumpe in his brest." Let any one 
compare the second and third pages of Wynkyn de Worde's text 
with lines 48-137 of Eussell, and he will make up his mind that the 
old printer was either one of the most barefaced plagiarists that ever 
lived, or that the same original was before bim and Eussell too. 
May Mr Davenport's hayloft, or some learned antiquarian, soon 
decide the alternative for us ! The question was too interesting a 
" Curiosity of Literature '* not to be laid before our Members, and 
therefore The Boke of Keruynge was reprinted — from the British 
Museum copy of the second edition of 1513 — with added side-notes 
and stops, and the colophon as part of the title. 

Eussell's Bohe of Nurture should be compared with The Boke of 
Curtasye in the Sloane MS. 1986, edited by Mr Halliwell for the 
Percy Society and by me for the Early English Text Society. The 
Boke of Curtasye is of wider scope than Eussell*s, takes in the duties 
of outdoor officers and servants as well as indoor, and maybe those of a 
larger household ; it has also a fyrst Boke on general manners, and a 
Second Book on what to learn at school, how to behave at church, 
&c., but it does not go into the great detail as to Meals and Dress 
which is the special value of Eussell's Boke, nor is it associated with 
a writer who tells us something of himself, or a noble who in all our 
English Middle Age has so bright a name on which we can look back 
as '^good Duke Humphrey." This personality adds an interest to work 
that anonymity and its writings of equal value can never have ; so 
that we may be well content to let the Curtasye be used in illustra- 
tion of the Nurture^ The MS. of the Curtasye is about 1460 A.D., 
Mr Bond says. 

The woodcuts Messrs Virtue have allowed me to have copies of 
for a small royalty, and they will help the reader to realize parts of 
the text better thfim any verbal description. The cuts are not of 



X PREFAOE. 

course equal to the beautiful early illuminatioiis they are taken from, 
but they are near enough for the present purpose. The dates of those 
from British Museum MSS. are given on the authority of trustworthy 
ofl&cers of the Manuscript Department. The dates of the non-Museum 
MSS. are copied from Mr Wright's text The line of description 
under the cuts is also from Mr Wright's text, except in one instance 
where he had missed the fact of the cut representing the Marriage 
Feast at Cana of Gralilee, with its six water-pots. 

The MS. of Eussell is on thick folio paper, is written in a close — 
and seemingly unprofessional — ^hand, fond of making elaborate capitals 
to the initials of its titles, and thus occasionally squeezing up into a 
comer the chief word of the title, because the T of T7i£ preceding 
has required so much room.^ The MS. has been read through by a 
corrector with a red pen, pencil, or brush, who has underlined all the 
important words, touched up the capitals, and evidently believed in 
the text. Perhaps the corrector, if not writer, was Russell himself. 
I hope it was, for the old man must have enjoyed emphasizing his 
precepts with those red scores; but then he would hardly have 
allowed a space to remain blank in line 204, and have left his 
Panter-pupil in doubt as to whether he should lay his " white 
payne " on the left or right of his knives. Every butler, drill- 
serjeant, and vestment-cleric, must feel the thing to be impossible. 
The corrector was not John Russell. 

To all those gentlemen who have helped me in the explanations 
of words, &c., — Mr Gillett, Dr Giinther, Mr Atkinson, Mr Skeat, 
Mr Cockayne, Mr Gibbs, Mr Way, the Hon. G. P. Marsh — and to Mr 
E. Brock, the most c^ureful copier of the MS., my best thanks are due, 
and are hereby tendered. Would that thanks of any of us now 
profiting by their labours could reach the ears of that prince of 
Dictionary-makers, Cotgrave, of Frater Galfridus, Palsgrave, Hex- 
ham, Philipps, and the rest of the lexicographers who enable us to 
understand the records of the past ! Would too that an adequate 
expression of gratitude could reach the ears of the lost Nicolas, and 
of Sir Frederic Madden, for their carefully indexed Household 

^ The MS. has no title. The one printed I have made up from bits of the text. 



PREFACE. XI 



Books, — ^to be contrasted with the unwieldy mass said clueless mazes 
of the Antiquaries' Household Ordinances, the two volumes of the 
Roxbuighe Howard Household Books^ and Percy's Northumberland 
Household Book * / 



3, St Gemge's Square, N.W. 
16 Dec., 1866. 



1 Still one is truly thankfiil for the material in these unindezed books. 



Xii HUMPHRET, DUKE OF GLOUCESTER. 



HUMPHREY, DUKE OF GLOUCESTER. 

Mr C. H. Pearson has referred me to a most curious treatise on 
the state of Duke Humphrey's body and health in 1404 (that is, 1424, 
says Hearne), by Dr Gilbert Kymer, his physician, part of which 
(chapters 3 and 19, with other pieces) was printed by Hearne in the 
appendix to his Liher NlgeVy v. ii. p. 550 {ed. alt), from a MS. then 
in Sir Hans Sloane's Collection, and now Sloane 4 in the British 
Museum. It begins at p. 127 or folio 63, and by way of giving the 
reader a notion of its contents, I add here a copy of the first page of 
the MS. 

Incipit dietarium de sanitatis custodia preinclitissimo principi ac 
metuendissimo dom2no,dommohumfrido,duci Gloucestrie, AlijsqM^ 
preclaris titulis insignito, Scriptum & compilatum, per venerabilem 
doctorew, Magistruwj Gilbertum Kymer, Medicinan^m professorem, 
arcium ac 'pkilosophvd "MAgtstrum. & in legibt^^ bacallarium prelibati 
principis phisicuTw, Cuius dietary* coHeccion&m (T) dilucidancia & 
effectum viginti sex existunt capitztla, quorum conaequenier hie ordo 
ponitwr RubricarMTW «. 

Csn^itidum. 1™ est epi^^ola de laude sanitatis & vtilitate bone diete. 
CsLpituIuia 2™ est de illis in quibz^ consistit dieta. 
Ceipitulum 3™ de tociz^* co[r]po7ds & parciuw disposictone. 
C&i^tulum 4™ est de Ayere eligendo & corrigendo. 
Ceipitulum 5" de qt^intitate cibi & potus sumenda. 
Csk^tulum &^ de ordine sumendi cibum & potum. 
CsLpitulum 7™ de tempore sumendi cibum & potum. 
CsL^tulum 8"* de qi^ntitate cibi & potus sumendorum. 
Capt^ttZttm 9"* de pane eligendo. 
Cekpitidum 10™ de generibtw potagiorwm sumendis. 

^ The letters are to me more like ct, or co/1 than anything else, but I am not sure 
what they are. 

2 The MS. runs on without breakf^ 



HUMPHREY, DUKE OF 6L0UCB8TER. Zlll 

Csk'piitUum 1 1°^ de c&Tmbiis vtendis & vitandia 

CApitiUum. 12™ de ouis sumendis. 

Csiyitulum 13" de lacticinys vtendw. 

C&j^itulum 14°^ depiscibt/^ vtendis & vitandi^. 

Cei'pitidum 1 5°^ de f ructib2^ sumendis. 

Ca,pituluiR 16™ de condimentis & speeiehus vtendis. 

C&pittUum 17™ de potu eligendo. 

C&^tidum. 18™ de regimme repleciorais & inanicz'onis. 

Cfipitulum 19™ de vsu coitus. 

C&]^tulum 20™ de excercicto & qwiete. 

Capitulum 21™ de sompni & vigilie regimine. 

CeLpittdum 22™ de vsu accie^ncium anime. 

Cajpitvlum 23™ de bona ccmsuetudine diete tenenda. 

Ca^pitidum 24™ de medicmis vicissim vtendis. 

CaptYuZum 25™ de aduersis nature infortun^js pr^cauendis. 

CsLpittdum 26™ de deo semper colendo vt sanitatem melius tueatur. 

Sharon Turner (Hrst. of England, v. 498, note 35) says euphemis- 
tically of the part of this treatise printed by Heame, that " it implies 
how much the Duke had injured himself by the want of self-govern- 
ment. It describes him in his 45th year, as having a rheumatic af- 
fection in his chest, with a daily morning cough. It mentions that 
his nerves had become debilitated by the vehemence of his laborious 
exercises, and from an immoderate frequency of pleasurable in- 
dulgences. It advises him to avoid north winds after a warm sun, 
sleep after dinner, exercise after society, frequent bathings, strong 
wine, much fruit, the flesh of swine, and the weakening gratification 
to which he was addicted. The last (chapter), 'De Deo semper colendo, 
ut, sanitatem melius tueatur,' is worthy the recollection of us aU." It 
is too late to print the MS. in the present volume, but ia a future one 
it certainly ought to appear. Of Duke Humphrey's character and pro- 
ceedings after the Pope's bull had declared his first marriage void, 
Sharon Turner further says : 

" Gloucester had found the rich dowry of Jacqueline wrenched 
from his grasp, and, from so much opposition, placed beyond his at- 
taining, and he had become satiated with her person. One of her at- 



xiv HUMPHREY, DUKE OP GLOUCESTER. 

tendants, Eleanor Cobham, had affected his variable fancy ; and tho 
her character had not been spotless before, and she had surrendered 
her honour to his own importunities, yet he suddenly married her, 
exciting again the wonder of the world by his conduct, as in that 
proud day every nobleman felt that he was acting incongruously with 
the blood he had sprung £rom. His first wedlock was impolitic, and 
this unpopular ; and both were hasty and self-willed, and destructive 
of all reputation for that dignified prudence, which his elevation to 
the regency of the most reflective and enlightened nation in Europe 
demanded for its example and its welfare. This injudicious conduct 
announced too much imperfection of intellect, not to give every ad- 
vantage to his political rival the bishop of Winchester, his uncle, who 
was now struggling for the command of the royal mind, and for the 
predominance in the English government. He and the duke of 
Exeter were the illegitimate brothers of Henry the Fourth, and had 
been first intrusted with the king's education. The internal state of 
the country, as to its religious feelings and interest, contributed to in- 
crease the differences which now arose between the prelate and his 
nephew ; who is described by a contemporary as sullying his culti- 
vated understanding and good qualities, by an ungovemed and 
diseasing love of unbecoming pleasures. It is strange, that in so old 
a world of the same continuing system always repeating the same 
lesson, any one should be ignorant that the dissolute vices are the 
destroyers of personal health, comfort, character, and permanent in- 
fluence." * 

After narrating the Duke Humphrey's death. Turner thus sums 
up his character : — 

" The duke of Gloucester, amid failings that have been before 
alluded to, has acquired the pleasing epithet of The Good ; and has 
been extolled for his promotion of the learned or desei-ving clergy. 
Fond of literature, and of literary conversation, he patronized men of 
talent and erudition- One is called, in a public record, his poet and 
orator ; and Lydgate prefaces one of his voluminous works, with a 
panegyric upon him, written during the king's absence on his French 

1 Sharon Turner's History of England^ vol. v. pp. 496—8. 



HUMPHREY, DUKE OF GTX)UCE8TER. XV 

coronatios, which presents to us the qualities for which, while he was 
living, the poet found him remarkahle, and thought fit to commend 
him." 

These verses are in the Eoyal MS. 18 D 4, in the British Museum, 
and are here printed from the MS., not from Turner ; — 

tFoi. 4.1 Eek in this lond — I dar aflPerme a thyng — 
Ther is a prince Ful myhty of puyssaumie, 
A kynges sone, vncle to the kynge 
Henry the sexte which is now in fraunce, 
And is lieftenant, & hath the gouemauTzce 
Off our breteyne ; thoruh was discrecion 
He hath conserued in this regiou?^ 

Duryng his tyme off ful hihe * prudence 
Pes and quiete, and sustened riJite.* 
Jit natwithstandyng his noble prouyderice 
He is in deede prouyd a good knyht, 
£ied as argus with reson and forsiht ; 
Off hihe lectrure I dar eek off hym telle, 
And treuli deeme that he dothe excelle 

In vndirstondyng all othir of his age, 
And hath gret loie with clerkis to commune ; 
And no man is mor experi^ off language. 
Stable in studie alwei he doth contune, 
Settyng a side alle chauwges* of fortune ; 
And wher he louethe, 3iff I schal nat tarie, 
Witheoute cause ful lothe he is to varie. 

Due off Gloucestre men tliis prince calle ; 

And natwithstandyng liis staat & dignyte, 

His corage neuer doth appalle 

To studie in bookis off antiquite ; 

Therin he hathe so gret felicite 

Vertuousli hym silff to ocupie, 

Off vicious slouth to haue the maistrie.' 

^ These ^-s represent the strokes through the A-s. ^ MS. thauMges. 

3 This is the stanza quoted by Dr Reinhold Pauli in his Bilder aus AlUEnglancL, 
c. li. p. 349 : 

^' Herzog tod Glocester nennen sic den Fiirsten, 
Der trotz des hohen Bangs und hoher Ehren 
Im Herzen nahrt ein dauemdes GelUsten 
Nach Allem, was die alten Biicher lebren ; 
So glUcklich gross ist hienn sein Begehren, 
Dass tugendsara er seine Zeit yerbringt 
Und trunkne Tragheit manniglich bezwingt." 

The reader should by all means consult this chapter, which is headed " Herzog 



XVI HUMPHREY, DUKB OP GLOUCESTER. 

And with, his prudence & wit his manheed 
Trouthe to susteyne he fauour set a side ; 
And hooli chirche meyntenyng in dede, 
That in this land no lollard dar abida 
As verrai support, vpholdere, & eek guyde, 
Spareth non, but makethe hym silff strong 
To punysshe alle tho that do the chirche wrong. 

Thus is he both manly &, eek wise, 
Chose of god to be his owne knyhte ; 
And oflf thynge he hath a synguler * price, 
That heretik dar non comen in his siht«. 
In cristes feitha he stant so hoi vpriht, 
Off hooli chirche defence and [cjhampion 
To chastise alle that do therto treson. 

And to do plesance to oure lord ihej^u 
He studieht ^ euere to haue intelligence, 
Eeedinge off bookis bringthe in vertu, 
Vices excludyng, slouthe & necligence ; 
Maketha a prince to haue experience 
To know hym silff in many sundry wise, 
r , Wher he trespaseth, his errour to chastise. 

After mentioning that the duke had considered the book of 
' Boccasio, on the Fall of Princes,' he adds, * and he gave me com- 
mc^ndment, that I should, after my conning, this book translate him 
to do plesance.' MSS. 18 D 4. — Sharon Turner's History of Eng- 
landy vol. vi. pp. 65—7. 



P.S. When printing the 1513 edition of Wynkyn de Worde's Boke of 
Keruynge^ I was not aware of the existence of a copy of the earlier edition in 
the Cambridge University Library. Seeing this copy afterwards named in 
Mr Hazlitt's new catalogue, I asked a friend to compare the present reprint 
with the first edition, and the result follows. 



Humfrid von Glocester. Bruchstiick eines Fiirstenlebens im funfzehnten Jahrhun- 
derte" (Humphrey Duke of Gloucester. Sketch of the life of a prince in the 
fifteenth century). There is an excellent English translation of this book, published 
by Macmillan, and entitled " Pictures of Old England."— W. W. Skeat 
> The / is rubbed. > So in MS. 



NOTES. xvii 



NOTE ON THE 1508 EDITION OF 
The Boke ofKeruynge^ 

BT THB BIT. WALTER SKSAT, M.A. 

The title-page of the older edition, of 1508, merely contains the words, 
" IF Here begynneth the boke of Keruynge ; " *and beneath them is— as in 
the second edition of 1513— a picture of two ladies and two gentlemen at 
dinner, with an attendant bringing a dish, two servants at a side table, and a 
jester. The colophon tells us that it was "Enprynted by wynkyn de worde 
at London in Flete strete at the sygne of the sonne. The yere of our lorde 
M.CCCCC. Vm ; " beneath which is Wynkyn de Worde's device, as in the 
second edition. 

The two editions resemble each other very closely, running page for page 
throughout, and every folio in the one begins at the same place as in the 
other. Thus the word " moche " is divided into mo-che in both editions, the 
"•che " beginning Fol. A ii. h. Neither is altogether free from misprints, but 
these are not very numerous nor of much importance. It may be observed 
that marks of contraction are hardly ever used in the older edition, the word 
"y«" being written "the" at length, and instead of ''hHged" we find 
" hanged." On the whole, the first edition would seem to be the more care- 
fully printed, but the nature of the variations between them will be best 
understood by an exact collation of the first two folios (pp. 5-7 of the present 
edition), where the readings of the first edition are denoted by the letter A. 
The only variations are these : — 

P. 5. l%ft that swanne]*/j^tf that swanne A ; {fl misprinf), 

/ruMAe that ohekjJi]/ruehs that chekyn A. 

thye all maner ^ small byrdes] A omits of. 

fynne that cheuen] /yne that cheuen A. 

transsene that ele] trasgene that ele A. 

Here kendeth, &c.] Here endeth^ &c. A. 

Butler] ButtelerA. 
P. 6, 1. 5. trerichoures] trenchours A. 

1. 12. harmed] hanged A. 

1. 15. eannelles] cauelles A. 

1. 18, 19. ^] the {in both places) A. 

1. 20. seasons'] seasons A. 

1. 23. after] After A. 

1. 27. good] goot A. 

1. 30. ^] the A. 

1. 34. modoii] modon A. 

I. 36. sourayne] souerayne A. 



XVIU NOTES. 

P- 7. ^] the A (several times), 
1. 5. «y//] wyl A. 

1. 9. rede"] reed A. reboyle'] reboyle not A. 
1. 13. the reboyle] they reboyle A. 
1. 17. lessynge^ lesynge A. 
L 20. eampolel^ campolet A. 
L 21. tyer] tyerre A. 

1. 22. ypocras'] Ipocras A (and in the next line, and I. 26). 
1. 24. ,^yn^<?r] gynger A. 
L 27. ren] hange A. 
1. 29. yourl youre A. 
In I. 33, A has paradioo, as in the second edition. 

It will be readily seen that these variations are chiefly in the spelling, and 
of a trivial character. The only ones of any importance are, on p. 5, lyste 
(which is a misprint) for Ijft, and trassene for transsene (cp. Fr. transon, a trun- 
cheon, peece of, Cot.) ; on p. 6, ^oot for ^ood is weU worth notice (if any 
meaning can be assigned to ffoot), as the direction to beware of ffood straw- 
berries is not obvious ; on p. 7, we should note lesynge for lessynge^ and 
hange for ren^ the latter being an improvement, though ren makes sense, as 
basins hung by cords on a perch may, like curtains hung on a rod, be said to 
run on it. The word ren was probably caught up from the line above it in 
reprinting. 

The following corrections are also worth making, and are made on the 
authority of the first edition : — 

P. 9, L 10, For treachour read trenchour. 
1. 23. For so read se. 
1. 24. For se' read se. 
P. 10, 1. 1. o»y] on A. 
1. 7. For it read is. 

L 15. ^ so"] and soo A. (No doubt oufing to confusion between & and y«.) 
1. 16. your"] you A. 
1. 29. For bo read be. 
P. 11, 1. 20. For wich read with. 
P. 12, 1. 3. For fumosytces read fumosytees. 
1. 7. For pygous read pynyons (whence it appears that the pinion-honen, 
not pigeon^ s-hones, are meant). 

1. 25. The word " reyfe " is quite plain. 
P. 14, 11. 18, &c. There is some variation here ; the first edition has, after 
the word souerayne, the following : — "laye trenchours before hym / yf he be 
a grete estate, lay fyue trenchours / & he be of a lower degre, foure trench- 
ours / & of an other degre, thre trenchours," &c. This is better ; the second 
edition is clearly wrong about the^r^ trenchers. This seems another error 
made in repiinting, the words lower degre being wrongly repeated. 
P. 15, 1. 6. It may be proper to note the first edition also has broche, 
P. 19, 1. 8. For for y« read for they. 



NOTES. XIX 

P. 19, 1. 27. /A?|>] ; inlLtheyU printed in full. 

P. 20, 1. 18. For raysyus read raysyns. 

P. 21, 1. 21. For slytee read slytte. 

P. 23, 11. 10, 18. carpenies] carpettes A. 
1. 14. shall] shake A. 
1. 23. blanked] blanket A. 

Nearly all the above corrections have already been made in the side-notes. 
Only two of them are of any importance, viz. the substitution of pynyons on 
p. 12, and the variation of reading on p. 14 ; in the latter case perhaps 
neither edition seems quite right, though the first edition is quite in- 
telligible. 

In our Cambridge edition (see p. 24, 1. 5) this line about the pope is care- 
fully struck out, and the grim side-note put " Unoer down *', with tags to show 
to what estate he and the cardinal and bishops ought to be degraded ! 



CONTENTS. 



■YEBT SBBVANT) 



PROLOGUE 

nrraoDucTioN. meeting of master and pupil 

THE PANTER OR BUTLER. HIS DUTIES 

(and herein of BBOACHINO wine, of FBUIT8 AND CHBB8E, 
AND OF THE CABB OF WINES IN WOOD) 

NAMES OF SWEET WINES 

HOW TO MAKE YPOCRAS . . 

THE BOTERY 

HOW TO LAY THE TABLE-CLOTH, ETC. 

HOW TO WRAP UP BREAD STATELY 

HOW TO MAKE THE SURNAPE 

HOW TO BiANAGE AT TABLE 

SYBIPLE OONDICIONS, 

(OB BX7LB8 FOB GOOD BEHAYIOXTB FOB 

THE OONNYNQE OF KERVYNGE 

FUMOSITEES 

KERUYNG OF FLESH 

BAKE METES (hOW TO CARVe) 

FRIED METES ; with l'eNVOY 

POTAGES 

diuerce sawces 
kervyng of FISCHK 
office of a sewer 

(OB ABBANOEB OF THE DISHES ON THE TABLE, ETC.) 
A DYNERE OF FLESCH27: 
THE FURST COURSE 
THE SECOND COURSE • • 
THE iij^ COURSE 



Page 
1 

2-3 
3-9 



9 
9-12 
12-13 
13-14 
14-16 
16-17 
17-18 
18-21 

21-3 
23-4 

24-30 
30-2 
33-4 
34-5 
35-7 

37-45 
46-7 



• • 



48 

49 

49.50 



OONTENTa. 



A DINERB OF FISCHl?: 

THE PURST OOUBSE 

THE SECOND OOUBSE . . . . - 

THE THRID OOUESB 

THE .iiij. OOURSB OF FRUTE, WITH FOUR SOTBLTEES 

THE SUPERSCRIPCIOUN OF THE 8UTILTEES ABOUB 

SPECIFIED 

A PEST FOR A FRANKLEN 

SEWES ON FISKB DAYBS . . 

8AWCE FOR FISCH^ 

THE OFFICE OFF A CHAMBURLATNE 

(how to DRBS8 TOUB LORD, P&BPA.aB HI8 PBW IN CHUEOB, 
8T&IP HIS BBD, P&EPUIE HT8 PBIYT» BTC.) 

THE WARDEROBES . . . . . . ' 

(how TO PX7T TOU& LOBD TO BBD, AND PRBPABB HI8 BEX>- 
&00M, BTC.) 

A BATHE OR STTEWE SO CALLED . . 

(how to PBBPABB ONB POB T0X7B LORD) 
THE MAKYNG OF A BATH^ MEDICINABLE 

THE OFFICE OF VSSHER ft MARSHAUJ7 

(with thb obdbb of pbbcbdbnct of all banks) 

the sumbcary •• •• •• •• 

Ij £N VOx* •• •• •• •• 

(thb AX7TH0B ASKS THB PBATBB8 OF HIS BBADBB8, AND UB OB 
THB COPIBB OOmCBNDS THIS BOOK TO THBM) 

MCFXlfio •• •• •• •• •■ •• 

(with bits fbom lawbbns andbewb, on fish, &e.) 

ILLUSTRATIVE EXTRACTS. 
WILTAM BULLEYN ON BOXYNG AND NECKEWEEDE 
ANDREW BORDE ON SLEEP, RISING, AND DRESS 
WILLIAM VAUGHAN's 15 DIRECTIONS TO PBBSSRVE 
xxEALTH •• •• •• •• •• 

STK JS. HABINOTON's DYET FOB EVERT DAY . . 

SIR JM. HARINOTON ON RISING, DIET, AND OOINO TO BED 



Fac* 

50-1 
51 

62 
62-3 

53-4 
54-5 
56-6 
56-9 
59-64 

64-6 

66-7 

67-9 
69-78 

78-82 
82-3 

84-123 



124-7 
128-32 

133-7 
138 9 
140-3 



FOEEWORD. 



"The natuiall maister Anstotell saith that eueiy body be the 
course of nature is enclyned to here & se all that re&essheth & 
quickeneth the spretys of man ^ / wherfor I haue thus in this boke 
folowinge'*' gathered together divers treatises touching the Manners 
and Meals of Englishmen in former days, & have added therto 
divers figures of men of old at meat & in bed', to the end that, to 
my fellows here & to come, the home life of their forefathers may 
be somewhat more plain, & their own minds somewhat rejoiced. 

And I trust that to the Members of the Boxburghe Club — accus- 
tomed to editions of from sixteen to a himdred copies — ^no diminution 
of the satis&ction with which they may read the words of Eussell, 
de Worde, and Ehodes, will be wrought by knowing that these 
treatises here following are three of several intended, in less luxurious 
form, for a thousand readers. On the contrary, I hope such Members 
will be glad to know, that many besides themselves will leam from 
these works how feasts and fasts were kept in good Duke Humphrey's 
days ; and when Harry the Eighth was king, how nobles and frankleins 
were served in cliamber and hall ; and what, in later time, the poet 
who flattered Queen Mary in 1555 thought of deportment and dress. 

F. J. FUBNIVALL. 



> The first sentence of Aristotle's Metaphffaiei ib ' All men by nature are actoated 
by the desire of knowledge '. — Mr Skeat's note on 1. 78 of Parimayt p. 288. 

* Lawrens Andrewe. The noble lyfe ^ fuUurea of many of bestee^ &c. Johnes 
Desborrowe. Andewarpe. 

s The woodcuts are Messrs Virtue's, and have been used in Mr Thomas Wright's 
Hittory ofJhmeatic Mannert and Ouetoma, &c. 



Easter, 1867. 



lobn "^mstlh 




ah of l(«ittarit. 



w 



S^K^ 4 lltttttttr^ 



^olmim (fogMts jtst. 



BY ME 



|0|^n ^tisSieU 



SUM TYME SERVANDE WITH DUKE VMFREY OF GLOWCETUR, 

A PRYNCE FULLE ROYALLB, WITH WHOM VSCHERE IN 

CHAMBUR WAS Y» AND MERSHALLB ALSO 

IN HALLE. 



Edited from the Harleian MS* 4011 in the British Museum 



BY 



FREDERICK J. FtJRNIVALL, 

M.A., TBIN. HALL. CAMB. ; MEMBBB OF COUNCIL OF THE PHILOLOGICAL 
AND EABLY KNGLI8H TEXT BOCIETIBB ; LOVEB OF OLD BOOKS. 



JOHN CHILD8 AND BON, PRINTERS. 



§ofee of Itnrtnrt 




[Harl MS, 4011, i^^oZ. 171.] 

ti tunmt }plm, gob kepe nu / tt filij far t^ariit, in the name or 
fit 0pirittt0 sttittti, where that y goo by lond tndHoiyGhorti 

1 •• , Ctod keep me ! 

or els by see ! 
an vssherc y Am / ye may beholde / to a L^^n^*'^^ 
piynce of highe degre, 
4 J>at enioyethe to enforme & teche / alle J>o thatt J|J[^^" 
wille thrive & thee *, 

Of suche thynge« as here-af twr shalle be shewed by 

my diligence 
To them J>at nought Can / wM-o wt gret exsperience ; *** Jj|JJJ|^ 
Therfore yf any mafi pat y mete withe, J>at* for fawt 

of necligence, 
8 y wylle hym enforme & teche, for hurtynge of my 

Conscience. 
To teche vertew and connynge, me thynkethe hit uud»ritabie to 

charitable, 
for moche youthe in connynge / is barefi & falle ignonmt yootiw. 

vnable ; 
J>er-fore he Jat no good caft / ne to noofl wille be it •ajmxh won't 

agreable. 
12 he shalle neuer y-thryve / Jjerfore take to hym a give them a toy. 
babulle. 

^ do, get on. ' ? >at » nought can. 



2 



JOHN RUSSELL MEETS WITH HIS PUPIL. 



One May I went 
to a forest, 



and by the 
Forester's leave 
walked in the 
woodland, 



where I saw three 
herds of deer 



in the sunshine. 



A young man 
with a bow was 
going to stalk 
them. 



bat I asked him 
to walk with tXM, 



and inquired 
whom he served. 



' No one but 
myself, 



aiid I wish I was 
out of this world.' 



A3 y rose owt of my bed, in a mery sesoun of may, 
to sporte me in a forest / where sightes were 

fresche & gay, 
y met with J>e forst^ / y prayed hym to say me not 

nay, 
16 J>at y mygh[t] walke in to his lawnde ' where pe 
deere lay. 

as y wandered weldsomly* / in-to pe lawnd fat was 

so grene,* 
J>er lay iij. herdis of deere / a semely syght for to 

sene; 
y behild on my right hand / ^ son fat shofi so 
shene ; 
20 y saw where walked / a semely yonge mail, Jwit 
sklendur was & leene ; 

his bowe he toke in hand toward pe deere to stalke; 
y prayed hym his shote to leue / & softely witA me 

to walke. 
J>is yonge mafl was glad / & louyd with me to talke, 
24 he prayed fat he my^t withe me goo / in to som 

heme* or halke*; 

f is yonge man y frayned * / with hoom fat he 
wowned f afl, 

" So god me socoure," he said / ** Sir, y seme my- 
self / & els nooil of er man." 

" is fy gouemaunce good? " y said, / "sofi,*say me 
jiff f ow can," 
28 " y wold y were owt of f is world " / seid he / " y 
ne roujt how sone whafl." 

^ The Lawnd in woodee. Saltus nemorum, Baret, 1580. 
SaUus, a launde. Glossary in Jtel. Ant.y y. 1^ p. 7, col. 1. Saltus, a 
forest-pasture, woodland-pasture, woodland ; a forest. 

* at will. A.S. wilsum, free willed. 

* A.S. hime^ comer. Dan. hibme. 

* Halke or h)Tne. AngtUus^ laiibulum ; A.S. hylca, nnus. 
Promptorium Parvnlorum and note. 

^ AS.^^nan, to ask; Ooih,, frathnan ; Qerm.f froffen. 



I 



lOHN RUSSELLS BOEB OF NURTURE. 6 

" Sey nought so, good soil, beware / me thynkethe 'OoodBon, 

Jow menyst amysse ; 
for god forbedithd wanhope, for ]>ata horrible synne despair is sin ; 

peifore Sofl, open thyfl hert / for p<jraventiire y teu me what the 
cowd the lis * ; 
32 " when bale is hext / J^afi bote is next" / gcjod sone, when the pain is 

, 11 . • M greatest the cure 

leme Welk pis, is nearest!' 

" In certeyfl, sir / y haue y-soucht / Ferre & nere • sir, ive tried 

' V o f everywhere for a 

many a wilsom way 
to gete mete * a mastir ; & for y cowd nomt / euery master; bat be- 

eaaae I know 

man seid me nay, 
y cowd no good, ne noofi y shewde / where euer y nothing, no one 

_ , , , "^ ' '' will take me.' 

ede day by day 
36 but wantoun & nyce, recheles & lewde / as lango- 
lynge as a lay." 

[FoL 171 b.] 

" l^ow, son, ^iflf y the teche, wiltow any thynge * wiii you leam if 

XH ^^^^^ nit««hyou? 

wiltow be a seruaunde, plow3mafl, or a laborere, what do you 
Courtyour or a dark / Marchaund / or niasouT^, or 
an artiiicere, 
40 Chamburlayn, or buttillere / pantere or karvere ? " 

The office of buttiler, sir, trewly / pantere or ^^'^^^^j. 

chamburlayne, Wn, and Carver. 

Teach me the 

The connynge of a kervere, specially / of ^at y wold duties of these.* 

leme fayne 
alle Jjese comiyiige* to haue / y say yow in certayfl, 
44 y shuld pray for youre sowle nevyr to come in 

payne." 

Bon, y shalle teche pe vnthe ryght a good wille, «i wui, ifyouTi 
So j>at j>ow loue god & drede / for >at is ryght and ^""^ ^"^ *"^ ^ 
skylle, 

^ AS. lis remissio, lenitas ; Dan. lise, Sw. /wa, relief. *Jbr me to 



true to yoar 
maater.' 



A P«nter or 
Batler mast have 

three knlvee : 



1 to chop loavea, 
1 to pare them, 

1 to nnooth the 
trenchen. 



Oive your Bove- 
niga new bread, 

others one-day- 
old bread ; 
for the house, 
three^y bread; 
for trenchers 
four-day bread ; 

Have your salt 

white, 

and your salt- 

plaoer of ivory, 

two inches 
broad, three long. 



Have your table 
linen sweet and 
clean. 



your Icnlves 
bright. 



spoons well 
washed, 



THE DUTIES OF THE PANTER OB BUTLER. 

and to py mastir be trew / his good^ fat fow not 
spills, 
48 but hym loue & drede / and hys commaundement) 
dew / fulfylle. 

The fiirst yere, my sofl, Jow shalle be pantere or 

buttilare, 
|>ow must haue i^j. knyffes kene / in pantry, y sey 

the, eu^mara : 
On knyfe pe loves to choppe, anothere them for to 

pare, 
52 the iij. sharpe & kene to smothe pe trenchurs and 

square.* 

alwey thy soue?'aynes bred thow choppe, & p&i it be 

newe & able ; 
se alle oper bred a day old or pon choppe to fe table ; 
alle howsold bred iij. dayes old/ so it is profitable; 
56 and trencher bred iig. dayes is convenyent & agre- 

able. 

loke Jy salte be sutiUe, whyte, fayre and drye, 
and fy planera for thy salte / shalle be made of 

yverye/ 
fe brede fei'oi ynches two / Jen Je length, ynche 

told thrye ; 
60 and fy salt sellere lyddo / towche not thy salt bye. 

Good sofl, loke Jat Jy napery be soote / & also 

feyre & clene, 
bordclothe, towelle & napkyn, foldyfl alle bydene. 
bryght y-pullished youre table knyve, semely in 

8y3t to sene ; 
64 and Jy spones fayre y-wasche / ye wote welle what 

y meene. 

^ In Sir John Fastolfe's Bottre^ 1455, are *4j. keriring knyves; 
iij. kneyves in a schethe, the haftys of eyery (ivory) iiithe naylys 
gilt . . . j. trencher-Jpnyfe." Domestic Arch,,, v. 8, p. 167-8. 
Hee tnentacula, a dressyng-knyfe, p. 256 ; trencher-knyves, ntmsa' 
ctiloa. Jn. de Garlande, Wright's Vocab. p. 123. 



1 



lOHN RUSSELLS SOKE OF NURTURE. " 5 

looke Jow haue tarrers * two / a more & lasse for two wine-auKern, 

wyne ; 
wyne canels* accordynge to J>e tarrers, of box fetice "ome box taps, 

& fyne; 
also a gymlet sliarpe / to broche & perce / sone to a broaching 

. p . gimlet, 

tume & twyne, 
68 with fawcet^ & tampyne* recly / to stoppe wlie/i ye a pipe una bung, 
se tyme. 

So when Jow settyst a pipe abroche / good [sone,] To bronch a piiie, 

do aftwr my lore : 
iiij f3mgur ouer / Je nere chyiie* Jow may percer or pierce it with an 

hnvfi' auger or gimlet, 

""^^^ . fourflngera- 

withtarrere or gymlet perce yevpward Je pipe ashore, breadth over the 

lower rim, 

72 and so snalle ye not cawse J>e lies vp to ryse, y »o that the dregs 

may not rise. 

wame yow eucr more. 



• 



ac- 



Gk)od sone, alle maner frute / J>at longethe for seson gerre Fmit 
offeyere, . '^^^^'^ 

Fygges / reysons / abnande^, date* / buttwr, chese® / ligs, dates, 
nottus, apples, & pere, 

Composted ' & confite^?, chare de quynce* / wliite & quinoe-mar- 

' malade, ginger, 

grene gyngere ; &c 

* An Augre, or wimble, wherewith holes are bored. Terebra & 
tcrebrum. Vng tarritre, Baret's Alvearie, 1580. 

' A Cannell or gutter. Canalia. Baret. ISiyaUy a pipe, quill, 
cane, reed, eanell. Cotgrave. Canelle^ the faucet [1. 68] or quiU of a 
wine vessel ; also, the cocke, or spout of ,a conduit. Cot. 

' A Faucet, or tappe, a flute, a whistle, a pipe as well to con- 
ueigh water, as an instrument of Musickc. Fistula . . TUbulus, 
Baret. 1. 71. Ashore^ aslant, see note to 1. 299. 

^ Tampon, a bung or stopple. Cot. Tampyon for a gon — 
tampon. Palsg. 

^ The projecting rim of a cask. Queen Elizabeth's * yeoman 
drawer hath for his fees, all the lees of wine within fowre Angers 
of the chine^ &c.' H, Ord. p. 295, (referred to by Halliwell). 

* ? This may be butter-eheeae^ nulk* or cream-cheese, as contrasted 
with the 'hard chese' 1. 84-5 ; but butter is treated of separately, 
1.89. 

7 Fruit preserves of some kind ; uot the stew of chickens, herbs, 
honey, ginger, &c., for which & recipe is given on p. 18 of Liber 
Cure Cbamtm. Cotgrave has Compoate : f. A condiment or compo- 

2 



6 



OP FRUITS BEFORE DINNER AND AFTER SUPPER. 



[Fol. 172.1 
Before dinner, 
plums and grapes; 

after, pears, nnte, 
and hard cheese. 



After sapper, 
roast apples, &c. 



76 and ffor aft?/r questyons, or Jy lord sytte / of hym 
J)ow know <fc enquere. 

Serve fastynge / plommys / damsons / cheries / 

and grapis to pleso ; 
aftwr mete /peer«"w, nottys /strawberies, wyTieberies,* 

and hardchese, 
also blawnderelle*,^ pepyns / careawey in comfyte / 

Composted ' ar like to fese. 
80 afbur sopper, rosted apples, pere», blaunche powder,* 

your stomak for to ese. 



sition ; a wet sucket (wherein sweet wine was yscd in stead of 
sugar), also, a pickled or winter Sallet of hcarbes, fruits, or flowers, 
conditcd in vinegar, salt, sugar, or sweet wine, and so keeping all 
the yeare long ; an? hearbes, fruit, or flowers in pickle ; aUo pickle 
it sclfe. Fr. compote^ stewed fruit. The Recipe for Compost in the 
Forme of Cury, Recipe 100 (C), p. 49-50, is "Take rote of prrsel. 
pastcmak of raselis. scrape hem and waische hern clene. take rapw 
& cabochi« yparcdand icome. take an erthen panne witA clene water, 
& set it on the Are. cast all l^ise l^mnne. whan ]^ey buth boiled, 
cast ]>erto peertx, & parboile hem wel. take l^ise thyngu up, & lat it 
kele on a fair cloth, do ]>erto salt whan it is colde in a vessel ; take 
vinege<r, & powdowr, & safroun, & do |»«?rto, & lat alle J^ise \>\ngf8 lye 
\jerin al ny^t o\)er al day, take wyne greke and hony clarified to- 
gidur, lumbarde mustard, & raisoufis corance al hool. & grynde pow- 
dowr of cancl, powdowr douce, & aneys hole. & fenell seed, take alle 
)»ise l^ingM, & cast togydur in a pot of erthe. and take \>etvi whan 
\>o}i wilt, & fierue forth." 

^ ? not A.S. icinberie, a wine-berry, a grape, but our Whin- 
berry, But * Wineberries, currants', Craven Gloss. ; Sw. vin-bdr, a 
currant. On hard cheese, see note to 1. 86. 

^ Blandureau, m. The white apple, called (in some part of 
England) a Blaundrell. Cotgrave. * See note to 1. 76. 

* Pouldre blanche, A powder compounded of Ginger, Cinnamon, 
and Nutmegs ; much in use among Cookes. Cotgrave. Is there 
any authority for the statement in Domestie Architecture^ v. 1, p. 
132 ; that sugar *wa8 sometimes called blanch potvdre ' f P.S.— 
Probably the recollection of what Pcgge says in the Preface to the 
Forme of Chry^ "There is mention of hlanch-powder or white sugar,** 
132 [p. 63]. They, however, were not the same, for see No. 193, 
p. xxvi-xxvii. On turning to the Recipe 132, of ** Peerw in 
confyt," p. 62-3, we find " whan J^ei [the pears] buth ysode, take 
hew up, make a syrup of wyne greke. o}per v^mage witA blaunchc 
powdfir, o\>er white sugwr, and powdoi^r gyngwr, & do the pcrw 
l^mn." It is needless to say that if a modem recipe said take 



lOHN BUS8ELLS SOKE OF NURTURE. 7 

Bewar at eve * / of crayme of cowe & also of the in the eveniug 

. , 'i. !_ 1 J. don't take creain, 

goote, J)au3 it be late, , [• « »t eve* has • 

of Strawberiea & hurtilberyes / with the cold aa if to'cut irSft ] 

T . I Btrawberrias, or * 

loncate,* junket, 

For ]>ese may marre many a man changynge his 
astate, 
84 but ^iflf he haue aftwr, hard chese / wafurs, with unless you eat 

, A hard cheese with 

wyne ypocrate.'* thom. 

hard chese hathe fis condiciouw in his operacioun : Hard cheese 

koadb vour bovTpl H 

Furst he wille a stomak kepe in the botom open,^ open, 
the helthe of euery creature ys in his condiciouw ; 
88 yf he diete hyih thus dayly /he is a good coTiclusiouw. 

buttir is an holsom mete / furst and eke last/ ^^' *• "^Jf **" , 

' ' some in youtn and 

For he wille a stomak kepe / & helpe poyson a-wey ***'}^* *""" 

to cast, 
also he norishethe a man to be laske / and evy w»d aperient. 

humeriw to wast, 
92 and with white bred/ he wille kepe fy mouthe in tast. 

" sugar or honey," sugar could not be said " to be sometimes 
called" honey. See Dawson Turaer in Howard Houeshold Books. 

^ loneade : f. A certaine spoone-meat made of creame, Rose- 
water and Sugar. Cotgraye. 

* See the recipe to make it, lines 121-76 ; and in Fonne of Cury^ 
p. 161. 

3 Muffett held a very different opinion. ' Old and dry cheese 
hurtcth dangerously : for it stayeth siege [stools], stoppeth the 
Liyer, engendereth choler, melancholy, and the stone, Ueth long 
in the stomack undigested, procureth thirst, maketh a stinking 
breath and a scurry skin : Whereupon Galen and Isaac have well 
noted. That as we may feed liberally of ruin cheese, and more 
liberally of fresh Cheese, so we are not to taste any further of old 
and hard Cheese, then to close up the mouth of our stomacks after 
meat,' p. 131. 

^ In youth and old age. Muffett says, p. 129-30, ' according 
to the old Proverb, Butter is Gold in the morning^ Silver at noottj 
and Lead at night. It is also best for children whilst they are 
growing, and for old men when they are declining ; but very un- 
wholesom betwixt those two ages, because through the heat of 
young stomacks, it is forthwith converted into choler [bile]. The 
Dutchmen have a by- Verse amongst them to this effect. 

Eat Butter Jlrsty and eat it lasty 
And live till a hundred years he past* 



8 THE TREATMENT OP WINES WHEN FERMENTING. 

Milk, Junket, Milke, crayme, and cruddca, and eke the Toncate,* 

^l^nc^g. y^y ^^^^® * mawnes stomak / and so dothe Je possate ; 

Eat hard cheeM berforc ete hard chese aftir, yef ye sowpe late, 

after them. '^ 

96 and drynk ronmey modoun,* for feere of chekmate.' 
Beware of green beware of saladis, crene metis, & of fnite^ rawe 

meat ; it weakens ' ° ' 

your belly. for J>ey make many a man haue a feble mawe. 

J>erforc, of suche fresch luster set not an hawe, 
1 00 For suche wantouw appetite* ar not worth a strawe. 

For food that sets allc mancT metis Jat fy tethe ofi egge doth sette, 

edge, eat almonds take almondes' ]>erforg ; & hard chese loke fon not 

and cheese, _ 

for-gette. 
hit willc voide hit awey / but looke to moche Jerof 
not J>ou ete ; 
but not more than J 04 for Je wight of half an vnce w^t^-owt rompney is 

gret. 

If drinks have Jiflf dyucrse drynkesof theirc fumosite haue Je dis- 

given you Indl- . -, 

gestion, eat a raw SeSlO, 

■PP*** Ete an appulle rawe, & his fumosite wille be cesed ; 

Moderation u mesure is a, mery meene / whan god is not dis- 

best sometimes, •• i 

plesed : 

at others *■ 

abeUnenoe. 108 abstynews is to prayse what body & sowle ar plesed. 

^j^7wl^^ ^^^^ S^^^ ^®^® *o f« "^Y^^ I ^^^f w^i^ / & 

swete, 

fe^\th™onhI ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^y3^ w***^ * Candelle Jat fey not 

MS. ha. a k over reboylc / nor lete ; 

and wash the euerv nvat With cold watwr washe be pipes hede, 

heads of the pipee J J7 r i f » 

with cold water. ^ Jut not forgete, 

tK2S?* 112 &alle-wey haue a gy/wlet, & a dise,* with lynnen 

and linen cloths. clowtfi* smalle or grete. 

1 See note to I. 82. 

' See * Rompney of Modon/ among the sweet wines, 1. 119. 

* Eachec ^ fnat. Checke-mate at Chests ; and (metaphorically) 
a remedilesse disaster, miserie, or misfoitune. Cot. 

* ? ascia, a dyse, Vocab. in Htliq, Ant. v. 1 , p. 8, col. 1 ; aacioy 
1. an axe; (2. a mattock, a hoe; 3. an instrument for mixing 
mortar). IHesael, ofte Dieehsely A Carpenter-axe, or a Chip-axe. 
Hexham.. 



lOHN BU3SELLS BOKE OF NURTURE. V 

Jiff Je wyne reboyle / J>ow shalle know by hys i'tJ»«^inebo» 

syngynge ; 
perfove a pipe of coloure de rose^ / Jou kepe pat p»t «« it the lew 

was spend in drynkynge 
the reboyle to Rakke to be lies of be rose / bat ^^^ i^* ^-^ 

^ '^ r / r Mid that wUl cure 

shall^ be his amendynge. it. 

116 JifF swete wyne be seeke or pallid / put in a Komp_ Ronmey wui 

bring round sick 

ney for lesynge." .weet wine. 



BMt. Mmf^J 



mh 



e namys of swete wynes y wold fat ye them ^ ^SSJ^ 
knewe : 



Vernage, vernagelle, wyne Cute, pyment, Easpise, 

Muscadellc of grew, 
Rompney of modofi, Bastard, Tyre, 03ey, Torren- 

tyne of Ebrew. 
1 20 Greke^MaleYesyfi, Capiik, & Clarey whan it is newe. 



Yptm. 



a 



ood soft, to make ypocras, hit were gret Recipe /&rmakiM 

Tpoeroe. 

lemjnge, 

and for to take Je spice Jerto aftwr j>e propor- Take epices thus, 

cionynge, 

Gynger, Synamome / Graynis, Sugur / Tumesole, cinnamon, &c., 

pat is good colonrynge ; Sso*^' 

124 For commyn peple / Gynger, Canella / longg longpepper 

pepur / hony aftur claryfiynge. foCrlcommynte 

^ ? The name of the lees of some red wine. Phillips has Bota 
Soiis, a kind of Herb ; also a pleasant Liquor made of Brandy* 
Sugar, Cinnamon, and other Ingredients agreeable to the Taste, and 
comfortable to the Heart. (So called, as being at first prepared 
wholly of the juice of the plant ros^solis (sun-dew) or drosera* 
Diet, of Arts and Sciences, 1767.) 

' See note, 1. 31. * See note on these wines at the end of the poem. 

« In the Recipe for Jussel of Flessh (Honsehold Ord., p. 462), 
one way of preparing the dish is ' for a Lorde,' another way. ' for 
Commons.' Other like passages also occur. 



10 



HOW TO MAKE YPOCRAS. 



Ilave three basma 



and three strain- 
in^bags to them ; 

hang 'em on a 
perch. 

Let joar ginger 
be well pared, 

hard, not worm- 
eaten. 



(Coloml^ne is 
bettor 



than Yaladyne or 
Maydelyne) ; 



your sticks of 
Cinnamon thin, 

hot and sweet ; 



Canel is not so 
Rood. 

Cinnamon is hot 
and dry. 



Cardamons are 
hot and moist. 
Take sugar or 



sngar candy, 
red wine, 

grainest 
Riiiger,pepper, 



look ye haue of pewtwr basons oon, two, & thre, 
For to kepe in youre powdurs / also fe licowr 

ferin to reiine when pat nede be ; 
to iij. basouws ye must haue iij bagges renners /, so 

clepe ham we, 
128 & hange Jem on a perche, & looke Jat Sure they be. 

Se fat youre g}Tiger be welle y-pared / or hit to 

powder ye bete, 
and J>^/t hit be hard / w/t/i-owt worme / bytynge, 

A good hete ; 
For good gynger colombyne / is best to drynke 

and ete ; 
132 Gynger valadyne & maydelyn ar not so holsom 

in mete. 

looke Jat your stikke* of synamome be thyn, 

bretille, A fayre in colewxe, 
and in youre mowthe, Fresche, hoot, & swete / J>at 

is best & sure, 
For caneUe is not so good in fis crafte & cure. 
136 Synamome is hoot & dry in h/s worchynge while 

he wille dure. 

Graynes of paradise,* hoote & moyst ]>ey be : 
Sugre of .iy. cute' / white / hoot & moyst in his 

propurte ; 
Sugre Candy is best of alle, as y telle the, 
140 and red wyne is whote & drye to tast, fele, & see, 

Graynes* / gynger, longe pepur, & sugre / hoot & 
moyst in worchynge ;^ 

* Graines. Cardamomum, Oraine de paradis. Baret. * Graines 
of Paradise ; or, the spice which we call, Graines.* Cotgrave. 

' CuUef a seething, haking. Cot. 

• Spices, Of those for the Percy Hoosehold, 1512, the yearly 
cost was £25 19*. 7d., for Piper, Rasyns of Ck)rens, Prones, Gynger, 
Mace, CloTvez, Sagoar, Cinamoin, AUmonds, Daytts, Nuttmuggs, 
Granesy Tbmeaole, Saunders, Powder of Annes, Rice, Coumfctts, 
Galynggoy Longe Piper, Blaynehe Powder, and Safferon, p. 19, 20. 
Household Book, ed. Bp. Percy. 



lOHN RU88ELL8 BOKB OF NURTURE. 11 

Synamome / Canelle * / red wyne / hoot & drye in dnnamon, spice, 

]>eire doynge ; 
Tumesole* is good & holsom for red wyne colow- andturnesoie.and 
rynge: 
144 alle J>ese ingredyente«, ])ey ar for ypocras makynge. 

Good son, yourc powdurs so made, vche by J>ani put each powder 

^^ . 1111 1 • 1 in a bladder by 

self m bleddwr laid, iueif. 

hang^ sure youre perche & bagges Jat J>ey from Hangyoar Btrain- 

iag-bags bo that 

yow not brayd, 

& J>at no bagge touche oJ>er/do as y haue yow saide; they mayn't 

148 Je fiirst bag a galoun / alle oper of a potelle, vchon » gallon, ©the™ 

by o\>er teied. *'*^"*- 

Furst put in a basouw a galouw ij. or iij. wyne so red ; Put the powders 

in two or three 

J>en put in youre powdurs, yf ye wille be sped, gallons of red 
and af tyr in-to Je rennere so lett hym be fed, [Fol its.] 

152 ]>an in-to Je second bagge so wold it be ledde. the second bag, 

loke J>(?u take a pece in J>yne hand eucrmore amonge, 

and assay it in by mouthe if hit be any thynge stronge, (tasting and 

trying it now and 

and if J)ow fele it welle boJ>e w/tA mouthe & tonge, then), 
166 fan put it in J>e iij. vesselle / & tar}'- not to longe. vessel. 

And Jan 3iff J>ou feele it be not made parfete, if it's not right, 

fat it cast to moche gynger, with synamome alay 

pat hete ; 
and if hit haue s3mamome to moche, with gynger a<w cinnamon, 

« « . , ginger, or sugar, 

of IIJ. cute ; as wanted. 

160 Jwm if to moche sigure per be / by discressiouw ye 
may wete. 

Thus, son, shaltowmakeparfite ypocras, as y the say ; 

* Canel, spyce. Cinamomum, amomum. Promt. Parv. Canelle, onr 
modeme Cannell or Cinnamom. Cot. (Named from its tube stalk ?) 

' Tourm-aoleU, Tornesole, Heliotropium. Cotgrave. Take bleue 
tumetoky and dip bit in wyne, that the wyne may catch the colour 
thereof, and colour the potage therwith. H. Ord,, p. 465. . . and 
take red tumesole stepcd wel in wyne, and colour the potage with 
that wyne, ibuL * And then with a little IkimsoU make it of a high 
murrey [mulberry] colour.' Markham's Houswife, p. 70. 



12 HOW TO MAKE YPOCRAS. THE BOTERY. 

Mind you ke«p ^^t wM Jy mowthc to pro ve hit, / be Jow taatyiige 

^*'«''- aUe-way; 

strmin it throogb let hit renne in iiij. or vj bagges * ; gete Jem, if ]>ow 

b»Ks of fine doth, 

may, 
164 of bultelle clothe', if fy bagge/f be Je fynew wtt/i- 
owten nay. 

hooped at Uie ( Jood sofi loke f y Imgge? be hoopid at Je mothe 

mouth, 

a-bove, 
fe surere mayst f ow put in Jy wyne vn-to fy behoue, 
the flnt holding be fuTst bag of a ffalouii / allc oher of a potelle to 

agidlon,the '^ -o o i r i 

others a pottle, prOVe ; 

168 hange fy bagger sure by fe hoopis ; do so for my loue ; 
and each with a And VTidiuT eu<?ry baffge, ffood soil, a basouw clerc 

basin under lu J e>© > G > 

& bryght ; 
The Ypoens is and now is be ypocras made / for to plese many a 

made. . - ^ 

Wight. 
um the dregs In Je draff of ]>e spicery / is good for Se wes in ky clipi 

the kitchen. _. 

dijt; 
172 and 3iff ]>ow cast hit awey,J?owdost Jymastirnorijt. 

Jl ow, good son, ]>yne ypoc^ras is made pa;1ite & 
welle ; 
Put the Ypocras y wold Jan ye put it in staunche & a clene vesselle, 

In a tight dean 

vesaei, and Je mouthe J?er-off y-stopped euer more wisely 

& felle, 
and serve It with 176 and seruc hit forth wzt/i wafurs bo be in chambur 

& Celle. 



The Buttery. 



T^t iMrttru^ 



Keep au cups, f^Y cuppes / fy potte/?, Jou sc be clene bof e 

*c., dean. X -it • o. j. 

Don't serve ale Wit/l-m & OWt ; 

old/' ^•^^^ [TJhyne ale .v. dayes old er J?ow seme it abowt, 

^ Manche : f. A sleeue ; also a long narrow bag (such as Hypo- 
eras is made in). Cotgrave. 

2 boulting or straining cloth. ' ij bnlteclotbes/ Status Domns de 
Fyncball, a.d. 1360. Dom, Arch, r. I, p. 136, note/. 



lOHN RUSSELLS BOKE OF NURTURE. 13 

for ale fat is newe is wastable wtt^-owten dowt : 
180 And looke J>at allc pynge be pure & clene J>at ye go 
abowt. 

Be fayre of answere / redy to serue / and also gen- Be dvu and 

telle of chere, "'*"*^' 

and fail men wille sey ' J>ere gothe a gentille officered 
be ware bat ye geue no persone palled * drynke, for »nd give no om 

Btftle drink. 

feere 
184 hit my^t brynge many a man in dissese / durynge 
many a ^ere. 



s 



on, hit is tyme of fe day / J>e table wold be layde. cfoi. irs bj 
Furst wipe f e table with a clothe or pat hit ac. 

- , - Wipe the table. 

be splayd, 
bail lay a clothe ofi be table / a cowche' it is Put a cloth on it 

' "^ * ' (aoowche); 

called & said : 
1 88 take by felow oon ende berof / & bou bat othere you uke one end, 

'•^ I I I J your mate the 

that brayde, other; 

Thafl draw streight fy clothe, & ley fe bou3t3 on fe ^ ^^e fold of the 
vttMr egge of be table, second cioth(?)on 

oo X ' the outer edge of 

take J>e vpper part / & let hyt hangc evyn able : **^« ^^^ 
fanil take fe .iij. clothe, & ley the bou3t on fe that of the third 

T 'J 1 1.1 cloth (?) OD the 

Inner side plesable, jnner. 

192 and ley estate Yrith the vpper part, fe brede of half 
fote is greable. 

Cover J>y cuppeborde of thy ewery witA the towelle Cover your cup- 

of diapery ; diaper towel, 

take a towelle abowt thy nekke / for Jat is curtesy, put one round 

lay pat oon side of pQ towaile on py Hft arme side on your left 

1 arm 

manerly, 

^ Stale, dead. Pallyd, as drynke (palled, as ale). Emoriutu, 
P. Parv. See extract from A. Borde in notes at end. 

a See Diet, de VAcademie, p. 422, col. 2, ed. 1836. * Couehe 
se dit anssi de Toute substance qui est ^tendue, appliquee sur une 
autre, de mani&re & la couvrir. Bev^tir un mur eTune couehe de 
pidtrej de tnoriier^ ^cJ* , 

' Fr. repli : m. A fould, plait, or bought, Cotgraye. cf. BoiCf bend. 

3 



14 HOW TO LAY THE CLOTH AND WRAP UP BREAD. 

with 7oar lore- 196 au oH ^ Bame anuB ley pj sou^raigaes napkyfi 
"^■•"•*^' honestly; 

on that, eight Jjafi lay ofi J>at anne viij. louys bred / with iij. or 

loftVM to eat| And 

three or four ilij. trenchere lovis ; 

In your left hand Take ])at 00 ende of ]>y towaile / in pj lift hand, 

as ^ m&ner is, 
the Mit-ceUar. and Je salt Sellere in Je same hand, looke pat ye do 

this ; 
In your right 200 bat ober ende of be towaile / in ri:t hand with 

hand, epoone and ' ' . 

knivee. spones & knyffes y-wis ; 

Put the Salt on Setyoure salt on pe right side / where sitter youre 

the right of yoor 

loid; soverayne, 

on ito left^ a ofi pe lyfift Side of youre salt / sett youre trencher 

trencher or two ; a . 

oon & twayne, 
on their left, a Ofi J^e Ufft side of your trenchoure lay youre knjrffe 

syngwler & playn ; 
then whiu niUB, 204 and ofi be * side of youre knyffe* / oofi by on 

[* a Bpaoe In the '^ J J / J 

MS.] ^e white payne ; 

and heeide them youTd spone vppofi a napkyfi fayre / ^et folded 

:-2p°^r^- wold he be, 

besides pe bred it wold be laid, soft, y telle the: 
Cover all up. CovoT youT spone / napkyfi, trencher, & knyff, pat 

no man hem se. 
At the other end 208 at pB o]>6r ende of pe table / a salt wtt^ ij. trench- 

Mt a Salt and two .^ 

trenchere. ®™ ^^^^ J®* 

HJVmpup ^'^t ^eff fo^ ^^t wrappe >y soueraynes bred 

your UmFt bread ofo fiil v 

Thow must square & proporcioun Jy bred clene & 
evenly, 
Cut your loavea and bat no loof ne bunne be more bafl ober pro- 

all equal. '^ . , r r r 

porcionly, 
212 and so shaltow make ])y wrappe for ]7y master 
manerly; 

Take a towel two pofi take a towailo of Raynes,^ of ij. yarded and 

aiid a half yards - ,« u •. i_ 

half wold it be, 
^ Fine cloth, originally made at Rennes, in Bretagne. 



lOHN RUS8ELL8 BOKE OF NURTURE. 15 

take py towaile by the ende^ dowble / and faire oil long^i^ the eadu, 

a table lay ye, 
ba£L take be end of bat bought / an handfulk in foidup»h»ndftii 

from 6iidi wd, 

hande, now here ye me : 
216 wrap ye hard ])at handfulle or mors it is pe styffer, 
y telle J?e, 

bafi ley betwene be cndes so wrapped, in myddes of »nd in the middle 

^at towelle, 
viij loves or bonnes, botom to botoni, forsothe it eight loavee or 

... _ buns, bottom to ' 

willd do welle, bottom; 

and when j>e looff<» ar bet wen, Jafl wrappe hit pat»wi»pper 
wisely & felle ; 
220 and for youre enformaciom^ more playnly y willc 
yow telle, 

ley it ofl be vpper part of be bred, y telle yow CoL iw.] 

on the top, 

honestly ; 
take bo])e endis of ]>e toweUe, & draw ])em straytly, twist the ends of 
and wrythe an handfulle of ])e towelle next J^e bred g«uier, 

myghtily, 
224 and se ]7at thy wrappers be made strayt & evyfi tmoothyoar 

. a 1 wrapper, 

stynely. 

when he is so y-graithed,^ as ri3t before y haue 

saide, 
^efi shalla ye opefi hym thus / & do hit at a and quicUy 

brayd, 
opefi \t last end of ^y wrappers before ^i souerayne open the end 

... of It before yonr 

laid, lord. 

228 and youre bred sett in maner & forme: ]>efi it is 
honestly arayd. 

Oofi, wheii ])y souereignes table is drest in J^us After yoar lord's 

array, 
kouer alle ober horde* wit^ Salter; trenchers & lay the other 

tablse. 

^uppes ferofl ye lay ; 
|>an empenalle )>y Cuppeborde / wtU SQuer <& gild ^^^J^ p,J;,^ 
fullegay, 

1 A.S. ^eradianj to make ready, arrange, prepare. 



16 HOW TO LAY THE BURN APE AND TABLE. 



« 



your washing- 232 fy Ewry borde vrith basons & luMOur, wa,tur hoot 

table with basiiu, « i j i u * i 

Ac, & cold, ecne oper to alay. 

Have plenty of loke pat jB baue napkyns, spones, & cuppis euer 

napkins, ftc., 

y-nowe 

to your soueraynes table, youre honeste for to } 

allowe, 

and your pots ^^^ P^^ potte* foi wyne & ale be as clene as Jey 

^^^' mowe ; 

236 be enermoTe .ware of flies & motft?, y telle |>e, for 
J?y prowe. 

Make the £r»maiN! fllhe sumape* ye shulle make yviih lowly curtesye 

a double napkin. with a clothe vndir a dowble of ri3t feire napry ; 

take thy towailes end«3« next yow wM-out vilanye. 
Fold the two ende 240 and be ende of be clothe ofi be vttur side of be 

of your towel, and ^^ -i 

one ofthe cloth, towelle bye ; 

Thus alle iij. ende* hold ye at onis, as ye welle 
may; 

now fold ye alle there at oonys J>at a pli3t passe 
a foot over, not a fote bredc alle way, 

and lay It emooth i>afi lay hyt fayre & evyii bere as ye cafi hit lay : 

for your lord to . . ' 

wash with. 244 J)us aftwr mete, ^iff yowre mastir wille wasche, Jat 

he may. 

at J>e rijt ende of J?e table ye must it owt gyde, 
The marshal Jjc marchalle must hit convey alonge J?e table to 

must Blip it along -. . , 

Uie table. gllCle ; 

So of alle iij clothes vppeward fe ri3t half J>at tide, 
and pull it 248 and Jat it be draw strayt & evyn boJ>e in lengthe 

& side. 



smooth. 



Then raise the Then must ye diaw & reyse / Je vpper parte of Je 

upper part of the f 11 

towel, towelle, 

and lay it even. Ley it wtt/?-out ruffelynge strei^t to Jat oper side, y 

J>e telle ; 
fan at euery end J)e?*of convay half a yarde or an elle, 

* See the mode of laying the-Surnape in Henry VII.*s time 
described in H, Ord., p. 119, at the end of this Poem. 



lOHN RUSSELLS SOKE OF NURTURE. 17 

252 f&i pe sewere may make * a state / & plese his mastir to that tha sewer 

11 (ammger of 

WellC. dishes) may make 

a state. 

whan J?e state hath wasche, J>e sumap drawne when your lord ' 

1 has washed, 

plajTie, 
Jefl must ye here forJ>e be sumape before youre take up the sor- 

nape with your 

souerayne, 
and so must ye take it vppe withe youre armes ^^o arms, 
twayne, 

and carry it back 

256 and to J>e Ewery here hit youre silf agayne. to the Bweiy. 

a-bowt youre nekke a towelle ye here, so to seme carry a towel 

- - round your neck.' 

youre lorde, 
pan to hym make curtesie, for so it wille accorde. 
vnkeuer youre brede, & by Je salt sette hit euyn Uncover your 

1 1 bread: 

ofi J>e borde ; 
260 looke bere be knyfe & spone / & napkyfk with- see that su diners 

P ^ - have knife, spoon. 

OUty[«J any WOrde. and napkin. 

Euer whan ye departe from youre soueraigne, looke Bow^when you 
ye bowe yowr knees ; ^"^^ y**"' ^°^' 

to be port-payne^ forthe ye passe, & bere viij. Take eight loaves 

from the bread- 

loues ye leese : cloth. 

Set at eiJuT end of pe table .iiij. loofes at a mese, ^^^^^V"^ ** 
264 ]>aik looke ))at ye haue napkyn & spone euery 
persone to plese. 

wayte welle to be Sewere how many potage* Lay for as many 

personsasthe 

keuered he ; 
keuer ye so many personis for youre honeste. sewer has set 

potsffos for. 

Jan serve forthe youre table / vche persone to hia 
degre, 
268 and bat ber lak no bred / trenchoure, ale, & wyne / »*»* ^^^ v^^^J 

' ^ ' f y J I of bread and 

euermore ye se. drink. 

^ mtike is repeated in the MS. 

^ '* A Fortpayne for the said Pantre, an elne longe and a yerd 
brode." The Percy ^ or Northumberland Household Book, 1512, 
(ed. 1827), p. 16, under Lynnon Clothe, * A porte painey to beare 
breade fro the Pantree to the table with, lintheum panarium,* 
Withab. 






18 



STMPLE 00in)I0I0NS : HOW TO BEHAV1S. 



Be Urely and 
■oft-spoken, elMm 
and wen draased. 



Don't spit or put 
jour fingers into 
caps. 



Stop all blaming 



and badibiting^ 

and prevent 
complaintii. 



be glad of cliere / Cuiteise of kne / & soft of speche, 
Fayre handed, clene nayles / honest aiiayed, y the 

teche ; 
Coughe * not, ner spitte, nor to lowd ye rcche, 
272 ne put youre fyngura in the cuppe / mooter for to 

seche. 

yet to alle fe lordes haue ye a sight / for grog- 

gynge & atwytynge * 
of fellows J?at be at J^e mete, for J)eire bakbytynge ; 
Se Jey be senied of bred, ale, & wyne, for com- 

playnyngc, 
276 and so shalle ye haue of alia mefi / good loue & 

praysynge. 



GmenUlHrtetioiu 
Jbr Bthcniow. 



SppU rirnlndiras. 



B 



Oont olsw your 
back as if after 
afle*; 

oryoarheadfaaif 
after a louse. 



See that your eyea 
are not blinking 



and watery. 

Don't pick yonr 
nose, or let It 
drop^ 

or blow it too 
loud. 



[ymple Cowdicyons of a p«rsone Jat is not taught, 

y wille ye eschew, for euermore J^ey be nowght. 

youre bed ne bak ye claw / a fleigh as ]>augh6 ye 

sought, 

280 ne youre heore ye stryke, ne pyke / to pralle* for a 

fleschc mought.* 

Glowtynge * ne twynkelyngc with youre y3e / ne to 

heuy of chere, 
watery /wynkynge/ne droppynge/but of sight clertf. 
pike not youre nose / ne paX hit be droppynge 

wit^ no peerlis clere, 
284 Snyflf nor snitynge* hyt to lowd / lest youre 

souerayne hit here. 

* Mark over h, ^ A.S. mttoUafiy twit; e/^icitan, blame. 

' *• prowl, proU, to seek for prey, from Fr. proie by the addition 
of a formative /, as kneel from knee.' Wedgwood. 

3 Louse is in English in 1530 * Louse, a beest— ^;ov. Palsgrgre. 
And see the note, p. 19, Book of QuinU Essence. 

^ To look sullen (?). Glowting round her rock, to fish she falls. 
Chapmany in Todd's Johnson. Horrour and glouting admiration. 
Milton, Glouting with sullen spight. Oarth. 

• Snytyn a nese or a candyl. EmungOy mungo. Prompt. Parr. 
Emungoy to make cleane the nose. Emunetio^ snuffyng or wypynge 



lOHN RUSSELLS BOKB OF NURTUBB. 19 

wiye not youre nek a doyle^ as hit were a dawe ; or twist your 

nedc. 

put not youre handed in youre hoseil youre codware^ Don't ci»w your 
for to clawe, "*^ 

nor pikynge, nor trifelynge / ne shrukkynge as 
Jauj ye wold sawe ; 
288 yowr hondes frote ne rub / brydelynge with brest mb your hands, 
vppofi yowr crawe ; 

wiih youre eris pike not / ner be ye slow of heiynge ; pi«k your ears, 
areche / ne spitt to ferre / ne haue lowd laughynge ; »tch, or spit too 
Speke not lowd / be war of mowynge' & 
scomynge ; 
292 be no lier with youre mouthe/ne lykorous, ne Don't teu ues,: 

dryvelynge. 

with youre mouthe ye vse nowjer to squyrt, nor **o5 m«iSf* 

spowt ; 
be not gapynge nor ganynge, ne with pj mouth gape, pout, or 

topowt; 
lik not wiih by tonga in a disch, a mote to haue owt. pat your tongue 

^ -. , in a dish to pick 

296 Be not rasche ne recheles, it is not worth a clowt. dust out. 

". [Fol.1760 

wj'tfe youre brest / sighe, nor cowghe/nor brethe, Don't cough, 

youre souerayne before ; 
be yoxinge,* ne bolkynge / ne gronynge, neuer pe uccup, or beich, 

more; 

of the nose. Cooper. Snufft uw neu8f Blow your nose. Sewel, 
1740 ; but muyvm^ ofU muffen^ To Snuffe out tbe Snot or Filth 
out of ones Nose. Hexham, 1660. A learned friend, who in his 
bachelor days inyestigated some of the curiosities of London life, 
informs me that the modem Cockney term is ding. In the dress- 
circle of the Bower Saloon, Stangate, admission 3d., he saw stuck 
up, four years a^, the notice, ^^ OtnUemm are requested not to 
Amg^* and being philologioally disposed, he asked the attendant 
the meaning of the word. 

^ askew. BoyU^ squint. Gloucestershire. Halliwell. 

' Codde, of mannys pryuyte (preuy membris). ^a^ mmtuia. 
Promptorium Parrulorum. 

3 Howe or skorne, Vanffia vel vaigia. Catholicon, in P. P. 

* ^yxya Smgulcio. ^yxynge nngultua. P. P. To yexe, sobbe, or 
haue the hioket. Swgtdtio, Baret To yexe or sobbe, Hieken, To 
Hick, or to have the Hick-hock. Hexham. 



20 



SYMPLE CONDICIONB : HOW TO BEHAVE. 



Btraddleyonr legs, 



or scfttb yoar 
body- 



Don't pick your 
teeth. 



cMt ttinking 
breath on yoor 
lord. 



Are your atein 
ffons, or expose 



your oodware 



with yonie feet trampelynge, ne settynge youre 
leggis a shore * ; 
300 wiiJi youre body he not shrubbynge * ; lettynge ' is 
no loore. 

Good son, ])y tethe be not pikynge, grisynge,* ne 

gnaatynge * ; 
ne stynkynge of brethe ofi youre souerayne 

castynge ; 
with puffynge ne blowynge, nowfer fulle ne 

fastyngc ; 
304 and alle wey be ware of J»y hyndur part from 

gunnes blastynge. 

These Cuttid® galaunte^ withtheire codware; Jat 

is an vngoodly gise ; — 
Other tacches^ as towchynge / y spare not to 

myspraue aftur myne avise, — 

^ ? Bhorewise, as shores. ^ Schorc, undar settynge of a fijnge )iat 
wolde falle.' P. Parv. Du. Sehooren, To Under-prop. Aller esehays, 
To shale, stradle, goe crooked, or wide betweene the feet, or legs. 
Gotgrave. 

2 Dutch Schrobben^ To Rubb, to Scrape, to Scratch. I^exham. 

* lettyn vemo. P. Parv. Mr "Way quotes from Palsgrave, 
** I ietie, I make a countenaunce with my legges, ie me iamioyej** 
^c. ; and from Cotgrave, " lamboyer, to tet^ qt wantonly to go in 
and out with the legs," &c. * grinding. 

> gnastyn (gnachyn) Fremoj strideo. Catholicon. Onastyng of 
the tethe — atridevr, grincement, Palsg. Du. gniateren, To Gnash, 
or Creake with the teeth. Hexham. 

^ Short coats and tight trousers were a great offence to old 
writers accustomed to long nightgown clothes. Compare Chaucer's 
complaint in the Canterbury Tales, The Parsones Tale, De Superbid, 
p. 193, col. 2, ed. Wright. ^* Upon that other syde, to speke of the 
horrible disordinat scantnes of clothing, as ben these cuttid sloppis 
or anslets, that thurgh her schortucs ne covcreth not the schamful 
membre of man, to wickid entent. Alas ! som men of hem schewen 
the schap and the boce of the horrible swollen membres, that semeth 
like to the maladies of himia, in the wrapping of here hose, and 
eek the buttokes of hem, that faren as it were the hinder part of a 
sche ape in the fulle of the moone." The continuation of the 
passage is very curious. " Youre schort gownys thriftlesse " are 
also noted in the song in Harl. MS. 372. See West«, Booke of 
Demeanour J 1. 141, below. 

' Fr. taehe, spot, staine, blemish, reproach. C. 



*-tm II ■» 1 



■■ ■■ a I I 



lOHN RUSSELLB BOKE OF NURTURE. 21 

Avhen lie shalle seme bis mastir, before bym ofi before your 
fe table bit lyes ; ™"^'- 

308 Euery souereyne of sadnes * alle sucbe sort sballe 
dispise. 

Many moo condicions a maii mygbt fynde / Jjaii Many other 

. improprieties 

now ar named here, 
berforc Euery bonest seruand / avoyd alle tboo, & a good 8er\ant 

r J / J > will avoid.' 

worsbippe lat bym leere. 
Panter, yoman of J)e Cellere, butlere, & Ewerc, 
312 y wille Jjat ye obeye to Jje marsballe, Sewere, & 
kervere.* " 

" ^ ood syr, y yow pray be connynge ' of kervynge 'sir, pray teach 

wTT me how to carve, 

'. y® wule me tecbe, 

and fe fayre bandlynge of a knyfe, y yow besecbe, handle a knife, 
and alle wey wbere y sbaUe alle maner fowles / 
breke, vnlace, or secbe,* 
316 and with Fysche or flesebe, bow sballe y demene fl»h, and fler»h.' 
me witA ecbe." 

Bon, tby knyfe must be brygbt, fayre, & clene, 
and fjne baude^faire wascbe, it wold )>e welle besene. 
bold alwey thy knyfe sure, fy self not to tene, 'Hold your knife 
320 and passe not ij. fyngurs & a thombeofi thy knyfe ftj^^nd a"*** 
so kene ; ^^"^^ 

In mydde wey of tbyne bande set the ende of J^e in your midpaim. 

haft Sure, 
Vnlasynge & mynsynge .ij. fyngurs wit^Jje thombe/ do your carding, 

pat may ye endure, 
kervynge / of bred leiynge / voydynge / of cromes uyyourbreai, 

& trenchewre, J^nSli!i^''with 

324 wit/iij. fyngurs and a thombe/loke ye bauejje Cure, two ungere and 



» sobriety, gravity. 

'' Edward lY. had * Bannerettes Till, or Bachelor Knights, to 
be kervers and capberers in this conrte.' /f. Ord.^ p. 32. 

^ MS. comynge. 

* See the Termet of a Ktnter in "Wynkyn de Worde's Boke of 
Keruynge below. 

4 



22 



HOW TO CARVE, AND TO LAY TRENCHERS. 



Never touch 
others' fi)od with 
your right hand, 

hot only with the 
left. 



[Pol. 175 h.] 



Don't dirty your 

Uble 

or wipe your 

knives on it. 



Taken loaf of 
trenchers, and 



with the edge of 
your Icnife raise 
a trencher, and 
lay it before your 
lord ; 



lay four trenchers 
four-sqiuure, 

and another on 
the top. 

Take a loaf of 
light bread. 



pare the edges, 



Sett neuer ofl fysche nor flesche / beest / nor fowle, 

trewly, 
Moorg ))a& ij. fyngurs and a thombe, for yeX ia 

curtesie. 
Touche neuer with youre riglit hande no maner 

mete surely, 
328 but with your lyft hande / as y seid afore, for fat 

is goodlye. 

Alle-wey with youre lift hand hold jour loof with 

myght, 
and hold youre knyfe Sure, as y haue geue yow sight, 
enbrewe* not youre table / for fail ye do not ryght, 
332 ne Jer-vppofl ye wipe youre knyffe«, but oil youre 

napkyfl plight. 

Furst take a loofe of trenchurs in fj lifPb hande, 
]»a& take fj table knyfe,' as y haue seid afore 

hande ; 
wit^ the egge of J»e knyfe youre trenchere vp be 

ye reysande 
336 as nyghe f e poynt as ye may, to-fore youre lord hit 

leyande ; 

right so .iiij. trenchers oon by a-nothur .iiij. square 

ye sett, 
and vppoii po trenchurs .iiij. a trenchur sengle 

wi t^-out lett ; 
JjaQ take youre loof of light payne / as y haue said 

jett, 
340 and with the egge of J»e knyfe nyghe your hand ye 

kett. 

Furst pare Jje quarters of the looff round alle 
a-bowt. 



1 to embrew. Ferrum tingere sanguine. Baret. 

» The table-knife, * Mensal knyfe, or borde knyfe, Mensalit,' 
P. Pair., was, I sappoee, a lighter knife than the trencher-knife 
used for cutting trenchers off very stale coane loaves. 



lOHlC RU8SELL8 BOKE OF NURTURE. 23 

ban kutt be vpper crust / for youre souerayne, & cut the upper 

crust for your 

to hym alowt. lord, 

Suffere youre parelle * to stond stills to J»e botom / 
& so ny^e y-spend owt, 
344 so ley hym of J)e cromes* a quarter of Jje looif SauBC^ 
dowt ; 
Touche neuer be loof aftwr he is so tamed, and don't touch 

' ^ it after its 

put it, [on] a platere or J>e almes- disch fer-foie trimmed. 

named. 
Make clene youre hord euer, faSt shalle ye not be ^Z*^**"* 
blamed, 
348 fan may fe sewere his lord serue / & neythwr of 
yow be giumed'. 



i«ta. 



JiMU0€«(iMHMf«. 







f alle maner mete« ye must thus know & fele Yon muit know 
pe fiimositees of fyschjflesche, & fowles dyuers indigestible, 
& feele. 
And alle maner of Sawce« for fische & flesche to «n<i what sauoeB 

are wholesome. 

preseme yowr lord in heele ; 
352 to yow it behouyth to know alle J)ese euery deele." 

" CiF* hertyly y pray yow for to telle me Certenle 
^ of how many metes fat ar fumose in J)eire 
degre." 

In certeyfi, my sofi, fat sone shalle y shew the These things arc 
356 by letturs dyuers tolde by thries thre, " 

£ ' A' and D / in dyu^rse tyme and tyde 

£ ia ye fuist / fat is, Fatt, Farsed, & Fried ; Fat and Fried, 

A, raw / resty, and rechy, ar combeTous vndefied ; Saw and Besty. 

360 8 / ialt / Sowre / and Bowse* / alle suche fow set saitandsour, 
a-side, 

^ ? Fr. pared, A match or fellow. C. ' MS. may be coomes. 
3 A.S. gramianj to anger. ^ Sowce mete, Sueetdium. P. Panr. 



24 FUM08ITEE8. KERUYNO OP FLESH. 

also Binewa, Bkin* with other of the same sort, and lo thus ar thay, 

c.opi, Senowis, skynnes / heere / Cropyns' / yonge fedurs 

for certefl y say, 
headB, heedis / pynnyns, boonis / alle f ese pyke away, 

pinions, Suf^ n/t t n m i n i ■* i 

364 Sumr neuer Jjy souerayne / to fele fern, y the pray / 

i«*f«» AUc man&r leggis also, bothe of fowle and beestis, 

outsides of thighs, the vttuT side of the thyghe or legge of allefowlis 

in feesti^, 
skins: the fumosite of alle maner skynnes y promytt fee 

by heestis, 
these destroy 368 alle fese may benym * J»y souerayne / from many 

your loH's rest.' 

nyghti^ restw. 

•Tiiankfc, father, " Iff ^^ fayre befalls yow fadur / & wellc must ye 

*^ cheve,' 

m put yoor For these poyntes by practik y hope fulle welle to 

teaching into *^ "^ ^ ^ J sr 

practice, preve, 

and pray for yon. and yet shallfi y pray for yow / dayly while J>at y 

leue/ 
372 bothe for body and sowle / Jjat god yow gyde firom 
greve; 

Bat please Praynge yow to take it, fadur / for no displesure, 

yf y durst desire more / and fat y myghte be sure 
2Sr"Si**Md* ^ know fe kervynge of fische & flesche/ aftur 

cocker cure : 
376 y hed leuer fe sight of that / thafl A Scarlet hui«.'*^ 



Carving <if Meat. 



CntfrrawAon the 
dish, and lift 



JUrapg flf |lM|f : 

Don, take f y knyfe as y taught f e while ere, 
kut bravne in fe dische rijt as hit liethe there, 

' ? Crop or era we, or cropon of a beste (croupe or cropon), 
Clunis, P. Pary. Crops are emptied before birds are cooked. 

' A.S. beniman^ take away, deprive. 

' Fr. achever, To atchieue ; to end, finish. Cot. 

* Hwyr, cappe (hure H.), Tena. A.S. hufe, a tiara, ornament. 
Promptorinm Parv. 



L 



lOHN RUSSELLS BOKB OP NURTURE. 25 

and to J»y soucreynes trenchoure / wiifi J)e knyfe / aUoM off with 

T_ ., , your knife ; ' 

ye ntt bere : 
380 pare ])e fatt \er-iiom j be ware of hide & heerc. 

Thafi whan ye haue it so y-leid / oft Jjy lorde» tren- 

choure, 
looke ye haue good mustarde Jjer-to and good "rveit with 

licoure ; 
Fatt venesouw wit^ frumenty / hit is a gay voninonwiih 

, Ainnity. 

plesewre 
384 youre souerayne to scttio with in sesoun to his 
honowre : 

Towche not be venisouw wit/t no bare hand Touch ve^uon 

* only with your 

but withe Jjy knyfe ; f is wise shalla ye be doande, knife. 



withe f e fore part of Jje knyfe looke ye be hit parand, p*" **» 

croes it 
scores, 



388 xij. draughted w/t/i J)e egge of Jje knyfe ))e venison ®^°" ** ^^"^ ^* 
crossande. 

Thaft whafl ye fat venesoun so haue chekkid hit, [Poi. i76 b.] 
with J)e fore parte of youre knyfe / J>at ye hit owt ^j***^*!.^^ 

kytt, ftinnity soap. 

In J)e frumenty potage honestly ye convey hit, 
392 in J>e same forme w/t^ pesyfl & bakefl whafl sesoun 
J)er-to dothe sitt. 

Withe youre lift hand touche beeflF I Chyne* / Touch &«/ with 

' your left hand, 

motoun, as is a-fore said, 
<& pare hit clene or \ai ye kerve / or hit to yowr pwe it dean, 

lord be layd ; 
and as it is showed afore / beware of vpbrayde ; 
396 alle famosite, salt / senow / Raw / arside be hit put away the 

' ' ' ' sinews, Ac. 

convayde. 
In sirippe / partriche / stokdove / & chekyns, in Partruge; Ac. : 

take up 

seruynge, 
wit^ yot^r lifft hand take pem by pe pynofi of pe by the pinion, 
whynge, 



' Chyne, of bestys bakke. Spina. P. Parr. 



26 HOW TO CARVE LABOE BOAST BIRDS, SWAN, CAPON, Aa 

& ^t same wiiJi fQ fore parte of Jre knyfe be ye vp 

reryngc, 

*Sin1S**h*'^*™ ^^^ Mynse hem smalla in )« siruppe : of fdmosite algate 
Rirrup. be ye feeryngc. 

Larger woaBt Grood son, of allfi fowles losted y telle yow as y Can, 

Mthaovf«y.Ac.. Eveiy goos / teele / Mallazd / Ospray / &, also 

swairne, 

winic«, 404 afftwr Jjat, fe whynge* large & rownd / J>afl dare 

blame pe no man ; 

lay the bodj in Lay the body in mydde« of fe dische / or in arnodur 

the middle, i _ 

chargers, 
with the wings of vche of fosB witA wbyng09 in myddfiffy Jie leg^es 

and lege round lU go aftlT there. 

of alle fese in .yj. lees * / if j»t ye * willc, ye may 
vppe arere, 
in the utme dish. 408 & ley ^m betweno ye legged, <fe fe whyng69 in fe 

same platere. 

capitnt : Capofl, & hen of hawt grees •, J>us wold pey be 

dight : — 
take off the wings FuTst, vn-lsce pe whynges, pe legges ]>an in sight, 

J^ronieor Cast ale or wyne ofl J>em, as fer-to beloTzgeth of 

'^' tyght, 

minoe them into 412 & mynso ))em fm in to )>e sawce wzt^ powdurs 

the flaToared , „ , , 

«uce. kene of myght. 

Take capouTi or hen so enlased, So devide ; 
Give your lord the take pe lift whynge ; in ])e sawce mynce hit euefi 

'""•"«• beside, 

and if he want it, and yf youTfi souerayno ete sauerly / & haue fcrto 

appetide, 
the right one too. ^l^ >«* mynce J>at of ur whynge fer-to to satisfye hyfii 

Jjat tyde. 

* slices, strips. ' MS. may be yo. 

' * De haute graine^ Full, plumpe, goodlie, fat, well-fed, in good 
liking.' Cotgrave. 



lOHN RUSSSLLS BOKE OF NURTURE. 27 

Feysaunt, partaiche, plou^r, & lapewynk, y yow phtamnu,kc.: 

say, 
areyse * pe whynge* furst / do as y yow pray ; ukeoirthe wing«. 

In be dische forth^- withe, bobe bat ye ham lay, fH«i», 

^ '^ , > r r J Jf then the lepj. 

420 ])afl aftur p&t / )>e leggus / wMout lengur delay. 

wodcok / Betowre^ / Egret* / Snyte* / and Curlew, wowiooek»,' 
heyrounsew^ / resteratifif pej ar / & so is the biewe f Ueron»haws, 
Jese .vij. fowles / must be vnlaced, y teU« yow 
trew, 
424 breke be pynons / nek, & beek, bus ye must bem *»«^ **»• p»nion». 

'^ ^'^ ' ' -^ r J r neck, Md beAk. 

shew. 

Thus ye must Jjem vnlace / & in thus manere : l^'^i- W7.] 

areyse pe leggis / stxSSue feire feete stilla to be ofi cat off the leg*, 

there, 
faSi pe whynge* in J>e dische / ye may not J>em *'••" '^e wingn, 

forbere, 

* Fr. arraeher. To root vp . . pull away -by violence. Cotgrave. 

- The Bittern or Bittour, Ardea StellarU. 

3 Effrette^ as Aigrette; A foule that resembles a Heron. 
Aigrette (A foule yerie like a Heron, but white) ; a criell Heron, or 
dwarfe Heron. Got. Ardea alba, A crielle or dwarfe heron. Cooper. 

^ Snype, or snyte, byrde. Ibex. P.P. A snipe or snite : a bird 
lesse than a woodcocke. OaUinago minor, &c. Baret. 

s A small Heron or kind of Heron ; Shakspere's editors' hand- 
eata. The spelling^ heronehaw misled Cotgrave, &c. ; he has Hoi- 
ronniere. A herons neast, or ayrie ; a A«rntf-shaw, or shaw of wood, 
wherein herons breed. ' An Hearne. Ardea. A heamsew, Ardeola* 
Baret, 1580. *■ Fr. heroneeau, a young heron, gives E. heronehaw^* 
Wedjvwood. I cannot find heronceau, only htronneau. ' A yong 
hereneew is lyghter of dygestyon than a crane. A. Borde. Megp- 
ment, fol. F i, ed. 1567. *In actual application a heranshaw, 
hemahaw or hernsew, is simply a Common Heron (Ardea Vulgaris) 
>rtth no distinction as to age, &c.' Atkinson. 

^ The Brewe is mentioned three times, and each time in con- 
nection with the Curlew. I believe it to be the Whimbrel (Numeni- 
1*9 Pheeopua) or Half Curlew. I have a recollection (or what seems 
like it) of having seen the name with a French form like Whim- 
breau. [Pennant's British Zoology, ii. 347, gives Le petit Courly, 
ou le Gourlieuy as the French synonym of the Whimbrel.] Morris 
(Orpen) says the numbers of the Whimbrel are lessening from their 
being sought as food. Atkinson. 



28 HOW TO OARYE THE CRANE, PAWN, VENISON, &C. 

lay the body be- 428 ))e body bail in be middes laid / like as y yow 

tween them. 

leere. 

cran$: take off the The Crane is a fowle / J»at stronge is with to fare ; 

J)e whynge* ye areyse / fuWe large evyfi thare ; 
tiie trompe In hie of hyre trompe ^ in be brest / loke bat ye beware*. 

432 towche not hir trompe / euermore J)at ye spare. 

Peacocks, Ac. : Pecok / Stork / Bustaide / & Shovellewre, 

carve like you do 7® Diust vnlace J>em in f e plite * / of J>e crane prest 

theCr^ie. & pure, 

keeping their so pat vche of Jjcm haue beyre feete aftwr my cure, 

feet on. 

436 and euer of a sharpe knyflf wayte J)at ye be sure. 

Quaiu, larks, Qf quaylo / sparow / larke / & litelle / mertinet 

pygeoun / swalow / thrusche / osulle / ye not for- 
gete, 
give your lord the ])e Icgges to ley to yowr souereyne ye ne lett, 

lege first. 

440 and afturward fe whyngus if his lust be to ete. 

idd^' ST* '*"* ^^ Fowen / kid / lambe, / Jje kydney furst it lay, 

Jjaii lifft vp the shuldur, do as y yow say, 
then a rib. Pick Jiff ^g wille berof ete / a rybbe to hym convay ; 

the ryxfax out of . '^ I J J J > 

the neck. 444 but in Jjo nek \>e fyxfax' Jjat Jjow do away. 

venesouw rost / in J)e dische if youre souerayne hit 
chese, 
Pig: I. Bhouider, pQ shuldir of a pigge furst / Jjan a rybbe, yf hit 

wille hym plese ; 

' ** The singular structure of the windpipe and its couYolutions 
lodged between the two plates of bone forming the sides of the keel 
of the sternum of this bird (the Crane) have long been known. 
The trachea or windpipe, quitting the neck of the bird, passes 
downwards and backwards between the branches of the merry- 
thought towards the inferior edge of the keel, which is hollowed 
out to receive it. Into this groove the trachea passes, . . . and 
after making three turns passes again forwards and upwards and 
ultimately backwards to be attached to the two lobes of the lungs." 
Tarrell, Brit. Birds ii. 441. Atkinson. 

* Way, manner. Plyte or state (plight, P.). Status. P. Parv. 

3 A sort of gristle, the tendon of the neck. Germ. Jlaehse 
Brockctt. And see Whcatley's Diet, of Reduplicated Words. 



lOHN RU8SELLS BOKE OF NURTURE. 29 

fe cony, ley hym on J)e bak in fe disch, if he haue jumu: Uy him 

on hit back : 

grece, 
448 while ye par awoy Jje skyfl on vcho side / & fan pare off hit. siiin; 
hreke hym or y[e] sece 

betwene be hyndur legsr^ breke be canelle boon/ break hin haunch 

'^ . •^ ®° *; ' bone, cut him 

baft with youre knyfe areyse be sides alonge be down each side of 

the back, lay him 

chyne Alone ; on hia beiiy, 

80 lay your cony wombelonge vche side to fe 
chyne / by craft as y conne, 
452 betwene Jje bulke, chyne, Jje side* to-gedure lat fern 
be dooii ; 

The .ij. sides departe from be chyne, f us is my separate the nd«e 

, from the chine, 

loore, 
pen ley bulke, chyne, & sides, to-gedire / as bey put them together 

again, 

were yore. 
Furst kit owte ))e nape in ))e nek / J^e shuldurs cutung out the 

. ^ nape of the neck ; 

before ; 
456 with pe sides serve youre souerayne / hit state to give your lord 

the Bidet. 

restore. 
Rabette* sowkers,* be furber X)arie from be hyndur, sucWng rabbits •. 

' / r r , r J cut in two, then 

ye devide ; 
Jafl J)e hyndur part at tweyn ye kut bat tyde, the hind part 

in two ; pare the 

pare Je skyn away / & let it not J>ere abide, tkin off, 

460 ))afi serue youre souerayne of Jje same / fe deynteist wrve the daintiest 
of fe side. 

rn [Fol. 177 6.] 

X ne maner & forme of kervynge of mete* bat byfi 8«ch ^ the way 

f- «/ of carving groit 

grOOS, meaii. 

aflftur my symplenes y haue shewed, as y suppose : 
yet, good son, amonge ojjer estate* eue^'as J)ow goose, 

* The * canelle boon' between the bind legs must be the pelvis, 
or pelvic arch, or else the ilium or haunch -bone : and in cutting up 
the rabbit many good carvers customarily disjoint the hauneh-bones 
before helping any one to the rump. Atkinson. 

* Rabet, yonge conye, Cunieellus. P. Parv. * The Conie beareth 
her Sadettet xxx daycs, and then kindeleth, and then she must be 
bucked againe, for els she will eate vp hir Jtabets. 1575. Geo. 
Turbervile, The Booke of Venerie, p. 178, ch. 63.'— H. H. Gibbs. 

6 



30 



HOW TO CARVE LARGE AND SMALL BIRDS. 



Cat each piece 
into four slices (?) 
for your master to 
dip in his sauce. 



Of large birdu' 
wings, 

put only three 
bits at once in the 
sauce. 



Of Hniall Inrds' 
wings, 

Mcrape the ilesb to 
the end of the 
bone, 

and put it on 
your lord's 
trencher. 



464 as ye se / and by vse of youre self / ye may gete 
yow loos. 

But fviifermoTe enforme yow y must in metis 

kervynge ; 
Mynse ye must iiij lees* / to ooii morselle hangyngc, 
Jjat youre mastir may take with .ij. fyngurs in his 

sawco dippjmge, 
468 and so no napkyii / brest, no borclothe*, in any wise 

enbrowynge. 

Of gret fowle / in to pe sawce mynse Jje whynge 

this wise ; 
pas not .iy. morcellc* in fe sawce at onis, as 

y yow avise ; 
To youre souerayne f e gret fowles legge ley, as is Jje 

gise, 
472 and fus mo we ye neuer mysse of alle cownyng^ 

s<?ruise. 

Of alle maner smale brydd/^, fe whyng/i< on pe 

trencher leyinge, 
wit/i fe poynt of youre knyfe / \>e flesche to pe 

boon end ye brynge, 
and so cowveye hit on Jje trenchere, fat w^ise your 

souerayne plesynge, 
476 and wiHi faire salt & trenchoure / hyin also oft 

renewynge. 



How to car»e 
Baked MeatM, 



()l)eu hot ones at 
the top of the 
cnist. 



^alu mUi.^ 



Almanere bakemete^ fat byn good and hoot, 
Open hem aboue f e brym of f e coflfyii * cote, 

^ slices, or rather strips. * board-cloth, table-cloth. 

3 Part IV. of Liber Cure Oocorum, p. 38 — 42, is ' of bakun mete.' 
On Dishes and Courses generally, see Randle Holmes Bk. III. Chap. 
III. p. 77—86. 

* rere a cofyn of flowre bo fre. Z. C. C7., p. 38, I. 8. The crust 
of a raised pie. 



lOHN RUSSELLS BOKE OF NURTURE. 31 

and alle ))at byn cold / & lusteth youre souez-eyfi to cow ones 
note, 
480 alwey in Jje mydway open hem ye mote. in the midcue. 

Of capon, chiken, or teele, in coffyii bake, Take Teai.&c., out 

of their pie, 

Owt of J)e pye fiirst ]>at ye hem take, 

In a dische besyde / J)at ye be whyngus slake, and mince their 

48 -t thynk* y-mynsed in to Jje same with your knj'fe ye 
slake, 

And stere welle f e stuff f er-in with fe poynt of »tir the gravy in : 

your knyfe ; 
Mynse ye thynne fe whyng/V, be it in to veele or 

byffe ; 
with a spone lightely to ete your souerayne' may your lord may eat 

it with a spoon. 

be leeff, 
488 So with snche diet as is holsom he may lengths 
his life. 

V[Fol. 178.] 
enesouw bake, of boor or othur venure, ^^ Venison. &c.. 

in the pasty. 

Kut it in fe pastey, & ley hit on his trenchure. 
Pygeofi bake, ]>e leggis leid to youre lord sure, 
492 Custard,^ chekkid buche,^ square with be km^e: Custard : cut in 

' » T. T f^ ' squares with a 

'pus is Jje cure *''^^«- 

^ for thin ; see line 4&C. 

* ? A dish of batter somewhat like our Yorkshire Pudding ; not 
the ChrtutadeoT'piQ of chickens, pigeons, and small birds of the Hoitse- 
hdd Ordinances^ p. 442, and Crustate of flesshe of Liber Cure, p. 40. 

3 ? buche de bois. A logge, backe stocke, or great billet. Cot. 
I suppose the buche to refer to the manner of checkering the cus- 
tard, buche-wise, and not to be a dish. Venison is * chekkid,* 1. 
388-9. This rendering is confirmed by The Boke of Ktrtiyng^s 
"Custarde, cheke them inch square" (in Keruynge of Flesshe). 
Another possible rendering of bitche as a dish of batter or the like, 
seems probable from the * Bouce Jane, a dish in Ancient Cookery ' 
("Wright's Prov*' Dicty ), but the recipe for it in Household Ordin- 
ances, p. 431, shows that it was a stew, which could not be 
checkered or squared. It consisted of milk boiled with chopped 
herbs, half- roasted chickens or capons cut into pieces, ' pynes and 
raysynges of corance,' all boiled together. In Household Ordin- 
ances^ p. 162-4, BoHche^ or Bouche of courts is used for allowance. 
The * Knights and others of the King's Councell,' &c., had each 



32 



HOW TO CARVE D0WCBTE3 AND PAYNE PUFF. 



Dowcets; pare 
away the Bides ; 

iwrve in a 
sawcer. 



Payne-puff: i>are 
the bottom, 
cut off the top. 

(? pameyB) 



Friei thiugs are 
indigestible. 



Jpan pe soner&yne, with his spone whan he lustethf 

to ete. 
of dow^cete*,* pare awey the side* to \>e botom, & 

pat ye lete, 
In a sawcer^ afore yourc soucrayne semely ye hit sett 
496 whafi hym likethe to atast : looke ye not forgete. 

Payne puflf,' pare fe botom nyje pe stuff, take hede, 

Kut of pe toppe of a payne puff, do thus as y rede ; 

Also pety perueys • be fayre and clene / so god be 

youre spede. 

500 off Fryed metes^ be ware, for fey ar Fumose in dede. 

*for their Bonch in the morning one chet loafe, one manchet, one 
gallon of ale ; for aftemoone, one manchett, one gallon of ale ; 
for after snpper, ooe manchett, &c/ 

* See the recipe, end of this Tolame. In Sir John Howard's 
Honsehold Books is an enti^ in 1467, 'for rlij hoshelles of flour for 
doicgetes yj s. viij d.* p. 396, ed. 1841. See note 5 to 1. 699, helow. 

2 The last recipe in The Forme of Cury, p. 89, is one for Payn 
Puff, but as it refers to the preceding receipt, that is g^yen first 
here. xi 

THE PETY PJJIUAIIAT.* 1X.XV.[^196] 

Take male Marow. hole parade, and kerue it rawe ; powdotir of 
GyngMr, yolkw of Ayren«, datw mynced, raisoas of coraiicc, salt a 
lytel, & loke ('at ^ou make ^y past with 3olkes of Ayren, & l^at no 
watfr come I'^rto ; and foMrmc ^y coffyn, and make up I'y past. 

XX 
PAYN PUFF IX.XVl[=^196] 

Eodem modo fait payn puff, but make it more tcndre \>^ past, and 
lake t>e past be rouMdc of l^c payn puf as a coifyn & a pye. 

Handle Holme treats of Puffe, Puffs, and Pains, p. 84, coL 1, 2, 
but does not mention Payn Puff. * Payn puffe, and pety-pettys, 
and cuspis and doucettis,' are mentioned among the last dishes 
of a service on Flessh-Day {H. Ord., p. 450), but no recipe for 
either is given in the book. 

3 In lines 707, 748, the pety perueys come between the fish 
and pastiei*. I cannot identify them as fish. I suppose they were 
pies, perhaps The Pety Peruaunt of note 2 above ; or better still, 
the fish-pies, Petipetes (or pety-pettys of the last note), which 
Handle Holme says 'are Pies made of Carps and Eels, first roasted, 
and then minced, and with Spices made up in Pies.' 

* De cibi elecctbne ; (Sloane MS. 1986, fol. 59 b, and else- 
where.) ** Frixa nocent, elixa fouent, assata cohercent." 



Glossed Peiypanel, a 3farehpayne, Leland, Coll. vi. p. 6. Peggc. 



lOHN RUSSBLLS BOKE OF NURTURE. 



33 



^nt)t mttts. 



Fruture viant' / Frutur sawge,* byn good / Poached-egg o 

. fHtten are best. 

bettwr IS Frutwr powche ;* 
Appulle fruture* / is good hoot / but fe cold ye not 

towche. 
Taiisey* is good boot / els cast it not in youre Tanseyisgood 

clowche. 
504 sAle maner of leesse3 * / ye may forberc / berbere in ^>on't cat Leeauez. 

yow none sowcbe. 
Cooke* wiiJi peiie newe co«ceyte», cboppynge / "1 

stanipynge, & gryndynge, 
Many new curies / alle day Jjey ar contryvynge 

& Fyndynge 
Jjot provoketbe fe peple to perelles of passage / 

))iou3 peyne soore pyndynge, 
508 & Jjroi^ nice excesse of sucbe receyte* / of fe 

life to make a endynge. 

Some with Sireppis * / Sawces / Sewes,® and 
soppes,' 



Cooks are always 



inventing new 
dishes 

that tempt people 



and endanger 
their lives : 



BTiTips 



^ Meat, sage, & poached, fritters ? ^ Recipe in Z. Ouref p. 39. 

^ There is a recipe ' for a Tansy Cake ' in Lib, C, p. 50. 
Cogan says of Tatme^ — *' it anoideth fleume. . . Also it killeth 
worms, and pnrgeth the matter whereof they be engendred. 
Wherefore it is much vsed among ts in England, about Easter, 
with fried Egs, not without good cause, to purge away the fleume 
engendred of fish in Lent season, whereof worms are soone bred in 
them that be thereto disposed." Tansey, says Bailey {Diet. 
Dotnestieum) is recommended ^or the dissipating of wind in the 
tftomach and belly. He gives the recipe for 'A Tansy' made 
of spinage, miUc, cream, eggs, grated bread and nutmeg, heated 
till it's as thick as a hasty pudding, and then baked. 

* Slices or strips of meat, &c., in sauce. See note to 1. 516, 
p. 34. 

^ Recipe * For Sirup,' Liber Cure, p. 43, and * Syrip for a Capon 
or Faysant,' JT. Ord. p. 440. 

' potages, soups. 

' Soppes in Fenell, Slitte Soppes, JT. Ord. p. 445. 



34 



POTAGES. 



the bowpls. 
Soino (iishcfl are 



pniMirtHl with un- 
clarilied honey. 



Cow-heel* and 
Calves' feet are 
sometimes mixed 



lecheii and Jollies. 



C 
o 

H-3 



conu-dies. Comedies / CawdelW* cast in Cawdrons / I p 

ponnes, or pottos, f ^ 

Jell les . that stop Iccsses / lelics * / FrutuTS / fried mete fat stoppes 

512 and distemperethe all^ J)o body, bothe bak, 
bely, & roppes :' 

Some mane^r cury of Cooke* crafft Sotelly y 

haue eepied, 
how J)eire dischmetc* ar dressid yri\h hony not 

claryiied. 
Cow heelis / and Calves fet« / ar dere y-boujt 

some tide 
with unaugared 516 To medille? amongc leeches* & lelies / whan 

suger shalle syt a-side. 



10i)tagts.' 



[Fol. 178 b.l 



Furmitjr with 
veniBon, 



w< 



ortns w/t/i an hcnne / Cony / beef, or els an 

haare. 
Frumenty® w/t/i venesouw / pesyn w/t/i bakon, 

longe wort€,v not spare ; 
Growelle of force'' / Gravelle of beeff ^ / or motouzi, 

haue ye no care ; 

^ Recipe for a Cawdel, L. C. C. p. 51. 

2 Recipes for Gele in Chekyns or of Hennes, and Gele of 
Flesshe, U. Ord. p. 437. 
^A.S. roppas^ the bowels. 

* " Icechc " is a slice or strip, H. Ord. p. 472 (440), p. 456 
(399) — * cut hit on leclies as hit were pcscoddes,' p. 439, — and also 
a stew or dish in which strips of pork, &:c., are cooked. See 
Lcche Lumbarde, H. Ord. p. 438-9, Fr. lesche^ a long slice or 
shine of bread, &c. Cot. Hie lesca At^ scywe (shive or slice), 
Wright's Vocab. p. 198; hec lesca^ a schyfe, p. 241. See also^ 
Mr Way's long note 1, Prompt. Parv., p. 292, and the recipes for 
64 diflfercnt "Leehe vyaundys" in MS. Harl. 279, that he refers to. 

® For Potagea see Part 1. of Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 7 — 27. 

* Recipe for Potage de Frumenty in H. Ord. p. 425, and for 
Furmente in Liber Cure, p. 7, H. Ord. 462. 

' Recipe ' For gruel of fors,' Lib. C. p. 47, and H. Ord. p. 425. 
■ .^minced or powdered beef: Fr. gravelh^ small grauell or 
sand. Cot. * Powdred motoun,' 1. 533, means sprinkled, salted. 



lOHN RU8SELLS BOKB.OP NURTURE. 35 

520 Grely, mortrows* / creyme of almonde*, pe mylke^ mortrcwe«. 
J)e?'-of is good fare. 

lussellc^, tartlettS cabage^*, & nombles^ of joBseii. &c., are 

^ good, 

vennurc/ 
alle j^ese potages ar good and sure. 

of oper sewes & potages pat ar not made by nature, ^^^^ out-of-the- 
524 alle Suche siropis sett a side youre Iieere to endure. »«* aside. 



N 



ow, son, y haue yow shewid somewhat of myne such w a 
avise, 
pG service of a flescbe feest folowynge englondis Engiis^way. 

gise; 
Forgete ye not my loore / but looke ye bere good 
y3es 
528 vppon oJ)ur cownynge kervers : now haue y told 
yow twise. 



Jitttra Satoasj 



8 Sauces. 



A Iso to know youre sawces for flesche conveni- sauces provoke 
*^ ently, 
hit provokithe a fyne apetide if sawce youre a fine appetite. 

mete be bie ; 
to the lust of youre lord looke pat ye haue j^er Have ready 
redy 

* Recipes for * Mortrewes de Chare,' Lib. C p. 9; ' of fysshe,' p. 
19 ; blanched, p. 13 ; and S. Ord. pp. 438, 454, 470. 

* Butter of Almonde mylke, Lib. C p. 15 ; H. Ord, p. 447. 
3 See the recipe, end of this volame. 

* Recipe for Tartlotea in lib. C. C. p. 41. 

' Recipe for Cabaekes in H. Ord, p. 426, and oaboeh&Sy p. 454, 
both the vegetable. There is a fish caboche in the 15th cent. 
Nominale in Wright's Yocab. Hie caputs A*> Caboche, p. 189, 
col. 1, the bullhead, or miller's thumb, called in French chaboi, 

< See two recipes for Nombuls in Liber Cure, p. 10, and for 
* Nombuls of a Dere,' in H, Ord. p. 427. 

^ The long r and curl for e in the MS. look like f, as if for 
vennuf. 

^ For Sauces {Salsammta) see Part II. of Ziber Cure, p. 27 — 34. 



36 



THE SAUCES FOB DIFFERENT DISHES. 



Miutard for 
Urawu, Ac., 

Verjuice for real, 
Ac. 

CIiAwdon for 
cyfrnct and swan. 



Garlic. Ac., for 
beef and ifoone, 



GiuKiT for fawn, 
Ac. 



Muatard and 
sugar for 
pheasant, Ac, 

UamelTU for 
herooMW, Ac., 



Sugar and Salt 
for brew, Ac, 



532 suclie sawce as hym likethc / to make hym glad & 
mery. 
Mustard * is meete for brawne / beef, or powdrcd* 

motoun ; 
verdius ' to boy led capoun / veel / chikefi /or bakofl ; 
And to signet / & swan, convenyent is fe 
chawdon * ; 
536 Roost beeflF / & goos / with garlek, vinegre, or 
pepur, in conclusiouw. 

Gynger sawce ^ to lambe, to kyd / pigge, or 

fawfi / in fere ; 
to feysand, partriclie, or cony / Mustard w/t/i J)e 

sugure ; 
Sawce gamelyii * to heyron-sewe / egret / crane / 

& plovere ; 
540 also / brewe' / Curlew / sugre & salt / wit^ 

waterc of j^e ryvere ; 



^ Recipe * for lumbardus Mustard ' in Liber Cure, p. 30. 
' Fleshe poudred or salted. Caro aalsa^ vel saliia, WithaU. 
3 The juice of unripo ^apes. See Maison Ruaiique, p. 620. 

* Chaudwyn, 1. 688 below. See a recipe for " Cbaudem for 
Swannes '* in Houwhold OrdittaneeSf p. 44 1 ; and for " ^andon 
(MS. cbaudon *) for wylde digges, swannus and piggns," in Liber 
Gwey p. 9, and ** Sawce for swannus," Ibid, p. 29. It was made 
of chopped liver and entrails boiled with blood, bread, wine, 
vinegar, pepper, cloves, and ginger. 

* See the recipe *' To make Gyngor Sause " in JET. Ord. p. 441, 
and " For sawce gynger," X. C. C. p. 62. 

^ No doubt the ** sawce fyne l^at men calles camelyne ** of Liber 
Curcy p. 30, * raysons of corouns/ nuts, bread crusts, cloves, gin- 
ger, cinnamon, powdered together and mixed with vinegar. 
" Camelin, sauce cameline, A certaine daintie Italian sauce." Cot. 

^ A bird mentioned in Arehaoloffiay xiii. 341. Hall. See note, 
1. 422. 

* Sloane 1986, p. 48, or fol. 27 b. It is not safe to differ from 
Mr Morris, but on comparing the C of *■ Chaudoii for swannu,' 
col. 1, with that of ' Caudell^ of almonde,' at the top of the second 
ooL, I have no doubt that the letter is C, So on fol. 31 b. the C 
of Chaudon is more like the C of Charlct opposite than the T of 
Take under it. The C of Caudel dalmon on ful. 34 b., and that of 
Cuitellie, fol. 24, 1. 5, are of the same shape. 



lOHN RUSSELLS BOK£ OF NURTURE. 37 

Also for bustard / betowre / & shovelere/ G»meiynfor 

, _ o • • bustard, Ac., 

gamelyn * is in sesoun ; 
Wodcok /lapewynk / Mertenet / larke, & venysoun, sait and ciim*- 
Sparows / thrusches / alle J^ese .vij. with salt & cock, ihnwheB, 

Ac. 

synamome : 
544 Quayles, sparowes, & snytes, whan J)eire sesoun *nd qnaiii. &c. 
com,* 
Thus to provoke aw appetide j^e Sawce hathe is 
opcraciouw. 



Jtrtpg td ght^K* 



How to oarve 
Ftah. 



N 



ow, good sofl, of kervynge of fysche y wot y 
must j^e leere : 



To pesbn* or frumenty take fe tayle of J>e bevere,* ^***» p«* •«'»p ^ 



Beayer's 



* Shovelars feed most commonly upon the Sea-coast upon cocklee 
and Shell-fish : heing taken home, and dieted with new garbage 
and good meat, they are nothing inferior to fatted Gulls. Muffett, 
p. 109. Hie populusy a schevelard (the anaa elypeata of naturalists). 
Wright's Voc., p. 253. 

2 See note 6 to line 539, aboTe. 

^ Is nut this line superflaous ? After 135 stanzas of 4 lines 
each, we here come to one of 5 lines. I suspect 1. 544 is simply 
de trop. W. W. Skeat. 

* For the fish in the Poem mentioned by Yarrell, and for refer- 
ences to him, see the list at the end of this Boke of Nurture, 

» Recipes for " Grene Pesen " are in F. Ord. p. 426-7, p. 470 ; 
and Porre of Pesen, &c. p. 444. 

* Topsell in his Four footed Beastt, ed. Rowland, 1658, p. 36, 
says of Beavers, *' There hath been taken of them whose tails have 
weighed four pound weight, and they are accounted a yery delicate 
dish, for being dressed they eat like Barbies : they are used by the 
Lotharingians and Savoyans [says Bellonius] for meat allowed to 
be eaten on fish-dayes, although the body that beareth them be 
flesh and unclean for food. The manner of their dressing is, first 
roasting, and afterward seething in an open pot, that so the CTiU 
vapour may go away, and some in pottage made with Saffiron ; 
other with Ginger, and many with Brine ; it is certain that the 
tail and forefeet taste very sweet, from whence came the Proverbe, 
I%at noeet u thatJUh, which ia notjieh at ali.'* 

6 * 



Uil. mit 
Ponw»lw. Ac. 



•^8 HOW TO CARVE HBRllINGS AND SALT FISH. 

548 or ^iflf ye haue salt purpose* / ^ele' / torrentill^', 
deynteith?/* fuUe dere, 
ye must do afture J>e forme of frumenty, as y 
said while ere. 

Baken heryng6,dressid A di^t with white sugurc ; 
Split up HeiTtnfw. pe white herynge By j^e bak a brode ye splat hym 

sure, 
uke out the roe 552 bothe Toughc & boouti^ / voyded / befi may yourc 

and l>one«, i -i i 

lorde endure 
eat with muBtard. to ete merily with mustard pat ty me to his plesure. 

Take the skin off Of alle mauer salt fische, looke ye pare awey the 

felle, 
SHiniou. Ling, Ac.. Salt samou/t / CouguT*, groue * fische / bo]>e lynge * 

& myllewelle^, 
556 & ofi youre soueraynes trenchewr ley hit, as y 

yow telle, 
belnuaurt**"** J)e sawce fer-to, good mustard, alway accordethe 

welle. 



' See the recipe for ** Fiirmente with Purpeys," M. Ord, p. 442. 

' I suppose this to be Seal. If it is Eel, see recipes for ** Eles 
in Sorre, Browet, GravS, Brasyle," in S. Ord. p. 467-8. 

3 Wjmkyn de Worde has * a salte parpos or sele torrentyne.' 
If this is right, torrentille most apply to ^ele, and be a species of 
seal : if not, it must be allied to the Trout or Torrentyne, I. 835. 

* Gongur in Pyole, JST. Ord. p. 469. * I must needs agree with 
Diocles, who being asked, whether were the better Jhh^ a Pike or a 
Conger : That (said he) sodden, and this broild ; shewing us 
thereby, that all flaggy, slimy and moist fish (as Eeles, Congers, 
I^ampreys, (Hsters, Cockles, Mustles, and Scallopes) are best broild, 
rosted or bakt ; but all other fish of a firm substance and drier con- 
stitution is rather to be sodden/ Muffett, p. 1 i5. 

^ So MS., but grone may mean greeny see 1. 851 and note to it. 
If not, ? for Fr. gronan, a gurnard. The Scotch crowner is a species 
of gurnard. 

• Lynge, fysshe, Colin, Palsgrave ; but Coliny a Sea-cob, or 
Gull. Cotgrave. See Promptorium, p. 296. 

"^ Fr. Merlus ou Merluz^ A Mellwell, or Keeling, a kind of small 
Cod whereof Stockfish is made. Cotgraye. And see Prompt. Parv. 
p. 348, note 4. *' Cod-fish is a great Sea-whiting, called also a Keel- 
mgor Melwel." Bennett's Mufiett on Food, p. 148. 



lOHN RUS8ELL8 BOKB OF NURTURE. 39 

Saltfysehe, stokiische ' / merlynge* / makerelle, but- but for Mackarei. 

• ftc., butter 

tur ye may 
with swete buttwr of Claynos ' or els of hakenay, of ciayneBor 

Hackney. (?) 

560 J>e boonz^, skynnes / & fynnes, furst y-fette arway, 
J>en sett youre dische? Jjere as youre souereyw may 
tast & assay. 

Pike*, to youre souereyfi y wold ])at it be layd, of pike, thebeiiy 
f e wombe is best, as y haue berd it saidc, 
564 Fyscbfi <fe skyfi to-gedir be bit convaied 

with pike sawce y-nougbe b^-to / & hit sballe not ^^h plenty of 
be denayd. 

The salt lamprey, gobefi hit a slout^ .v\j. peels y saitLamprej-s. 
assigne : gobbet*, 

^ ' pick out the b«:k- 

pafl pike owt J>e booni«« nyje fe bak spyne, bones, 

1 Cogan says of stockfish, ^* Concerning which fish I will say no 
more than Erasmus hath written in his CoUoquio, There is a kind 
ofjiahe, which is called in English Stockfish : it nourisheth no tnore 
than a stock. Yet I haae eaten of a pie made onely with Stockefishe, 
whiche hath been verie good, but the goodnesse was not so much in 
the fishe as in the cookerie, which may make that sauorie, which of 
it selfe is vnsavourie . . it is sayd a good Cooke can make you good 
meate of a whetstone. . . Therfore a good Cooke is a good iewell, 
and to be much made of ^^ Stockfish whilst it is unbeaten is 
called Buckhorne, because it is so tough ; when it is boaten upon 
the stock, it is termed stockfish." Muffett. Lord Percy (a.d. 
1512) was to have "cxl Stok fisch for the expensys of my house 
for an hole Tere, after ij.d. obol. the pece," p. 7, and *^ Dccecxlij 
Salt fisch e . after iiij the pece," besides 9 barrels of white and 10 
cades of red herring, 5 cades of Sprats (sprootis)^ 400 score salt 
salmon, 3 firkins of salt sturgeon and 5 cags of salt eels. 

' Fr. Merlan, a Whiting, a Merling. Cot. < The best Whitings 
are taken in Tweede, called Merlings^ of like shape and vertue with 
ours, but far bigger.' Muffett, p. 174. 

3 MS. may be Cleynes. ? what place can it be ; Clayness, Clay- 
nose } Claybury is near Woodford in Essex. 

* A recipe for Fykes in Braseyis in H. Ord, p. 451. The head 
of a Carp, the tail of a Pike, and the Belly of a Bream are 
most esteemed for their tenderness, shortness, and well rellishing. 
Muffett, p. 177. 

* Cut it in gobets or lumps a-slope. *' Aslet or a-slowte (asloppe, 
a slope), Oblique" P. Panr. But shut may be sloty bolt of a door, 
and so aslout ^ in long strips. 



(tiBh 



^0 HOW TO CARVE PLAICE AND OTHER PISH. 

568 and ley hit ofi your lorde^ trenchere wheper he 
sowpe or dyiie, 

rrXuT^''"' * f** y® ^*^® ssodd}^ ynonfl « to meddiUc with 

galantyne.* 

Plaice: cut off the Qff playce,* looke je put a-way J)e watwr dene, 

aflFtwr J>at Je fynnes also, jjat J>ey he not sene ; 

tlnM, crcMw it with _.^ ^ ,, ._ ••/« ., 

a knife. 572 Grosse hym J)en with your knyife fat is so kene ; 

wiuce with wine, wyne or ale / powder per-to, youre 80u^?-ayn well^ 

to queme. 

Gurnard. Chub. . GuHiard / Foche * / hremc / chevyfl / base / melet / 

in her kervynge, 
Rimch. Dace. Cod, Perche / Tooche* / darce* / Makerellc, & whitynge, 

»i)re4Mi on the 576 Codde / haddok / by pe bak / splat pern in pe 

dische liynge, 
pike owt J>e boon?/*, dense J>e refett ' in pe bely 

bydyng^ ; 

[Foi. 179 6.] Soolus * / Carpe / Breme de mere,® & trowt, 

* Onions make a man stink and wink. Berth olson, 1754. * The 
Onion, though it be the Countroy mans meat, is better to Tse than 
to tast : for he that eatcth euerie day tender Onions with Honey 
to his breakfast, shall line the more healthfull, so that they be not 
too new.' Mawm Sustiquet p. 178, ed. 1616. 

^ Recipes for this sauce arc in Liber C. p. 30, and IT. Ord. p. 
441 : powdered crusts, galinj^ale, ginger, and salt, steeped in vine- 
gar and strained. See note to 1. 634 below. 

* See " Plays in Gene," that is. Ceue, chives, small onions some- 
what like eschalots. H. Ord. p. 452. See note 5, 1. 822. 

* Of all sea-fish Rochets and Gurnards are to be preferred ; for 
tlieir flesh is firm, and their substance purest of all other. Next 
unto them Plaise and Soles are to be numbered, being eaten in 
time ; for if either of them be once stale, there is no flesh more 
carrion-like, nor more troublesome to the belly of man. Mouffet, 

p. 164. 

* Roches or Loches in Egurdouce, H. Ord. p. 469. 

* Or dacce. 
' Jiivet, roe of a fish. Halliwell. Dan. ravn^ rogn (rowne of Pr. 

Parv.) under which Molbech refers to AS. hrafe (raven, Bos worth) 
as meaning roe or spawn. G. P. Marsh. But see refeccyon, P. Parv. 

8 See " Soles in Cyne," that is, Cyue, H. Ord, p. 452. 

» Black Sea Bream, or Old Wife. Cantharua grisetu. Atkinson. 
*' AWmides MarinsB. Breams of the Sea be a white and solid 



lOHN RUSSELLS SOKE OF NURTURE. 41 

J>ey must be takyil of as pey in pe dische lowt, goies. carp. *c.. 
580 bely & bak / by gobyfl ' pe boon to pike owt, e o aa serve . 

80 serve ye lorde* trenchere, looke ye welle ^bowt. 
Wbale / Swerdfysche / purpose / dorray^ / rosted ^'"»**«' porpoise. 

wele, 
Bret* / samofi / Congur* /sturgeouw / turbut, & concur. turbot. 
3ele, 
584 f omebak / thurle poUe / hound fyscb* / halybut, to Haiybut. &c.. 
hym J)at hathe b eel e, 
alle f ese / cut in pe discbd as youre lord etethe at cut in the dish, 
meele. 

Tenche ® in lely or in Sawce ' / loke fere ye kut "»<! *^ Tench in 

hit so, 
and on youre lordes trencherc se pat it be do. 
588 Elis Si lampumes^ rosted / where pat euer ye go, onroaat 

Lamprons 
sabstance, good juice, most easie digestion, and good nourishment." 
Mufett, p. 148. 

^ gobbets, pieces, see 1. 638. 

3 Fr. Dor^e : f. The Doree, or Saint P^rsfish ; also (though 
not BO properly) the Goldfish or Goldenie. Cotgrave. 

' Bretty § xxi. He beareth Azure a Birt (or Burt or Berie) proper 
by the name of Brit, . . It is by the Germans termed a Brett-JUh 
or Brett-cock. Handle Holme. 

* Rec. for Congur in Sause, H.-Ord. p. 401 ; in Pyole, p. 469. 

A This must be Handle Holme's *' Dog JUh or Sea Bog Fiak, 
It is by the Dutch termed a Flackhund^ and a HundJUch: the 
Skin is hard and redish, beset with hard and sharp scales ; sharp 
and rough and black, the Belly is more white and softer. Bk II. 
Ch. XIY. Ko. Iv, p. 343-4. For names of Fish the whole chapter 
should be consulted, p. 321 — 34d. 

' *" His flesh is stopping, slimy, viscous, & Tery unwholesome : 
and (as Alexander Benedictus writeth) of a moitt unclean and 
damnable nourishment . . they engender palsies, stop the lungs, 
putrifie in the stomach, and bring a man that much eats them to 
infinite diseases . . they are worst being fried, best being kept in 
gellgy made strong of wine and spices.' Muffett^ p. 189. 

■^ Recipes for Tenches in grave, X, C C. p. 25 ; in Cylk (wine, 
&c.), S. Ord. p. 470 ; in Bresyle (boiled with spices, &c.), p. 468. 

^ Lamprons in Galentyn, ff. Ord. p. 449. " Lampreys and 
Lamprons differ in bigness only and in goodness ; they are both a 
very sweet and nourishing meat. . . The little ones called Lamprons 
are best broild, but the great ones called Lampreys are best baked." 
Muffetty p. 181-3. See L 630-40 of this poem. 



HOW TO CARTE CRABS AND OR&YFIBH. 

jicettt, tc. Cast vinegre & powder ^era& / furst fette )>e baaiu 

)iem fro. 
*T^^ '" Crabbe ia a slutt / to kerve / & a wrswd ' wight ; 

r'l". breke €116*7 Clawe / a soadui' / for fat is his 

ryght: 
111 Uw OHM 692 In be biode ahelle putt youre stuff / but furst 

haue a sight 
|iat it be clene from skyfl / & seoow / or ye 

begyii to dight. 
And what ' ye haue piked / fe stuff owt of euery 

shelle 
iheDHiMnit vrith (le poynt of yourc knytf, loke ye temper hit 

iworrorjuiw 696 put vinegTC / perto, veri^us, or ayselle,* 

Cast per-on powdur, the bettur it wilk smelle. 
. It. uhI giro Send J»e Crabbe to J»e kychyfl / Jjere for to hetc, 

agayfl hit faecbe to Jiy Bouer&yne sittynge at mete ; 
;hF ^^j 600 breke f»e claw^ of Jw crabbe / fe smalle & Jw grete, 

In a diach fieiii ye lay / if hit like your souw- 
ayiie to ete. 
wa cnjtoi : Crevise • / fus wise ye must them dight : 

Departe thecrevisea-sondireeuyfl toyouresight, 
htbriimf 604 Slytt bebely of the hyndur part / & so do ye 

right, 
unt itac iiih. and alle hoole take owt f e fischc, like as y yow 



' Wraw, froward, ongoodty. Ptrvenut . ■ txayieraru. Pi. Porv. 

' for Khan, irhen. 

3 A kind of vinegar ; A .S. titUt, vin^^r ; giren Id Christ on tbe 
Cron. 

• Stcrniia : f. A Creuice, or Crayflsh [see 1. fllS] ; (B; Mm« 
Authors, but not lo properly, the Crab-flih is also tearmed so.) 
BKraiitK de mer. A Lobster ; or, (more properly) ■ Ses-Creaice. 
Cotgrare. A Creviet, or a OriJlsA, or as Boioe vrite it, a Crtni 
Fith, are in all respects the same in form, and are a Species of 
the Lobster, but of a lesser size, and the head is set more into the 
body of the Creaict than in the LobtUr. Some call this a Oan- 
well.. R. Holme, p. 338, coL 1, t ixi. 



lOHN RUSSELLS BOK£ OF NURTURE. 43 

Pare awey pe red skyn for dyuers cawse & dowt, 
and make clene pe place also / pai ye calle his ^"^ ^^ **** <wr' 
gowt,i 
608 hit lies in be mvdde* of be bak / looke ve pike the middle of the 

'^ •^ ' ' .7 x- »eaCrayfl«h'» 

it OWt ; ll^ck : pick It out, 

areise hit by pe Jjyknes of a grote / pe fische tear it off the Ash, 
rownd abowt, 

put it in a dische leese by lees * / & )>at ye not 

forgete 
to put vinegre to pe same / so it towche not j^e «"* put vinegar 

mete ; 
612 breke pe gret clawes youre self / ye nede no bre&kthecUwa 

cooke to trete, 
Set J>em on pe table / ye may / wM-owt any JJlf^bi^**" **" 

man^ heete. 

The bak of pe Crevise, pus he must be sted : STuw aS^^ 

array hym as ye dothe / pe crabbe, if J)at any be 

had, 
616^and bofe endes of Jje sheUe / Stoppe them fast JnrSth*^.* 

with bred, 
& seme / youre souereyfi per 'with / as he likethe 

to be fedd. 

Of Crevis dewe dou3 ' Cut his bely a- way, [Foi. lao.] 

be fischf? in A dische clenly bat ye lay Jh® fresh-water 

'^ '^ r J J Crftyflah : serve 

620 with vineger & powdur per vppon, pus is vsed ay, with vinegar and 
pan youre souerayne / whan hym semethe, sadly 
he may assay. 



^ No doubt the intestina] tract, numing along the middle of the 
body and tail. Dr Giinther. Of Creyisses and Shrimps, Mnffett 
says, p. 177, they ** give also a kind of exercise for sach as he weak : 
for head and brest must first be divided from their bodies ; then 
each of them must be dis scaled, and ^clean picked with much 
pidling ; then the long gut lying along the back of the Gretisse is 
to be voided." 

^ slice by slice. 

-^ The fresh -water crayfish is beautiful eating, Dr Giinther says. 



44 



HOW TO CARYB WHELKS AND LAMPRETS. 



S&lt StargeuQ : 
Hlit itsjoll, or 
head. thin. 



Wlidk: cutoff 
ite head and tail, 



throw away Its 
operculum, 
mantle, Ac, 

cut it in two, and 
put it on the 
stuiYeon, 



adding vinegar. 

Carve Baked 
Lampreys thus : 
take off the pie- 
crust, put thin 
slices of bread ( n 
a Dish. 



pour galentyne 
over the bread. 



add cinnamon 
and red wine. 



The loUe ^ of pe salt sturgeouw / thyn / take hede 

ye slytt, 
& rownd about j^e dische dresse ye musten Mt. 
624 pQ whelke ^ / looke pat pe bed / and tayle awey 

be kytt, 
his pyntill ^ & gutt / abnond & mautille/ awey 

per fro ye pitt ; 

Thefl kut ye pe whelk asondwr, even pecw two, 
and ley pe pecis perof / vppofi yottre sturgeoun so, 
628 rownd all abowt pe disch / while pat hit wille go ; 
put vinegre per-vppoii / pe bettwr pan wille hit do. 

Frescbe lamprey bake * / pus it must be dight : 
Opefi pe pastey lid, per-in to haue a sight, 
632 Take pen white bred pyfl y-kut & lijt, 

lay hit in a chargers / dische, or plater, ryght ; 

wtt^ a spone pen take owt pe gentille galantyne,* 
In pe dische, on pe bred / ley hit, lemmafl myne, 
636 pen take powdwr of Synamome, & tewper hit 
with red wyne : 

' loUe of a fysshe, teste, Palsgraye. loU, as of salmon, &c., 
caput. Gouldm. in Promptorium, p. 264. 

' For to make a potage of welkes, Ziber Cure^ p. 17. "Per- 
winkles or Whelks, are nothing but sea-snails, feeding upon the 
iinest mud of the shore and the best weeds." Muffett^ p. 164. 

3 Fintle generally means the penis ; but Dr Giiuther says the 
whelk has no visible organs of generation, though it has a project- 
ing tube by which it takes in water, and the function of this might 
have been misunderstood. Dr G. could suggest nothing for almond^ 
but on looking at the drawing of the male Whelk {Buccinum un- 
datum) creeping, in the Penny Gydopeedia, v. 9, p. 454, col. 2 
(art. Entomostomata], it is quite clear that the almond must mean 
the animal's homy, oval operculum on its hinder part. ' Most spiral 
shells have an operculum, or lid, with which to close the aperture 
when they withdraw for shelter. It is developed on a particular 
lobe at the posterior part of the foot, and consists of homy layers, 
sometimes hardened with shelly matter.' Woodward* e MoUutea, p. 47. 

* That part of the integument of moUusca which contains the 
viscera and secretes the shell, is termed the mantle. Woodward. 

^ Recipe '* For lamprays baken," in Liber Cure, p. 38. 

^ A sauce made of crambs, galingale, ginger, salt, and vinegar. 
See the Recipe in Liber Cure^ p. 30. 



1 1 



lOHN RUSSELL8 BOKE OF NURTURE. 45 

pB same wold pleee a pore man / y suppose, welle & 
fyne. 

Mynse ye be gobyns as thyn as a grote, M^nce **»» i"n- 

, _ preys, 

J)afl lay fern vppofi youre galantyne stondynge ofl a ^»y **»«"» on *be 

chamre hoote : hot plate, 

640 ])us must ye di3t a lamprey owt of his coffyn cote, 

^__j . •It . serve up to your 

and so may youre souerayne ete menly be noote. lord. 
White herynge in a dische, if hit be seaward & White herrinpi 

fresh; 

fresshe, 
yowr souereyn to ete in seesouw of yere / fer- 
aftz/r he wille Asche. 
644 looke he be white by be boofl / be rouehe white the roe must be* 

•^ '^ / r © white and tender: 

& nesche ; 
with salt & wyne seme ye hym be same / boldly, "crve with salt 

and wine. 

& not to basshe. 
Shrympes welle pyked / be scales awey ye cast, shrimps picked : 

"^ ' ' ^ ^ 7 lay them round 

Round abowt a sawcer / ley ye bem in hast : * sawcer, and 

. . / J J r > aervewlth 

o48 f e vinegre in ))e same sawcer, J)at youre lord may vinegar." 
attast, 
J>an YfiXh Jje said fische / he may fede hym / & 
of J)em make no wast." 

" Tflr^^> ^^^y ^eire falle ye / & crist yow haue in "Thanks, father, 

cure. 
For of J)e nurture of kervynge y suppose jjat y be sure, ^ ^^^ ■^'** 
652 but yet a-nodwr office per is/ saue y dar not endure ^^^' *«> ^-^ 
to frayne yow any further /for feere of displesure : but i hardly dare 

ask you about 

For to be a sewere y wold y hed pe cownynge, * sewer's duties, 

J>an durst y do my devoire / with any worship- 

fulle to be wownynge ; 
656 sen pai y know pe course / & pe craft of kervynge, 

y wold se pe sijt of a Sewere* / what wey he / tow he u to 

shewethe in seruynge." 

^ See the duties and allowances of *• A Sewar for the Kynge," 
Edw. IV., in Houwhold Ordinances, pp. 36-7; Henry VII., p. 118. 
King Edmnnd risked his life for his assewer, p. 36. 

7 



46 THE sewer's or arranger's duties. 



The Duties of a 

Sfiorr. 



^m ai 



a $tbtx^ 



wf»h°to*\wn^'' " TQT^^ ®®^ y* ^ ®^» ^y ^^^ I ^^* science ye wold 

fayfl lere, 

drede yow no Jjynge daungeresnes ; Jms * y shalle 

do my devere 
1 wui gladly t6ach 660 to enfonne yow feithfully w?tA ryght gladsom chere, 

& y^ y© wolle lystefl my lore / somewhat ye shalle 

here: 

ut the Sower. Take hede whafl j^e worehipfulle hed / )>at is of 

an iM>on as the . 

Maacer any place 

begins to say hath wasche afore mete / and bigy wnethe to sey J>e 

KTace. 

grace, 
We to the kitchen. 664 Vn-to J)e kechyfl )>afl looke ye take youre trace, 

Entendyng & at youre cowmaundjnage J>e s^/*- 
uaunde* of J>e place ; 

I. Ask the Panter FuTst spcke wi t7i J)e pjuiterc / or officere of fe 

spicery 
forfnut8(aa For frutes a-fore mete to ete bem faatyngely, 

butter.grapes,ftc.), ___ . . , . , , , 

668 as butt Mr / plommes / damesyns, grapes, and chery, 
Suche in sesons of J>e yere / ar served / to make 
men mery, 

if they are to be Setche and enquere of fern / yf suche seniyse 

*^^ shalle be )>at day ; 

IL Aak the Cook )»an commyfi witA ]>e cooke / and looke what he 

wille say ; 
and Surveyor 672 )>e suTveyouTe & he / J)e certeynte telle yow wille 

^ The word Sewer in tbe MS. is written small, the flourishes of 
the big initial haying taken up so much room. The name of the 
office of sewer is derived from the Old French eeeulier^ or the 
ecutellariua^ i. e. the person who had to arrange the dishes, in the 
same way as the seutelUry (scullery) was by rights the place 
where the dishes were kept. Domeatie Architecture, v. 3, p. 80 n. 

^ Inserted in a seemingly later hand. 



lOHN RUSSELLS SOKE OF NXTRTUBE. 47 

what metes // & how many disches / pQj dyd what dishes are 
fore puruay. 

And whafi pe surveoure ^ & J)e Cooke / with yow 

done accorde, 
fen shalle fe cook dresse alle bynge to be sur- ni. Let tiie cook 

MTveupthe 

veyngc borde, dishes. 

676 J>e surveoure sadly / & soburly / wit^wten auy the surveyor 
discorde 
Delyuer forthe his disches, ye to convey fern to d«"^erthem. 
pe lorde ; 

And 'whefi ye bithe at be borde / of seruyce and , t^®^- ^5*^ 

•^ r t J and you. the 

SUTVeynge, Sewer, have 

se )>at ye haue officers bo]}e courtly £uid connynge, ukutai offloen to 
680 For drede of a dische of youre course stelynge ^, being Btoien. 
whyche myght cawse a vileny ligtly in youre 
seruice sewynge. 

And se pat ye haue seruytours semely / pe disches ^- ^*^'® p'^p**' 

for to here, 
Marchalles, Squyers / & sergeaunte* of armes *, if Marshals, &c.. 

pat pej be there, 
684'J>at youre lordes mete may be brought without ^^^ ^u^Jlf ^** 

dowt or dere ; 
to sett it surely on pe borde / youre self nede not ^- ^®Vf } **'®™ 

feere. yowteif. 

1 Seethe duties and allowances of " A Surreyour for the Kyng" 
(Edw. IV.] in Household Ord. p. 37. Among other things be is 
to see * that no thing be purloyned,' (cf line 680 below), and the 
fourty Squyers of Household who help serve the King's table from 
' the surveying bourde ' are to see that ^ of every messe that cum- 
myth from the dressing bourde . . thereof be nothing withdrawe 
by the squires/ ib. p. 45. 

^ Squyers of Housbold xl . . xx squires attendaunt uppon the 
Kings (Edw. lY.) person in ryding . . and to help serve his table 
from the surveying bourde. H, Ord. p. 46. Sergeanntes of 
Armes 1 1 II., whereof ii alway to be attending uppon the Kings 
person and chambre. . . In like wise at the conveyaunce of his 
meate at every course from the surveying bourde, p. 47. 



48 



FIRST COURSE OF A FLESH DINNER. 



A M«atDi$Mer. 



% bpMt flf fltstK' 



Firtt Courte. 



1. MusUrd and 
bnwn. 

2. PoUwe. 



Fret set forthe mustard / & brawne / of boore,* 
f e wild swyne, 
Suche potage / as J)e cooke bathe made / of yerbis / 
spice / & wpie, 

3. stewed Phea- 688 Beeff, motofi ' / Stewed feysaimd / Swafi * wit/< 

the Chawdwyn,® 

4. Baked Venteon. CapouTi, pigge / veiisoii/i bake, leche lombard * / 

fruture viaunt "^ fyne ; 

5. A Device of And J)an a Sotelte : 
Gabriel greeting, Maydofi mary Jjat holy virgyne, . g^+^j^ 

"^* 692 And Gabrielle gretynge hur / with 

an Ave. 



* Compare the less gorgeous feeds specified on pp. 54-5 of Liber 
CurSy and pp. 449-50 of Household Ordinancea. Also with this and 
the following * Dinere of Fische' should he compared "the Diett for 
the King's Majesty and the Queen's Grace " on a Flesh Day and a 
Fish Day, a.d. 1526, contained in Household Ordinances^ p. 174-6. 
Though Harry the Eighth was king, he was allowed only two 
courses on each day, as against the Duke of Gloucester's three given 
here. The daily cost for King and Queen was £4. 3a. 4d. ; yearly, 
£1520. 138. 4d. See also in Markham's Houswife, pp. 98-101, the 
ordering of ^ extraordinary great Feasts of Princes ' as well as 
those ' for much more humhle men.' 

' See Recipes for Bor in Gounfett, Boor in Brasey, Bore in 
Egurdouce, in H. Ord. p. 435. 

' Chair de mouton manger de glouton : Pro. Flesh of a Mutton 
is food for a glutton ; (or was held so in old times, when Beef« and 
Bacon were your onely dainties) Cot. 

* The rule for the succession of dishes is stated in Liber Cure, p. 
55, as whole-footed hirds first, and of these the greatest, as swan, 
goose, and drake, to precede. Afterwards come haked meats and 
other dainties. ^ See note to 1. 535 ahove. 

A See the Recipe for Leche Lumhard in Household Ordinances^ 
p. 438. Pork, eggs, pepper, cloves, currants, dates, sugar, pow- 
dered together, hoiled in a hladder, cut into strips, and served with 
hot rich sauce. 

"^ Meat fritter ?, mentioned in 1. 501. 



lOHN RU88ELLS BOJCE OF NURTURE. 49 

Two potage«, blanger mangere,^ & Also lely ' : i- bimc Mange; of 

Moftt). 

For a standard / vensouw rost / kyd, favne, or a. Rawt veniaon. 

cony, 
bustard, stork / crane / pecok in hakille ryally,^ ^ Peacocks. 
696 heiron-sew or / betowre, with-aenie with bred, *»«™'»««'^' 
yf J>at drynk be by ; 

Partrichd, wodcok / plovere / egret / Eabette« rabuta, 

sowkere*; 
Gret briddes / larkes / gentille breme de mere, 

1 R /«>>ii-ii-rieAi *• DowcetB, amber 

dowcettft?,** payne puff, with lecne / loly® Amberc, Leche. 
700 Fretoure powche / a sotelte folowynge in fere, 
be course for to fullfyUe, 

fi. A Deyice of an 

An angelle goodly ka& appere, Angei appearing 

and syngynge mU a mery chere, ^ ^ 

to uuree Bnep- 

704 Vn-to .iij. sbeperde* vppofl an hille. honiBonauii. 

^t nf* Course. rAWOt^r*. 

" Creme of almonde*, & mameny, fe iy. course ** '^^•"** "**"• 

in coost. 
Curlew / brew / snytc* / quayles / sparows / Jn^**2^' 

mertenette* rost, 

^ See " Blaumangcr to Potage" p. 430 of Household Ordinances; 
Blawmangere, p. 455 ; Blonc Manger, X. C? C, p. 9, and Blanc 
Maungere of fysshe, p. 19. 

« " Gele in Chekyns or of Hennes," and " Gelle of Flesshe," 
H. Ord. p. 437. 

' See tbe recipe '* At a Feeste Roiall, Pecockes shall be digbt on 
this Manere/' B. Ord. p. 439 ; but there be is to be served " forthe 
with the last cours." The hciekle refers, I suppose, to his being 
sown in his skin when cold after roasting. 

* The fat of Eabet-euckers^ and little Birds, and small Chickens, 
is not discommendable, because it is soon and lightly overcome of 
an indifferent stomack. Muffett^ p. 110. 

* Recipe at end of this volume. Dowcet mete, or swete cak« 
mete (bake mete. P.) hulreuniy ductilem. P. Parv. Dousette, a 
lytell fiawnc, dariolU. I'llsgrave. ¥t. flannet ; m. A doucet or 
little ciutard. Cot. ^• . note 1 to 1. 494 above. 

* May be lely^ ani!< . jelly, instead of a beautiful amber leohe. 



50 



3rd ooursb op a flesh dinner; Iht of a fish one. 



3, Fresh-water 
crayflah, &c. 



4. Baked Quinces, 
Stige fritters, ftc. 



5. Devices: 

Tlie Mother of 
Ghriat, presented 

by the Kings of 
Colngne 



De»9ert. 

White apples. 

caraways. 

wafers and 

Ypucraa. 

Clrar the Table. 



"Perche in gely / Crevise dewe dou3 / pety pemeiB * 
"With j>e moost, 
708 Quynces bake / leche dugard / Fruture sage / y 
speke of cost, 
and soteltees fulle eoleyn : 
J>at lady fat conseuyd by the holygost 
hym fat distroyed \>e fendes boost, 
712 presentid plesauntly by j>e kyngc* of eoleyn. 

Afftwr j>is, delicati* mo. 
Blaunderelle, or pepyns, with carawey in confite, 
Waffurs to ete / ypocras to drynk with delite. 
716 now j>is fest is fynysched / voyd fe table quyte ; 
Go we to fe fysche fest while we haue respite, 

& fan with godde^ grace f e fest wille be do. 



A Fuh Dinner. 



^ §mt ffi gist^* 



First Courae. 



1. Minnows, ftc. 



2. Porpoise and 
peas. 



[Fol. 182.] 

3. Fresh Hillwell. 

4. Roast Pilce. 



S^e (^nrsi Cottrse. 

" Mnsclade or ' menows // wit^ f e Samouw bel- 
lows * // eles, lampurns in fere ; 
720 Peson wiiJi pe purpose // ar good potage, as y 
suppose // 
as fallethe for tynie of fe yere : 
Baken herynge // Sugre feron strewynge // 
grene myllewelle, de3mtethe & not dere ; 
724 pike* / lamprey / or Soolis // purpose rosted on 
coles ^ // 

^ See the note to line 499. 

4 

2 Compare " For a servise on fysshe day," Liber Cffsre, p. 64, and 
Household Ordinances^ p. 449. 

' For of. See * Sewes on Fische Dayes,' 1. 821. 

* } for bellies : see ' the baly of \>e frescb aamoun,' 1. 823 in Sewes 
on Fische Dayes; or it may be for the sounds or breathing apparatus. 

5 Pykes in Brasey, JH". Ord. p. 461. 

* Purpesses, Tursons, or sea-bogs, are of the nature of swine, 
never good till they be fat . . it is an unsavoury meat . . yet many 
Ladies and Gentlemen love it exceedingly, bak'd like venison. 
Mouffei^, p. 166. 



lOHN RU8SELLS BOKB OF NURTURE. 61 

gwTTiard / lampw^Ties bake / a leche, & a friture ; 
a semely sotelte folowynge evyn peie. s- a Divice : 

A galaunt yonge mafi, a wanton wight, a young man 

728 pypynge & syngynge / lovynge & lyght, piping 

Standynge oft a clowd, Sangj^meus he bight, «iredSw"n- 
pe begynnyngc of j>e seson pat cleped is ver." 



eu8, or Spring. 



%}it Boonb ctnxtst, secc^ amne. 

" DeXes in confyte // lely red and white // jeu *'""** 
732 jjis is good dewynge ^ ; 

Congwr, somon, dorray // In sirippe if fey lay // «• do'®« *» symp, 

yfiik oper discbes in sewyng^. 

Brett / turhut ^ / or halybut // Carpe, base / mylet, 3. Turbot, Ac.. 
or trowt // 
736 Cheven,' breme / renewyngc ; 

3ole / Eles, lampumes / rost // a leche, a fryture, y *■ *^' ^r*^*®"' 
make now host // 

j>e seco/id / sotelte sewynge. *• ^ ^•^*** • 

A man of wane semynge he was, ^ ^^^ of w»r, 

740 A roughe, a red, angry syre, '•^ "* "*^' 
An hasty man standynge in fyre. 
As hoot as somer by his attyre ; 

!• L-oi i-r<x called JEMa«, or 

his name was feron, & cleped Estas. summer. 



' ? due-ing, that is, service ; not moistening. 

^ Rhombi. Tnrbuts . . some call the Sea-Pheasant . . whilst 
they be young . . they are called Butts. They are best being 
sodden. Muffetty -p. 173. "Pegeons, buttes, and elis,'* are paid 
for as hakys (hawks) metej on x Sept 6 B. H(enry YII) in the 
Howard Household Books, 1481-90, p. ^08. 

3 Gulls, Guffs, Pulches, Chevins, and Millers- thombs are a kind 
of jolt-headed Gudgins, very sweet, tender, and wholesome. Muffett, 
p. 180. Handle Holme says, *A Chevijn or a PoUarde ; it is in 
Latin called Capitu»^ from its great head ; the Germans SehwaUj or 
Alet ; and Myn or Motten ; a Schupjishy from whence we title it a 
ChubJUh.^ ch. xiv. § xxvii. 



52 



3rd and 4th courses of a fish dinner. 



Third Course. 

1. Almond 
Cream, &c.. 



8. Stnrgeon. 

WheUu, Minnows, 

5. Shrimps, ftc., 

4. Fritters. 

6. A Device : 
A Man with a 
Sickle, 

tired, 

called Harvest. 



%^t t^rtir 



cotttst- 



Fourth (Jourae. 

[Pol. 182 b.] 
Hot apples. 

Ginger, Wafers. 

Ypocra*. 



The last Device, 



YfmpB or 

Winter, with grey 

lockR, 

Bitting on a stone. 



744 Creme of almond ' lardyne // & raameny* // good 
& fyne // 
Potage for fe .iij^ semjae. 
Fresch sturgen / breme de mere // Pe/*che in 
lely / oryent & clere // 
whelke^, menuse ; fus we devise : 
748 Shiympis / Fresoh herynge bryled // pety perueis 
may not be exiled, 
leche frytiire,' a tansey gyse // 
The sotelte / a man with sikelle in his hande. In a 
ryvere of watur stande / 
wrapped in wede* in a werysom wyse, 
752 hauynge no deynteithe to dannce : 
J>e thrid age of man by liklynes ; 
hervist we clepe hym, fiille of weiynes : 
3et fer folowythe mo J)at we must dres, 
756 regarded riche ]>at ar fulle of plesaimce. 

%\it .ittj. cmxm oi fente. 

Whot appuls & peres with sugre Candy, 
Withe Gyngre columbyne, mynsed manerly, 

Wafurs with ypocras. 
760 Now j>is fest is fynysched / for to make glad chert* : 
and faughe so be fat j>e vse <fc manere 

not afore tyme he seyn has, 

Neue/'thelese aftwr my symple afifeccion 
764 y must conclude with J)e fourth coTwpleccioft, 
* yemi)8 ' J)e cold terme of J)e yere, 
W3mtur / wit^ his lokkys grey / febille & old, 
Sytt;yaige vppon J)e stone / bothe hard & cold, 
768 Xigard in hert & hevy of chere. 

» " Creme of Almond Mylk." //. (hd, p. 447. 
' See the recipe, end of this volume. 

^ CoiDparc '* leche fryes made of frit and friture," ff. Ord. p. 
449 ; Serrise on Fisshe Day, laut line. 



/ 



lOHN RUSSELLS BOKB OP NURTURE. 



53 



fphe furst Sotelte, as y said, 'Sangwmer^^* hight 
* [T]he furst age of man / locond & light, 

]>e spWngynge tyme clepe * ver.* 
772 ^ The second course / *colericus' by callynge, 
Fulle of Fyghtynge / blasfemynge, & brallynge, 

Fallyngc at vejyaunce with felow & fere. 

^ The thrid sotelte, y declare as y kan, 
776 *Autuwpnus,' Jjat is pe .iij^ age of mafi, 
Wzt^ a flewische * countenaunce. 

^ The iiij**^ countenaunce ^ as y seid before, 

is wyntur with his Idkkes hoore, 
780 pe last age of man fulle of grevaunce. 

X^ese iiij. soteltees devised in towse,' 
wher j^ey byn shewed in an howse, 
hithe dothe gret plesaunce 
784 with oper sights* of gret Nowelte 

fail han be shewed in Eialle feestea of solempnyte, 
A notable cost ]je ordynaunce. 



These Devices 
represent the Ages 
of Man : 

Oanffutneiu, the 
Ist age, of 
pleasure. 

OoUHcus. the 2nd. 
of quarrelling. 



AtUumpnus, 
the 3rd. 



of melancholy. 

Winter, the 4th. 
of aches and 
troubles. 



These Devices 
give great 
pleasure, when 
shown in a house. 



Bt^t Btrpersmpcioun of >e sutiltces nhtm 
spectCfb, Jftxt folofott^e Versus 

Ver 



JnaeriptioM for 
the Deviea. 



^;>ring. 



SaQg^aineu. 

788 



Largus, amans, hillaris, ridens, rubei que Loving. 

coloris, '•"*"^- 

Cantans, camosiis, sati^ audax, atque singing. 

•I benign. 

benignus. 



' Melancholy, full of phlegm : see the superscription 1. 792 helow. 
* Flew, complecyon, (fleume of compleccyon, K. flewe, P.) Flegma* 
Catholicon in P. Parr. 

3 Mistake for SotelU. . 

* The first letter of this word is neither a clear / nor 0, though 
more like t than e. It was first written Couse (as if for cou[r]sej 
succession, which makes good sense) or tou»e, and then a io was put 
oyer the u. If the word is toiose, the only others I can find like 
it are tow, * towe of hempe or flax,' Promptorium ; * heruper, to 
discheuell, towsej or disorder the haire/ Cot. 

8 



54 



A FEST FOR A FRANKLEN. 



Summer. 

CFoL 188.] 
Prickly, angrj. 



crafty, lean. 

Autumn. 

Sleepy, doll, 
aluggisb, &t, 

white-faced. 

Winter. 
EnvioiiB, sad. 



timid, yellow- 
coloured. 



A Franldin's 
Feast. 



^ Estas 
Hirsutus, Fallax / irascens / prodigus, 
Colerious. 8&ti3 audax, 

Astutus, gracilis / Siccus / crocei que coloris. 

^ Antnmpnus 
Hie sompnolentus / piger, in sputamine 

multus, 
Ebes hinc sensus / pinguis, facie color 

albus. 



Flenmatioiu. 

792 



MalencolioiLS. 



Brawn, bacon and 
pease, 



)>eef and boiled 
chickens, 



roast goose, 
capon, and 
custade. 



Second Course. 
Mortrewes, 

veal, rabbit, 

chicken, 
dowcettes. 



fritters, 
or leche. 



^ yemps 

Invidus et tristis / Cupidus / dextre 

que tenacw, 
Non expers fraudis, timidus, lutei que 

coloris. 



% 



_ ftst for a franklen* 

A Franklefi may make a feste Improberabillf?, 
796 brawne with mustard is concordable, 
bakofi serued wWi pesoil, 

beef or moton stewed semysable, 
Boyled Chykon or capon agreable, 
800 convenyent for Je seson ; 

Eosted goose & pygge fulle profitable, 
Capofl / Bakemete, or Custade Custable, 
whefl eggis & crayme be geson. 

804 Jjerfore stuffe of household is behoveable, 

Mortrowes or lusselle * ar delectable 

for Je second course by resofl. 

Than veel, lambe, kyd, or cony, 
808 Chykon or pigeofl rested tendurly, 

bakemete* or dowcette*' with alle. 

J^efi followynge, frytowrs & a leche lovely ; 

Suche seruyse in sesoun is fulle semely 
812 To serue with bothe chambur & halle. 
» See Recipe at end of Yolume. « See Recipe at end of volume. 



lOHN RU88ELLS BOKE OF NURTURE. ' 55 

Then appuls & peris with spices delicately "pic©d pe»«. 
Aftwr Je terme of fe yere fulle deynteithly, 

with bred and chese to calle. bread and <*««», 

816 Spised cake^ and wafurs worthily spiced cakes, 

withe bragot * & methe,^ })us men may meryly hngot and mead, 
plese welle bothe gret & smalle." 



Sm .« 0^ »»!». 



[Foi. 188 b.] 
Dinners on Fish- 
days. 



" TT^^^"^^^^"^ / gogeons, mnskels,* menace in ^iSo^^* 
^ sewe, 

820 Eles, lampumes, venpride* / quyk & newe, venprides (?) 

Musclade in wortes / musclade* of almondes for mnsciade (?) of 

almonds, 

states lulle iiewe, 
Oysturs in Ceuy * / oystnrs in graney,® your helthe «yrte" dressed. 

to renewe, 
The baly of pe fresche samon / els purpose, or i^nwiseorseai. 

seele', 

^ See a recipe for making it of ale, honey, and epices, in [Cog- 
an's] Haven of Health, chap. 239, p. 268, in Nares. Phillips 
leaves out the ale. 

^ Mead, a pleasant Drink made of Honey and Water. Phillips. 

3 A recipe for Musculsin Sewe and Cadel of Musculs to Potage, 
at p. 445 ff. Ord, Others ' For mnstul (? muscul or Mtutela, the 
eel-powt, Fr. MiutelUy the Powte or Eeele-powte) pie/ and *■ For 
porray of mnstuls,' in Liber Cure, p. 46-7. 

* ? a preparation of Muscles, as Applade Ryal (Harl. MS. 279, 
Recipe Cxxxv.) of Apples, Quinadej Rec. Czv of Quinces, JPi/nade 
(fol. 27 b.) of Pynotis (a kind of nut) ; or is it Meaelade or Meelade, 
fol. 33, an omelette — * to euery good meslade take a l^owsand eyroun 
or mo.' Herbdade (fol. 42 b.) is a liquor of boiled lard and herbs, 
mixed with dates, currants, and * Pynez,' strained, sugared, coloured, 
whipped, & put into 'fayre round cofyns.' 

^ Eaehalotte : f. A Give or Chiue. Stcura, The little sallade 
hearb called, Ciues, or Cbiues. Cotgrave. 

< For to make potage of oysturs, Liber Cure, p. 17. Oysturs in 
brewette, p. 53. 

' Scales flesh ia counted as hard of digestion, as it is gross of 
substance, especially being old ; wherefore I leave it to Mariners 
and Sailers, for whose stomacks it is fittest, and who know the 
best way how to prepare it Muffett, p. 167. 






56 



SAUCE FOR FISH. 



pike cullifl, 



jelly, dates. 



quinces, pears. 



liouudflsh. rice. 



niameuy. 



If you don't like 
thexe potageg, 
t«8te tliem only. 



824 Colice* of pike, shrympus^ / or perche, ye know 

fuUe wele ; 
Partye gely / Creme of almonde* * / d&tes in 

confite / to rekeuer heele, 
Quinces & peris / Ciryppe with parcely Totes / 

ri3t so bygyn your mele. 

Mortrowis of houndfische* /& Eice standyngfi* 

white, 
828 Mameny,® mylke of almonda^, Rice rennyngf? 

liquyte, — 
})ese potages ar holsom for )»em poi hafi delite 
Jjerof to ete / & if not so / fen taste lie but a lite." 



Futh Sotiwg. 



^atott far Jfist|e; 

" TTowre sawces to make y shalle geue yow 
* lerynge : 

^ Cullis (iu Cookery) a strained Liquor made of any sort of 
dre&i'd Meat, or other things pounded in a Mortar, and pass'd 
thro* a Hair-sieye : These CulUses arc usually pour'd upon Messes, 
and into hot Pies, a little before they are served up to Table. 
Phillips. See also the recipe for making a culcise of a cocke or 
capon, from the Haven of Uealth, in Nares. Fr. Ooulis : m. A 
cullis, or broth of boiled meat strained ; fit for a sicke, or weake 
bodie. Cotgraye. 

' Shrimps are of two sorts, the one crookbacked, the other 
straitbacked : the first sort is called of Frenchmen CaramoU de la 
santS, healthful shrimps ; because they recover sick and consumed 
persons ; of all other they are most nimble, witty, and skipping, 
and of best juice. Muffett^ p. 167. In cooking them, he directs 
them to be *' unsealed, to yent the windiness which is in them, being 
sodden with their scales ; whereof lust and disposition to yenery 
might arise," p. 168. 

3 See the recipe for " Creme of Almonde Mylk," Household 
Ordinances, p. 447. 

*"Mortrewes of Fysshe," H. Ord. p. 469; "Mortrews of 
fysshe," Z. C. C. p. 19. 

« See " Rys Lumbarde," H Ord. p. 438, 1. 3, • and if thow wilt 
haye hit stondynge, take rawe ^olkes of egges,* &c. 

^ See the Recipe at the end of this yolume. 

"^ *Let no' fish be sodden or eaten without salt, pepper, wine, 
onions or hot spices ; for all fish (compared with flesh) is cold and 



lOHN RUSSELLS BOKE OF NURTURE. 57 

832 Mustard is * / is metest wit/i alle maner salt Miwtord for 8«it 

herring, 

herynge, 
Salt fysche, salt Congur, samouw, wiHi sparlyiige,^ ^^""P'^^' 
Salt ele, salt makerelle, & also withe merlynge.^ mackerel. &c. 

Vynegur is good to salt purpose & torrentyne,* vinegar for wit 
836 Salt sturgeofi, salt swyrd-fyschc savery & fyne, swoniflsh. kc 
Salt Thurlepolle, salt whale,^ is good Yrith egre ^^'^^[il 

wyne, 
withe powdur put Jer-on shalle cawse oon welle ^*^^ powder. 

to clyne. 
Playce wiU wyne ; & pike withe his reffett ; wme for plaice. 

moist, of little noarishment, engendring watrish and thin blood/ 
Muffett, p. 146, with a curious continuation. Hoc Sinqpium, An<^- 
mustarde. 

Salgia, sirpilluro, piper, alia, sal, petrociUum, 
Ex hiis sit salsa, non est sentencia falsa. 

15th cent. Pict. Vocab. in Wright's Voc. p. 267, col. 1. 

^ r %9 repeated by mistake. 

2 Spurlings are but broad Sprats, taken chiefly upon our 
Northern coast ; which being drest and pickled as Anchovaes be in 
ProTcnce, rather surpass them than come behind them in taste and 
goodness. . . As for Red Sprats and Spurlings, I vouchsafe them 
not the name of any wholesome nourishment, or rather of np 
nourishment at all ; commending them for nothing, but that they 
are bawdes to enforce appetite, and serre well the poor mans turn 
to quench hunger. Muffett^ p. 169. 

' A Whiting, a Merling, Fr. Merlan. * Merling : A Stock-Jlah^ 
or Marling, else Merling ; in Latine Marlanus and Marlangus.' 
R. Holme, p. 333, col. 1. 

* After searching all the Dictionaries and Glossaries I could get 
hold of in the Museum for this Torrentyne^ which was the plague 
of my life for six weeks, I had recourse to Dr Giinther. lie searched 
Rondelet and Belon in Tain for the word, and then suggested 
Aldrovandi as the last resource. In the De PiscibuSy Lib. V., I 
accordingly found (where he treats of Trout), " Scoppa, gram- 
maticus ItBlus, Toretttinam nominat, rectius Torrentinam Tocaturus? 
h torrentibus nimirum : in his n[ominatim] & riuis montanis 
abundat." (ed. 1644, cum indice copiosissimo.) 

* Whales flesh is the hardest of all other, and unusuall to be 
eaten of our Countrymen, no not when they are very young and 
tenderest ; yet the livers of Whales, Sturgeons, and Dolphins 
smell like violets, taste most pleasantly being salted, and give 
competent nourishment^ as Cardan writeth. Muffett, p. 173, ed. 
Bennet, 1655. 



58 



SAUCE FOR FISH. 



Galantine for 
lamprey. 



Verjnicc for 
mullet. 
Cinnamon for 
base, carp, and 
chub. 

Garlic, reijuice, 
and pepiier, 



for houndflsh, 



•tockfish, &c. 



[Fol. 184.] 
Yinefcar, cinna- 
mon, and ginger, 
for fresh-water 
crayfiBh, 

finosh porpoise. 



•targeon. &c. 



Green Sauce for 
green fish (fresh 
ling): 



840 J>e galantyne* for fe lamprey / where pey may 

be gete ; 
verdius'* to roclie /darce /breme /soles /& molett; 
Baase, flow[w]durs / Carpe / Cheven / Synamome 

ye Jer-to sett. 

Garlek / or mustard, vergeus J^erto, pepwr fe 

powderynge — 
844 For Jjomebak / houndfysche / & also fresche 

beryngc, 
hake ', stokfyshe *, haddok* / cod*/& whytynge — 
ar moost metist for thes met^, as techithe vs pe 

wrytynge. 

Vinegre/powdur withe synamome / and gyngert*, 
848 to rost Eles / lampumes / Creve3 dew dou3, and 

breme de mere, 
For Gurnard / for roche / & fresche purpose, if 

hit appere, 
Fresche sturgeofl / shrympes / perche / molett / 

y wold it were here. 

(jrene sawce^ is good wit/i grene fisch^ y here say ; 

^ See the recipe in Liber Cure Ooeorum, p. 30 ; and Felettes in 
Galentyne, S. Ord. p. 433. 

2 Yeriuse, or sause made of grapes not full ripe, Ompharium. 
Withals. 

' Hakes be of the same nature [as Haddocks], resembling a Cod 
in taste, but a Liog in likeness. MuffetU p* 153. 

^ * Stocke fysshe, they [the French] haye none/ says Palsgraye. 

^ Haddocks are little Cods, of light substance, crumbling flesh, 
and good nourishment in the Sommer time, especially whilst 
Venison is in season. Muffett^ p. 153. 

* Keling. R. Holme, xxiv, p. 334, col. 1, has <*He beareth 
Cules a Cod Fish argent, by the name of Codling, Of others termed 
a Stockfish, or an Haberdine : In the North part of this Kingdome 
it is called a Keling, In the Southeme parts a Cod, and in the 
Westeme parts a WieltoellJ' 

7 See the Recipes for * Pur verde sawce,' Liber Cure, p. 27, and 
* Vert Sause ' (herbs, bread-crumbs, yiDegar, pepper, ginger, &c.}, 
H. Ord.^. 441. Grene Sause, condimentum harbaceum. Withals. 

B Ling perhaps looks for great extoUing, being counted the beefe 
of the Sea, and standing eyery fish day (as a cold supporter) at my 



lOHN RUSSELLS BOEE OF NURTURE. . 59 

852 botte lynge / brett * & freschc turbut / gete it who 

80 may. 
yet make moche of mustard, & put it not away, Mustard is beat 
For with eucry dische he is dewest / who so lust 

to assay. 

Other sawces to sovereyns ar serued in som other sauces are 

served at grand 
SOlempne fastis, feasts, but the 

oc/» "L j^ Ai 'ii 1 1 i» 11 n / 1 above will please 

800 but these will plese them fulle welle / Jat ar but familiar guests.- 
hoomly gestis. 
Now have y shewyd yow, my sofi, somewhat of 

dyuerse lestis 
j^at ar remembred in lorde^ courte / Jjere as all 
rialte restis." 

" TITOw fayre falle yow fadir / in faythe y am " Fair lui you, 
^ fuUfayn, 
860 For louesomly ye han lered me be nurtur bat ye ^o" *>»▼• ianght 

" " ^ * *i melovesomely: 

hansayn; but 

plesethe it you to certifye me with oofi worde or pi««« ^u me. 

twayfi 
J)e Curtesy to conceue conveniently for eueTy too,thedatie8or 

V -I 1 _ 11 a Chamberlain." 

chamburlayn. 



Th€ Cftamterlaln's 
Dirties 



" fphe Curtesy of a chamburlayiL is in office to He most be 



be diligent, 

Lord Maion table ; yet it is nothing but a long Cod : whereof the 
greater Bised is called Organe Ling, and the other Codling, because 
it is no longer then a Cod, and yet hath the taste of Ling : us'liiUi 
it %8 new it is eaUed aREEN-FiSH ; when it is salted it is called Ling, 
perhaps of lying, because the longer it lyeth . . the better it is, 
waxing in the end as yellow as the gold noble, at which time they 
are worth a noble a piece/ Mufett, p. 154-5. 

^ A brit or turbret, rhombus. Withals, 1556. Bret, Brut, or 
Burt, a Fish of the Turbot-kind. Phillips. 

^ These duties of the Chamberlain, and those of him in the Ward- 
robe which follow, should be compared with the chapter J)e Officio 
Oareionum of "The Boke of Curtasye" 11. 435—520 below. See 
also the duties and allowances of ' A Chamberlayn for the King ' 



diligent. 



60 



THE OFFICE OFF A CHAMBURLATNB. 



ueatly dressed, 
clean-waahed, 

careful of fire and 
candle. 



attentive to hia 
nioHter, 



light of ear. 



looking oat for 
things that wUl 
please. 

The Chamberlain 
most prepare for 
his lord 

a clean shirt, 



under and upper 
coat and doublet. 



breeches, socks, 

and slippers as 
brown as a water- 
leech. 



In the morning. 



must have clean 
linen ready, 
warmed by 

a clear flfre. 



864 Clenli clad, Ms clo})is not all to-rent ; 

handis & face waschefl fayre, his hed well kempt ; 
& war euer of fyrc and candille Jat he be not 
neccligent. 

To youre mastir looke ye geue diligent attend- 

aunce ; 
868 be curteyse, glad of cherc, &, light of ere in euery 

semblaunce, 
euer wayt3mge to Jat thynge J)at may do hym 

plesaunce : 
to these propurtees if ye will apply, it may yow 

welle avaunce. 

Se that youre soucrayne haue clene shurt <fc 

breche, 
872 a petycote,* a dublett, a longe coote, if he were 

suche, 
his hosyfl well brusshed, his sokke^ not to seche, 
his shon or slyppers as browne as is Je wati/r 

leche. 

In J>e morow tyde, agaynst youre souerayne doth 

ryse, 
876 wayte hys lynnyii fat hit be clene ; J>en warme 

hit in ])^s wise, 
by a clere fyre witAowt smoke / if it be cold ^or 

frese, 
and so may ye youre souerayn plese at Je best 

asise. 



H. Ord. p. 31-2. He has only to see that the mea under him do 
the work mentioned in these pages. See office of Warderobe of 
Bedds, H. 0. p. 40 ; Groraes of Chambyr, x, Pages of Chambre, 
nil, H. 0., p. 41, &o. The arraying and unarraying of Henry 
VII. were done by the Esquires of the Body, H. Ord, p. 118, two 
of whom lay outside his room. 

^ A short or small coat worn under the long orer-coat. Petycote, 
iunicida, P. P., and * .j. petticote of lynen clothe withought slyves,' 
there cited from Sir J. Fastolfe's Wardrobe, 1459. ArchsBol. xxi. 
253. aubitcula, le, est etiam gmut intima vestis, a peticote. Withals. 



lOHN BUSSELL8 BOK£ OF NUBTURE. 61 

Agayne he riseth vp, make redy youre fote shete wben Ug lotti 

rises, begets 

880 in bis maner made greithe / &, bat ye not forgete ready the foot- 
sheet; 
foist a chayere a-fore be fyrc 7 or som ober honest pnt» a cushioned 

' ' ^ chair before the 

Sete lira. 

Withe a cosshyfl ^er vppofl / & a noj^wr for the a cushion for the 
feete / 

aboue be coschyfl & chayere be said shete ouer and over aii 

spreads the foot- 
Sprad sheet: 

884 So J>at it keuer Je fote coschyfl and chayere, rijt 
as y bad; 
Also combe & kercheff / looke \&re bothe be had has a comb and 
youre souereyn hed to kymbe or he be graytly and then 
clad : 

Xhan pray youre souereyfi wttit wordus man- asks his lord 
suetely 
888 to com to a good fyre and aray hym ther by, to come to the Are 

and dress while 

and there to sytt or stand / to his pe7*sone pies- he waiu by. 

auntly, 
and ye euer redy to awayte wit^ maners metely. 

Furst hold to hym a petycote aboue youre brest i. Give your 

master his under 

and banne, coat, 

892 his dublet ])an aftur to put in bo)»e hys arme, s. His doublet, 
his stomachere welle y-chafiTed to kepe hym fro s^ stomacher well 

wvmed, 

harme, 
his vampeys * and sokkes, )«& all day he may go *• Vampeyi and 
warme; 

' Vamps or Vampaye, an odd kind of short Hose or Stockings 
that coTer'd the Feet, and came up only to the Ancle, jnst above 
the Shooe ; the Breeches reaching down to the Calf of the Leg. 
Whence to graft a new Footing on old Stockings is still call'd Vamp- 
ing. Phillips. Fairholt does not give the word. The Vampeys 
went outside the sock, 1 presume, as no mention is made of 
them with the socks and slippers after the bath, 1. 987 ; but 
Strutt, and Fairholt after him, have engraved a drawing which 
shows that the Saxons wore the sock over the stocking, both being 
within the shoe. * Vampey of a hose— anon/ pied, Vauntpe of a 
hoee^wm^.' Palsgrave. a.d. 1467, 'fore vaunpynge of a payre 
for the said Lew vj.d.' p. 396, Mannert ^ Houaehold Bappensea, 1841. 

9 



62 



THE OFFICE OFF A CHAKBURLATNE. 



5. Dnw on his 
socks, breeches, 
and shoes, 

6. Pull np his 
breeches, 

7. Tie 'em up. 

8. Lftcehis 
doublet, 

9. Put a kerchief 
round his neck. 



10. Comb his 
head with an 
ivory oomb, 

11. aive him 
warm water to 
wash with, 

18. Kneel down 



and ask him what 
gown hell wear: 



13. Get the gown. 

14. Hold it out to 
him: 



15. Qet his girdle, 

1& His Robe (see 

1. 967). 

17. His hood or 

hat. 



18. Before he goes 



brush him 
careftdly. 



Before your lord 
Koes to church. 



Then drawe ofi his sokkis / &, hosyfi by the fure, 
896 his shon laced or bokelid, draw them on sure ; 
Strike his hosyfi vppewarde his legge ye endure, 
Jen trusse ye them vp strayte / to his plesure, 

Then lace his dublett euery hoole so by & bye ; 
900 on his shuldur about his nek a kercheff ))ere 

must lye, 
and curteisly J>an ye kymbe his hed wit^ combe 

of yvery, 
and watur warme his handed to wasche, & face 

also clenly. 

Xliaii knele a dowfl ofi youre kne / <fc ^us to youre 

souerayfi ye say 
904 " Syr, what Kobe or govn pleseth it yow to were 

to day ? " 
Suche as he axeth fore / loke ye plese hym to pay, 
})afi hold it to hylh a brode, his body ^er-in. to 

array; 

his gurdelle, if he were, be it strayt or lewse ; 
908 Set his garment goodly / aftur as ye know J>e vse ; 
take hyifi hode or hatt / for his hed cloke or 

cappe de huse ; 
So shalle ye plese hym prestly, no nede to make 

excuse 

WheJ>ttr hit be f eyre or f oule, or mysty alle withe 

reyfi. 
912 Or youre mastir depart his place, afore yai )»is be 

seyfi, 
to brusche besily about hym ; loke all be. pur and 

playfi 
whefur he were satefi / sendell, vellewet, scarlet, 

or greyfi. 

Prynce or prelate if hit be, or any ofer potestate, 
916 or he entur in to ]>e churche, be it erly or late, 



lOHN RUSSELLS BOKE OF NURTURE. 63 

pcrceue all fynge for his pewe pat it be made aee tut hi» pew 

la made readjr, 

preparate, 
boje cosshyn / carpet / & curteyn / bede^ & boke, coahion. cuptain. 
forgete not that, 

Xhafi to youre souereynes chambur walke ye in R«tanitohto 

" " bodroom» 

hast; 
920 all Je clofes of be bed, them aside ye cast ; **»"^ ^^^ **»• 

dothee, 

Je Fethurbed ye bete / wit^ut hurt, so no beat the feather- 

feddurs ye wast, 
Fustian* and shetis clene by sight and sans ve eee that the ftwtian 

•^ ° "^ and aheeta are 

tast. dean. 

Kover vrith a keuerlyte clenly / J>at bed so Oovcrth^bed 

manerly made ; 

924 J>e bankers & quosshyns, in J>e chambur se Jem Jp*^ ^*era and 

feire y-sprad, cuaWona, 

bo>e hedshete & pillow also, Jat >e[y] be saatf ^J^^^^ 

vp stad, 

the vmelle & bason also that they awey be had. w™**^* **>• «>'*'>»' 

*' '^ and baain. 

[Fol. 1B&] 

Se the carpettw about be bed be forth spred & ^y carpeta round 

^ r ^ the bed, and with 

laid, 
928 wyndowes & cuppeborde with carpettw & ^n^^^d""* 
cosshyns splayd ; cupboard, 

Se J>er be a good fyrc in J)e chambur conveyed, 
with wood & fuelle redy pe fuyre to bete <& aide. 

ae be privehouse for esement * be fayre, soote, & ^^v the Privy 

^ J^ '^ J i 9 aweet and dean, 

clene, 
932 & bat be border \>er vppofl/be keuered withe corertheboarde 

' , _ ^ / ^^ / with green doth, 

clothe feyre & grene, 

* Henry YII. had a fustian and sheet under his feather bed, 
over the bed a sheet, then ' the over fustian aboye,' and then ' a 
|Mine of ermines ' like an eider-down quilt. ' A head sheete of 
rajnes ' and another of ermines were over the pillows. After the 
ceremony of making the bed, all the esqnires, nshen, and others 
present, had bread, ale, and wine, ontdde the chamber, ' and soe 
to drinke altogether.' if. Ord. p. 122. 

3 A siege honse, tedei excrmentarum. A dranght or priuie, 
Inirina, Withals. 



64 



THE CHAMBERLAIN IN THE WARDEROBBB. 



ao ttiAt no wood 
showBfttthehole; 
put a cushion 
there. 



and have aome 
blanket, cotton, or 
linen to wipe on; 

have a basin. 
Jog, and towel, 
ready for your 



lord to wash when 
he leaves the 
privy. 



936 



« 

& J>e hoole / hym self, looke J>er no borde be sene, 
J>eron a feire quoschyn / J)e ordoure no man to 

tene 
looke \ter be blanket / cotyfl / or lynyii to wipe 

fe nepur ende* ; 
and euer when he clepithe, wayte redy & entende, 
basouTi and ewere, & on yowr shuldup a towellc, 

my frende * ; 
In pi& wise worship shalle ye wyn / where pat 

euer ye wende 



C|}e Marl)tr0ltt^5 



In the Wardrobe 
take oaro to keep 
the clothes well, 
and brush 'em 



with a soft brush 



at least onoe a 
week, 



for fear of moths. 



Look after your 
Drapery and 
Skinnery. 



940 



944 



IN J>e warderobe ye must muche entende 
besily 
the robes to kepe well / & also to brusche 
J)effi clenly ; 
wit^ the ende of a soft brusche ye brusche fern 

clenly, 
and yet ouer moche bruschynge werethe cloth 
lyghtly. 

lett neuer wollyn cloth ne furre passe a seuenyght 
to be vnbrosshen & shakyn / tend perto aright, 
for moughte^ be redy euer in pern to gendur & a- 

J) erf ore to drapery / & Blsynnery euer haue ye a 
sight. 



^ An arse Ynape^peniciUumt -li, vel ttnitergium. Withals. From a 
passage in William of MalmesbiuT's autograph Jk Gestia FontiJUum 
Anglorum it would seem that water was the earlier cleanser. 

' In the MS. this line was omitted by the copier, and inserted 
in red under the next line by the corrector, who has underscored all 
the chief words of the text in red, besides touching up the capital 
and other letters. 

' See the ' Warderober,' p. 37, and the ' office of Warderobe of 
Bobes,' in B, Ord. p. 39. 



lOHN RUSSELLS SOKE OF NURTURE. 65 

youra souerayn aftir mete / his stomak to digest if your lord win 

948 yef he wilk take a slepe / hym self pere for to his meai. 
rest, 

looke bothe kercheff & combe / bat ye haue here have p«»dy 

kerchier, comb, 

prest, 
bothe pillow & hedshete / for hyffl J>e[y] must be puiow and head- 
drest; 

yet be ye nott ferre hym fro, take tent what y say, 
952 For moche slepe is not medcynable in myddis of ^**° \jjf ,^» 

J)e day, 
wayte ])at ye haue watur to wasche / & towella wator and towei. 

alle way 
aftur slepe and s^e / honeste will not hit denay. 

Whaii youre souerayne bathe supped / A to when he goea to 

chambi^r takithe his gate, 
956 fafl sprede forthe youre fote shete / like as y lered l Spread out the 

yow late ; 
than his gowne ye gadir of, or garment of his ^ Takeoff your 

estate, 
by his licence / & ley hit vpp in suche place as »iMip«titaway. 

ye best wate. 

vppofl his bak a manteU ye ley / his body to i.^J*^**^'*" 

kepe from cold, 
960 Set hym on his fote shete » / made redy as y yow J^^J^ ^ *''* 

told ; 
his shon, sokkis, & hosyn/to draw of be ye bolde; Ji,^Bocka*and 
J)e hosyfi ofi youre shuldyr cast / oft vppofi jour ^^^^f^^\^ ^ i 

arme ye hold : ?• T*»r®^ ***• 

^ ' breeches over 

youre souereynes bed ye kembe / but furst ye r"o!)JShhto he«i. 
knele to ground ; 
964 J)e kercheff and cappe on his bed / hit wolde be JJSJ^^d" 
warmely wounde ; niijhtcap, 

1 ^ lord« schalle shyft hys gowne at iiy^t, 
Syttand on foteshete tyl he be dy^t. 

The Boke of Curtaa^, I. 487-8. 



66 



TO PUT A LORD TO BED, TO HAKE A BATH. 



a Have the bed. 
and headsheet. 
&c.. ready. 



10. Draw the 
curtains. 

11. Setthenight- 
li«rht. 



12. Drive out 
dogs and cats. 



13. Bow to your 
lord. 



U. Keep the 
nlght^tool and 
urinal ready for 
whenever he oalls, 

and take it back 
when done with. 



his bed / y-spred / J>e shete for j>e bed */ pe 

pelow prest pat stounde, 
fat whefi youre souereyfl to bed shall go / to 

slepe peie saaf & sounde, 

The curteyns let draw pern pe bed round about ; 
968 se his morter ' with wax or perchere • J>at it go not 

owt ; 
diyve out dogge and catte, or els geue pern a 

clovt; 
Of youre souerayne take no leue'; / but low to 

hym alowt. 

looke fat ye haue pe basofi for chambur & also 

pe vmalle 
972 redy at alle howres whefi he wille clepe or calle : 
his nede performed, pe same receue agayn ye 

shalle, 
& pUB may ye haue a thank / & reward whefi pat 

euer hit falle. 



Howtoprgxire 
a Bath. 



Hang round the 
roof. thMti 



fall of sweet 

herbe, 

have five or tlx 

spongee to alt or 

lean on, 



% bat jjt at ittist 00 ma. 



yeS youre souerayne wiUe to pe bathe, his 

body to wasche clenei 
976 hang shetis round about pe rooff ; do thus as y 

meene ; 
euery shete full of flo wres & herbis soote & grene, 
and looke ye haue sponges .v. or yj. ferofi to 

sytte or lene : 

1 Morter . . a kind of Lamp or Wax-taper. Mortariwn (in 
old Latin records) a Mortar, Taper, or Light set in Chorches, to 
bum over the Graves or Shrines of the Dead. Phillips. 

2 Perchers, the Paris-Candles formerly us'd in England ; ako 
the bigger sort of Candles, especially of Wax, which were com- 
monly set npon the Altars. Phil. 

> The Boke of Cnrtasye (1. 519-20) lets the (chief) usher who 
puts the lord to bed, go his way, and says 

^omon vssher be<fore pe dore 
In Ttter chamber lies on |ie flor«. 



lOHN RUS8ELL8 BOKB OF NURTURE. 67 

looke her be a gret sponge, ber-ofl youre sou^r- and one great 

Bponge to alt on 

ayne to sytt ; 
980 J>erofl a shete, & so he may bathe hym J>ere a with* sheet over 
fytte; 
vndir his feete also a sponKe, jiff her be any to "^ » tvooge 

t" ^ > y r J undernfafeet. 

putt ; 
and alwey be sure of J>e dur, & se fat he be shutt. Mind the door's 

A basyn fuU in youre hand of herbis bote & J^i^e^JT*"*^^ *"' 
fresche, 
984 & with a soft sponge in hand, his body fat ye wwh hun with a 
wasche; 
Rynse hylSi with rose watur wanne & feire throw rows-water 

■' '^ on him; 

vppofl hym flasche, 
fefl lett hym go to bed / but looke it be soote & i«t him go to bed. 
nesche ; 

but foist sett ofi his sokkis, his slyppers ofi his Put hia aocka 

and slippers on, 

feete, 
988 bat he may go feyre to be fyre, here to take his atand him on his 

' |/ o ^ X ^ ' X footsheet, 

fote shete, 
ban witha a clene clotha / to wype awey all wete : wipe him drj, 

' _ . takehlmtobed 

thafi brynge hym to his bed, his bales there to to cure his 

•^ ° •' ' troubles. 

bete." 



^t mabpg af a M\^ mtirinnable; 



To make a 
MedMfua Bath. 



Holy hokke / & yardehok ' / pentoiy * / and C^oi- 1^.] 

''_ n 11 I r J / BoU together 

fe brown fenelle,* hoUyhock 

* See note at end. Mr GUlett, of the Vicarage, Bnnham, Filby, 
Norwich, sends me theee notes on the herbs for this Bathe Medidn- 
able :— *"Tabdehok ^ Mallow, some species. They are all more 
or leas madlaginoiiB and emollient. If Yarde^ Virga; then it 
is Marshmallow, or Malva Sylvestris ; if yarde =^ erde, earth ; then 
therotundifolia.— s Paritobt is Pellitory of the wall, jMim^arta. 
Wall pellitory abounds in nitrate of potass. There are two other 
pellitories : * P. of Spain *— this is Fifrethrum, which the Spanish 
corrupted into pelitre, and we corrupted pelitre into pellitory. The 
other, bostard-peUitory, is AehiUea Ftarmioa, — ^ Bbown fennklle 
B probably Feuctdanum officinale, or Hoss fennel, a dangerous plant ; 



68 

centaury, 
herb-beuet. 



THE HAKTKO OF A BATHE MEDIOINABLE. 

992 walle wort* / herbe lohfi^ / Sentoiy ' / rybbe- 
wort ® / A camamelle, 

hey hove*// heyriflf *® /herbe benet" / brese- 
wort *2 / & smaUache,^' 

certainly not Anethum Oraveolena, which is always dill, dyle, dile, 
&c. — bRtbbewort, Flantago lanceolate^ mncilaginous. — ^Heyuove 
= Oleehoma hseleracea, bitter and aromatic, abounding in a principle 
like camphor. — *<* Heybiff = harif = Oalium ApaHne, and allied 
species. They were formerly considered good for scorbutic diseases, 
when applied externally. Lately, in France, they hare been admin- 
istered internally against epilepsy. — ** Bresewobt ; if ^= brisewort 
or bruisewort, it would be Sambueua Ehulua^ but this seems most un- 
likely. — Broke leupk = brooklime. Veronica Beecabunffa, formerly 
considered as an anti-scorbutic applied externally. It is very 
inert. If a person fed on it, it might do some good, i.e. about a 
quarter of the good that the same quantity of water-cress would do. 
— Bilobes, probably = henbane, kyoHcyamus niger. Compare 
Dutch [Du. JSilsen, Hexham,] and German Bilse. Bit = byle = boil, 
modem. It was formerly applied externally, with marsh-mallow 
and other mucilaginous and emollient plants, to ulcers, boils, &c. 
h might do great good if the tumours were unbroken, but is 
awfully dangerous. So is Peucedanum officinale. My Latin names 
are those of Smith : English Flora, Babington has re-named them, 
and Bentham again altered them. I like my mumpsimus better 
than their sumpsimus.'* 

2 * The common Mallowe, or the tawle wilde Mallow, and the 
common Hockes' of Lyte's Dodoens, 1578, p. 581, Malua aylvestria, 
as distinguished from the Malua aativa^ or " Itosa vliramarinOj that 
is to say, the Beyondesea Rose, in Frenche, Maulue de iardm or 
cuUiude . . in English, Holyhockes, and great tame Mallow, or 
great Mallowes of the Garden." The '* Dwarffe Mallowe . . is 
called Malua sylueatrit pumUa" 

' Peritory, ^m/art«, vrseolaris, vel mterieum, Withals. 

^ ^ The sweet Fennel, Anethum GraveolenSf formerly much used in 
medicine (Thomson). The gigantic fennel is (Ferula) Asaafxtida, 

^ Sambucue ebulusy Danewort. See Mr GiUett's note for Book 
of Quintessence in Hampole's Treatises. Fr. hieble^ Wallwort, 
dwarfe Eldeme, Danewort. Cotgr. 

« Erbe Ion*, or Seynt lonys worte. Ferforata^ fuga denumum, 
gpericon. P. Parv. ' Centaury. 

8 Rihworty amoffloasa. Ribwoort or ribgrasse, j9/a«te^o. Withals. 
Flantain petit. Ribwort, Ribwort Plantaine, Dogs-rib, Lambes- 
tongue. Cotgrave. Flantago laneeolatOy AS. ribbe, 

*® Hay life, an herbe. Palsgr. Oalium aparine, A.S. hegerifan 
com, grains of hedgerife (hayreve, or hayreff ), are among the herbs 
prescribed in Leechdoms, v. 2, p. 345, for "a salve against the elfln 
race k nocturnal [goblin] visitors, & for the woman with Whom 



lOHK RUSSELLS BOKE OF NURTURE. 69 

broke lempk * / Scabiose ^ / Bilgres / wildfiax / scabious, 
is good for acbe ; 

wethy leves / grene otes / boy led in fere fulle soft, witby iMves : 
996 Cast felSi bote in to a vesselle / <& sett youre throw them hot 
soverayfl aUoft, mto a Te«ei. «.t 

and suffire bat bete a wbile as boot as be may a-bide ; J*^^ lo^J <>" ** ; 

^ '' ' let him bear It as 

se pat place be couered welle ouer / & close oil hot as he can. 
eucTy side ; 

and wbat dissese ye be vexed withy grevaunce ^^JJ^J^^m 
ouper peyfl, 
1000 j>is medicyne sballe make yow boole surely, as ^^J^^"^**"^^ *** 

meflseyn." as men say. 

* my lorde, my master, of lillesbulle abbot* mm-m 

ffflbe office of a co?inynge vscbere or mar- 



r Blue 

sballe wit^-owt fable 



the deril hath carnal commerce." ^^ Serba Ben&dieta. Avens. 

^' Berbe a foulon. Fullers hearbe, Sopewort, Mocke-gillouers, 
Bnusewort Gotgrave. "AS. 1. hryaewyrt^ pimpernel, anajfollif 
AnagaUia, brisewort." 01. Rawlinson, c. 506, 61. Harl. 3388. 
Leechdoms, vol. 1, p. 374. 2. BellU permnia^ MS. Laud. 553, fol. 
9. Plainly for Hembriswyrt, daisy, AS. dages eage. *' ConsoUda 
minor. Daysie is an herbe |>at sum men callet hembrisworte o|>er 
bonewort." Gl. Douce, 290. Cockayne. Zeeehdonu^ y. 2, Glossary. 

^^FeraU de tnaraia, Smallage ; or, wild water Parseley. Cot. 

^ Brokelyme fabaria, Withak. Veronica Beeabunga^ Water- 
Speedwell. ' Bleomoee^ HleomoCy brooklime (where lime is the Saxon 
name {Hleotnoc) in decay), Veronica beecahunga, with V. anagaUit . . 
** It waxeth in brooks " . . Both sorts Lemmike, Dansk. They were 
the greater and the less *' brokelemke," Gl. Bodley, 536. " Fabaria 
domesticailfm^iv.*' Gl. Bawl. c. 607. • . Islandic X«mt^'. Cockayne. 
Gloss, to Leeehdomey v. 2. It is prescribed, with the two cent- 
auries, for suppressed menses, and with pulegiun^ to bring a dead 
child away, &c. lb, p. 331. 

^ Scabiosa, the Herb Scabiousy so call'd from its Virtae in 
curing the Itch ; it is also good for Impostumes, Coughs, Pleurisy, 
Quinsey, &c. Phillips. 

' See the duties and allowances of * The Gentylmen Usshers of 
Chaumbre .IIII. of Edw. lY., in H. Ord. p. 37; and the duties of 
Henry VIII's Knight Marshid, ib, p. 150. 

*-* This line is in a later hand.' 

10 



70 USHEU AND HAB8HAL : THB ORDER OF PRECEDBKCB OF PERSONS. 



He must know 
the rank and pre- 
oedenoeofall 
people. 



I. 1. The Pope. 

2. Emperor. 

3. King. 



4. CanUnal. 

ft. Prince. 

6. Archbishop. 

7. Royal Dnke. 
n. Bishop. &0. 

m. 1. Viscount. 
2. Mitred abbot. 

8. Three Ohief 
Justices. 

4. Hayorof 
London. 

IV. (The Knight's 
rank.) 

1. Oathedral 

Prior, Knight 

Bachelor. 

8. Dean, Arch' 

deacon. 

5. Mssterofthe 
Rolls. 

4. Puisn4 Judge, 
ft. Clerk of the 
Crown. 



8. Hayorof 
Calais. 

[Fol. 186 b.] 

7. Doctor of 
DMnity. 

8. Prothonotary. 

0. Pope's Legate. 



-X3> Q 



must know alia estates of the church goodly A 
greable, 
1004 and ]>e excellent estate of a kyng6 wiiJi his blode 
honorable : 
hit is a notable nurture / coTinynge, cuiyouse, 
and commendable. 

X^( pffpt hath no peere ; 
fEnipeTowre is nex hym eueTy where ; 
Kynge corespondent; J)us nurture shalle yow 
lere. 
1008 highe Cardynelle, fe dignyte dothe requere ; 

Kyngis sone, prynce ye hym Calle ; 
Archebischoppc is to hym peregalle. 
Duke of J)e blode royalle, 
1012 bishoppe / Marques / & erle / coequalle. 

Vycount / legate / baroune / suffrigan / abbot 
wtt^ mjtur feyre, 
I barovn of J)eschekere/ iij. fe chefF lusticej / of 
^ ^ london pe meyre ; 

Pryoure Cathedralle, mjtur abbot without / 
a knyght bachillere 
1016 Pnoure / deane / archedekofi / a knyght / j>e 
body Esquyere, 

Mastir of the roUes / ri^t fus lykefi y, 
Vndir lustice may sitte hym by : 
Gierke of the crowne / A theschekere Co»- 
venyently 
1020 I Meyre of Calice ye may preferre plesauntly. 

" Provyncialle, & doctur diuyne, 
Prothonotwr, aper^li to-gedur fey may dyne. 

J?e popes legate or collectoure, to-gedwr ye 
assigne, 



lOHN RUSSELLS SOKE OF NURTURE. 



71 



S ^ 

.03 O 



Doctur of bothe lawes, beynge in science digne. v. (The Sqnin's 

rank.} 

Tiv m fat ha,th byfl meyre / & a londynerc, Law«. 
Sargeaunt of lawe / he may with hym com. London. 

3. Seijeant of 

pere ; Law. 

The mastiis of the Chauncery with comford & ij^*"*^ ^ 
cherc, 
1028 })e worahipfulle p^echoure of pardoun in fat &• Preacher, 
place to appere. 

The clerkc* of connynge that han taken degre, J^"**" **' 

And alle othur ordurs of chastite chosyfl, & also ^^^"^ 

of pouerte, 

alle parsons & vicaries bat ar of dignyte, s. PanonB and 

VIcara. 

1032 parische prestc* kepynge cure, vn-to fern loke ye »• ParfA Prieda 
se. 

For fe baliffe* of a Cite purvey ye must a space, lo. city Baiiuh..., 
A yemafi of be crowne / Sargeaunt of armes with u. seijeant at 

Anna. 

mace, 
A herrowd of Armes as gret a dygnyte has, is. Heralds 

(the Klns'B 

1036 Specially kyng6 harrawd / must haue be pnnci- Ueraid has flrat 
paUe place ; 

Worshipfulle merchaunde^ and riche artyficeris, **• Merchanta, 
Grentilmen welltf nurtured A of good maneris, i*- Ctanuemen, 
Wiih gentilwommen / and namely lorded nur- "■ o«»*»«women 
rieris, 
1040 all^ these may sit at a table of good squyeris. 



may all eat with 
■qnJrea. 



1044 



T Oy sofi, y haue shewid the aftt^r my symple i have now toid 

*^ wytte 

euery state aftir ^ire degre^ to fj knowleche y JJi?cial"* *' 

shalle commytte, 

and how bey shalld be serried, y shalle shew the ■»»* «»«^ rn ten 

' ^ •' you 

jett, 
in what place aftur feire dignyte how fey owght ****^ *^^ "•' **• 
to sytte: 



72 USHER Sl marshal: what pboplb rank and dine toobther. 



I. Pope. King. 
Prlnoe. 
Archbishop 
andDoke. 



^ « 

« " 
S ^ 



^ 



IL Biflhop. Mar- 
quis, Viscount. 
Barl. 

III. The Mayor 
of London, Baron, 
Mitred Abbot, 
three Chief 
Justices, Speaker, 



may sit together, 
two or three at a 
men. 



1052 



1056 



" Pope, Emperowre / kyng6 or cardynalle, 
Prynce wit^ goldyn rodde EoyaUe, 
Archebischoppe / vsyfig to were J>e paUe, 
Duke / alle J>ese of dygnyte ow3t not kepe ]>e 
halk. 

Bisshoppes, Marques, vicoimt, Erie goodly, 
May sytte at .ij. messej yf fey be lovyngcly. 
])e meyra of londofi, <& a barofi, an abbot myterly, 
the iij. chef lustice^, ])e spekere of ]>e parlement, 
propurly 

alia these Estates ar gret and honorable, 
^y may sitte in Chambur or haMe at a table, 
.\j. or els iy. at a messe / ^eflf J>ey be greable : 
J)us may ye in youre office to euery mafl be 
plesable. 

Of alia olper estates to a messe / iij. or iiij. |)us 

may ye sure, 
And of alia estatis ])at ar egalle vriih a knygbt / 

digne & demure, 
Off abbot A pnoure sauncj mytwr, of convent 

}»ey hafi cure ; 
Deane / Archedecoil, mastur of ])e roUes, afbur 

youre plesure, 

Alle the vndirlustice3 and barounes of ^ k3nigetf 

Eschekiere, 
a provinciaUe / a doctoure devine / or bofe 

lawes, J)U8 yow lere, 
A prothonotwr aperfli, or j>e popis collectoure, if 

he be there, 
Mayor of Qdais. 1064 Also }»e meyre of ])e stapulle / In like' purpose 

fer may appere. 

Of alle o^ur estates to a messe ye may sette 

fourc / & foure, 
as suche persones as ar peregalle to a squyere of 

honoure : 



IV. The other 
ranlcs (three or 
four to a mess) 

equal to a 

Knight, 

namely. 

nnmltred Abbot, 



Dean. Master of 1060 
the RoUs. 

[Fol. IW.] 
under Judges, 



Doctor of 
Dirinlty. 

ProthoDotary. 



V. other ranks 
equal to a Squire, 
four to a mess. 



lOHN RUSSELLS SOKE OF NURTURE. 73 

Sargeaundes of lawe / & hym fat hath byfl meyre Serjeants of uw. 

of londofi afome, London, 

1068 and be mastyrs of be chauncery, bey may not be Masters of 
forboma 

Alle prechers / residencers / and persones fat IJJJ^^®™ *"** 

ar greable, 
Apprentise of lawe In courtis pletable, Apprentices of 

Marchaundea & Franklon^, worshipfulle & JJ^^^JJJlJ "*** 

honorable, 
1072 fey may be set semely at a squyers table. 

These worthy * Estates a-foreseid / high of re- 

nowne, 
Vche Estate syngnlerly in halle shalle sit a- S^^j*^^^^^ 

downe, 
that none of hem se othure / at mete tyme in J^J^^®^' 

feld nor in towne, *°°*^*''- 

1076 but vche of fem self in Chambur or in pavil- 

owne. 

Yeff f e bischoppe of J>e provynce of Caunturbuiy SntertSS sLi 
be in f e presence of the archebischoppe of yorke SJ>J^^a^ 
reuerently, ^*"****p oi\ox\. 

feire sendee shalle be kouered / vche bisshoppe 
syngnlerly, 
1080 and in fe preaence of f e metropolytane none "Jt^^JJn^' 
ofer sicurly. 

yeff bischopps of yorke provynce be fortune be The Bishop of 

syttynge 
In fe presence of fe pWmate of Englond fail ^fo^ SL*** 

fey must be couered in alle f eyre seruynge, 
1084 and not in presence of fe bischoppe of yorke 
fere apperynge. 

Tff ow, son, y perceue fat for dyuerse cawses / Sometimes 

as welle as for ignoraunce, 
a merchalle is put ofb tymes in gret comberaunce * Msnbsi is 

» royally m tprittm over worthy. 



74 U8HEB AND MARSHAL: OF BLOOD BOTAL AND PROPEBTT. 



INUBled by Lords 
of royal blood 
being poor, and 
others not royal 
being rich ; 



also by a Lady of 
royal blood marry- 
ing a knight, 
and viee venA, 



The Lady of 
royal blood shall 
keep her rank ; 
the Lady of low 
blood shall take 
her hosband's 
rank. 

Property Is not so 
worthy as royal 
blood. 

so the latter 
preTalls over the 
former, 

for royal blood 
may become King. 



The parents of a 
Pope or Cardinal 



most not presome 



to equality with 
their son. 



and most not 
want to sit by 
him. 



but in a separate 
room. 



[FoL W b.l 



A Marshal must 
look to the fank 
of every estate. 



For som lorde* J>at ar of blod royalle / & litelle 
of lyvelode per chaunce, 
1088 and some of gret lyvelode / & no blode royalle 
to avaunce; 

And som knyght is weddid / to a lady of royalle 

blode, 
and a poore lady to blod ryaUe, manfulle & 

myghty of mode : 
fe lady of blod royalle shalle kepe ])e state / \>&i 

she afore in stode,^ 
1092 the lady of low blode & degre / kepe her lordis 

estate, y make hit good. 

The substauTice of lyvelode is not so digne / as 

is blode royalle, 
Jjerforc blode royalle opteyneth J>e souereynte in 

chambur & in halle, 
For blode royalle somtyme t^t to be kynge in 

palle; 
1096 of fe whiche matere y meve no more : let god 

goueme alle ! 

Xhere as pope or cardynalle in feiie estate 

beynge, 
}»at haii fadur & modt^r by theire dayes lyvynge, 
])eir6 fadur or modir ne may in any wise be pre- 

smnynge 
1100 to be egalle wiiJi theire sofi standynge ne sit- 

tynge: 

Therfore fadir ne moder / fey owe not to desire 
to sytte or stond by feyre son / his state wille 

lu't not require, 
but by ^m self / a chambur assigned for them 

sure, 
1104 Vn-to whom vche office ought gladly to do 

plesure. 

To the birthe of vche estate a mershalle must se, 
and pen next of his lyne / for ]>eyre dignyte ; 



lOHN RU8SELLS SOKE OF NURTURE. 



75 



^n iolowjngey to officers afftere feiie degre, 
1108 As chauncelere, Steward / Chamburleyfi / 
tresorere if be be : 

More ouer take bede be must / to aliene / com- 

mers straungeres, 
and to straungers of J^is land, re8i[d]ent dwell- 

eres, 
and exalte fern to bonoure / if J)e be of bonest 

maneres ; 
1112 ])e£L aHe o\ter aftur pehe degre / like as cace 

requeres. 

In a manerable mersballe pe connjnge is moost 

commendable 
to baue a fore sigbt to straungers, to sett ]>em at 

])e table ; 
For if J>ey baue gentiUe cbere / & gydynge 

manerable, 
1116 fe mersballe dotb bis souereyfi honoure / <& be 

pe more lawdable. 

% ^eS ])ow be a mersballe to any lord of ])is land, 
yflf ye kynge send to py souereyfl eny bis seruand 
by sand, 
knygbt f baroua bonorand 

Squyerc 

yoman of J>e crowfi 
grome 



and do honour 
to foreign visiton 



and residenta. 



A well-feralned 
Har&hal 



should think 
beforehand where 
to place itnugera 
at the toUe. 









$8^ 



,1^ 



page 
I Cbilde 






knygbt with band 

Squyere 

yeman in manere . 
grome goodly in fere 
grome gentillc lemere. 

1 1 26 ^ bit rebiiketb not a knygbt / fe knyges grome to 
sytte at bis table, 
no more bit dotbe a mersballe of manors plesable ; 
and so from ))e biest degre / to pe lowest bonor- 
able, 
1128 if ])e mersballe baue a sigbt ^erto, be is com- 
mendable. 



IftheKlngsenda 
any meawnger to 
your Lord 



receive him one 
Atgne higher 
than his rank. 



The King's groom 
may dine with a 
Knight or 
Harshal. 



76 



THE DIFFERENCES OF MEN EQUAL IN RANK. 



A Manhal most 
also nndentand 
the rank of 

County and 
Borough Offlcen, 



LFol. 188.] 
and that a Knight 
of blood and 
property b above 

a poor Knii^t. 

the Mayor of 
London 

abore the Mayor 
of Qneenborongh, 



the Abbot of 
Weetmlnater 
aboTe the poor 
Abbot of Tintem, 
[Fol. 188 a.] 



T Wisdom wolle a merohaXLe manerabely fat he 
Yndirstand 
all6 ))e worshipfolld officers of the comunialte 

of ])is laud, 
of Shires / Citees / borowes ; like as fey ar 
rulandy 
1 132 ])ey must be sett aftt^r feire astate dewe in degre 
as pey stand. 

Y hit belongethe to a mershaHe to haue a for6 sight 
of all6 estatis of ^is land in enerj place pight, 
For J>estate of a knyght of blode, lyvelode, A 
myght, 
1 136 is not peregall^ to a symple & a poouere knyght. 

% Also j>e meyre of londofl, notable of dignyte, 
and of queneborow * fe meire, no fjnge like in 

degre, 
at one messe pey owght in no wise to sitt ne be ; 
1 1 40 hit no ]>yng6 besemethe / ferfore to suche semble 
yese/ 

% Also f e abbote of Westmynstere, fe hiest of fts 
lande / 
The abbot of tynteme * ^poorest, y vndirstande, 
pey ar bo]>e abbote« of name, & not lyke of fame 
to fande ; 

1 Qaeenborough, an ancient, bat poor town of Kent, in Hie Isle 
of Sheppey, situated at the mouth of the river Medway. The chief 
employment of the inhabitants ia oyster-dredging. Walker'a 
Gazetteer, by Kershaw, ISOl. 

* The Annual Receipts of the Monastery *' de Tintema in 

Marchia Wallie," are stated in the Valor Bed. vol. iy. p. 370-1, 

and the result is 

£ s. d. 

SMmma totolis clar« valorw dec* predict' cclyiij v x ob' 

Decimainde xxy XTJ rj ob'q' 

Those of the Monasterium Sancti Petri Westm. are given at v. 1, 
p. 410—24, and their net amount stated to be £4470 2d. 

£ 8. d. 

Et reman^n^ dare MiMiM>iiijelxx — ij q' 

Decima inde iijoxlvij — — q* 



lOHN RUSSELL8 BOKE OP NURTURE. 77 

1144 ^et Tynteme wztA Westmynster shall^ nowper 
sitte ne standa 

% Also fe Piyourc of Caunturbury,* a cheff churche **»« Prior of 
of dignyte, 
And pe prioure of Ihidley,* no fyngc so digne ^ve the Prior of 

as he: — 
3et may not ))e prioure of dudley, symple of degre, 
1148 Sitte with fe prioure of Caunturbury : per is 
why, a dynersite. 

% And remembre euennore / afi rule per is 
generalle : 
A pnbure pat is a prelate of any churche Cathe- ^^®J/][**** *" 

(Jp{j^ Gathedral Chxireh 

above anj Abbot ^ 

above abbot or prioure within the diocise sitte or Prior of wa 

'- diocese, 

he shalle, 
1152 In churche / in chapelle / in chambur / & in 
halh, 

^ Eight so reuerend doctuis, degre of xij. yere, pern * ^^^^^^^ 
ye must assigne 
to sitte aboue hym / bat commensed hath but .ix. »*»▼« ona of o 

'^ ' ' (though the latter 

and paxjighe pe yonger may larger spend gold red be the richer). 
& fyne, 
1156 3et shalle pe eldur sitte aboue / whepur he 
drynke or dyna 

^ like wise the aldremen, ^ef J>ey be eny where, *^« <>>* AWermen 

* The clear revenue of the Deanery of Canterbury (Decan* Can- 
tuifr*) is returned in Valor Eccl. v. 1, p. 27—32, at £163 2 Id. 

£ 8. d. 
Rem' clxiij — xxi 

Decima pars inde xij yj ij 

while that of PrioratuB de Dudley is only 

£ s. d. 
Stimffia de claro xxxiiij — XTJ 

Decima pars inde iij yiij j ob'q' 

Valor EccleUasticuBy v. 3, p. 104-5. 

* Dudley, a town of Worcestershire, insulated in Staffordshire, 
containing about 2000 families, most of whom are employed in the 
manufacture of nails and other iron wares. Walker ^ 1801. 

11 



78 



THE DUTIES OF THC USHEB AND MARSHAL. 



aboTe the young 
ODM. and 



1. the Master of a 

craft. 

8. the ex-warden. 



Before every feast, 
then, think what 
people are coming, 
and settle what 
their order of 
precedence is to 
be. 



If in doubt. 



ask your lord or 
the chief officer, 



and then yonll do 
wrong to no one, 



but set all 



according to their 
birth and dignity. 



pe yongere shalle sitte or stande benethe ])e 

elder 1131 fere ; 
and of euery crafft fe mastir aftur rule & manere, 
1160 and fen fe eldest of fern, fat wardefi was fe 
fore yere. 

% Soche poyntes, wHk many ofer, belongethe to a 
mersliall ; 
ferfore whensoeuer youre sovereyn a feest make 

shall, 
demeene what estates shalle sitte in the hall, 
1164 fail reson wtt^ youre self lest youre lord yow 
caUe; 

% Thus may ye devise youre marshall3mge, like as 
y yow lere, 
to f e honoure and worshippe of youre souereyfi 

euery where ; 
And ^eflf ye haue eny dowt / euer looke fat ye 
enquere, 
1168 Resorte euer to youre souereyne / or to fe chefF 
officere ; 

^ Thus shalle ye to any state / do wronge ne pre- 
iudice, 
to sette euery persone accordynge wit^owtefi 

mys, 
as aftur f e birthe / livelode / dignite / arfore y 
taught yow this, 
1172 aDe degrees of highe officere, & worthy as he^. 



Now I have told 
you of 

Oourt Manners, 
how to manage 

Id Pantry, 
Buttery. Carving, 
and as Sewer. 

and Marshal, 



Tf TjlTow good son, y haue shewed the / & 
brought f e in vre, 
to know f e Curtesie of court / & these f ow may 

take in cure, 
In pantry / botery / or cellere / & in kervynge 
a-fore a sovereyne demewre, 
1 176 A sewer / or a mershalle ; in f es science / y sup- 
pose ye byn sewre, 



lOHN RUS8BLLS SOKE OF NURTURE. 79 

^ Which in my dayes y lemyd withe a piynce fulle m i leamt with a 

Royal Prince 

royalle, 
with whoin vschere in chambur was y, & mer- whose usher and 

, ,, . . , ,1 Marahal I was. 

shalle also m hall^', 
vnto whom alb fese officered foreseid / fey euer aii othei offlcen 
eniende shalle, 
11 80 Evir to fulfiUe my commaundement wheil ])at y have to obey me. 
to pern caHe : 

For we may allow & dissalow / oure office is \>e our office is the 

cheeff 
In ceUere & spicery / & the Cooke, be he loothc ]?« H^r^;^^'' 

or leeflf.* 

% Thus fe diligences of dyijerse office^ y haue Au'toie^Stei 
shewed to be aUone, ™^ ^ ""«^ ^^ 

* ' one man, 

1184 the which science maybe shewed & dooil by 
a syngeler * persone ; 
but fe dignyte of a prince reqi^irethe vche office Jjii.^**^**i_ 
must haue oofl ^ office to 

. <, 1 • 1 • / 1 -I - have ita officer, 

to be rewlere in his rome / a semaund nym andatervant 

. ^ nnder him, 

waytynge ofL 
IT Moore-ouer hit requirethe euerich of bem in office w» knowing 

" ^ their dntlea 

to haue perfite science, perfectly) 

1 1 88 For dowt and drede doynge his souereyn dis- 
plicence, 
h3rm to attende, and his gestti^ to plese in place to wait on their 

Lord and pleaae 

where ])ey ar presence, ua gneeta. 

that his souereyfL ))roughe his seruice may make 
grete congaudence. 
^ For a piynce to seme, ne dowt he not / and god d^'w to serve 
be his spede ! 

^ Two lines are wanting here to make up the stanza. They 

mnst have been left ont when the copier tamed Ms page, and began 
again. 

* The word in the MS. is tyngU or aynglr with a line through 

the/. It may be for tyngxxlet^ stn^usj t. irnnf^}^ m, snnderly, 

Tocab. in Sei. Ant. ▼. 1, p. 9, col. 1. 



80 



THE U8HEB AND MARgWAT. IS THE CHIEF OFFICER. 



watch. 



and you need not 
fear. 



Tatting la done 
only for those of 
royal blood, 

aaaPope, 
King. 



Duke, and Earl 
not below. 



Tasting la done 
forfearofpolion: 



take good heed to 1192 Furber ban his office / & her-to let hym take 

yourdutiea. . . ^ 

good nede, 
and Ms waide wayte wisely // & euermore ^er-ixx 

haue drede ; 
Jjus doynge his dewte dewly, to dowte he shalle 

not nede. 

1[ Tastynge and credence ' longethe to blode & 
birth royalle,* 
1196 As pope / emperoure / Emp<9ratrice, and Cai- 
dynalle, 
kynge / qlieene / piynce / Aichebischoppc in 

palle, 
Duke / Erie, and no mo / J)at y to lemembiaunce / 
calle. 

^ Credence is vsed, & tastynge, for drede of poy- 
senynge, 
1200 To aUe officers y-swome / and grete othe by 
chargynge ; 
fedove vche mafi in office kepe his rome sewre, 

closynge 
Cloos howse / chest / & gardevyafl ', for drede 
of congettynge. 

^ Steward and Chamburlayfl of a pn'nce of 
■ royalte, 
1204 fej haue / knowleche of homages, seruice, and 
fewte ; 
so fey haue ouersight of eu^ry office / aftttr 
feire degre, 

^ Credence as ereanee . . a taste. or essay taken of another man's 
meat. Cotgrave. 

' Compare The JBoke of Ourtaeye, 1. 495-8, 
No mete for mora schalltf sayed be 
Bot for kynge or prynce or duke so ire ; 
For heiers of paraonce also y-wys 
Mete shalU be seyed. 
> Oardmanger (Fr.) a Storehouse for meat. Bloont, ed. 1681, 
&arde-viant, a Wallet for a Soldier to put his Victuals in. 
Phillipps, ed. 1701. 



therefore keep 
your room Becore, 
•nd close your 
•afe, for fear of 
tridu. 
A Prince's 



Steward and 
Chamberlain 



hare the orerBli^t 
of all offices 



lOHN RU88BLL8 BOKB OP NURTURE. ' ^1 

by wiytynge J>e knowleche / & J>e Credence to and of tasting. 
ouersQ ; 

^ Therfore in makynge of his credence, it is to •"<* ^^'^^ "»"** 

<ire<ie, J sey, 
1208 To mershall^ / sewere^and kervere bey must wi the Manhai. 

' ' *' Sewer, and Carver 

allowte allwey, 
to teche hyih of his office / J>e credence hym to ^^^ ^ **" *'• 

prey : 
pUB shallg he not stond in makynge of his cre- 
dence in no &ay. 

f Moore of J>is connynge y Cast not me to con- Jo'^writo m^on 
treve : **^ ""****• 

1212 my tyme is not to tary, hit drawest fast to eve. 

fia tretyse fat y haue entitled, if it ye entende J^SJe****' 

to preve, 
y assayed me self in youthe wit^utefl any "J^i''*""' 
greve. 

while y was yonge y-noughe & lusty in dede, 
1216 y enioyed jjese maters foreseid / &- to leme y ^turg?^ *** 

toke good hede ; 
but cioked age hatha compelled me / & leue court ^^^^^u> 

y must nede. '~^* "»• ~"^ '• 

Jerforc, sone, assay thy self / & god shalle be J>y «> ^ yonrwsif." 

spede." 

** TUfow feire falle yow, fadur / & blessid mote '^fi^J^""' 
" ye be, 
1220 For J>is comenynge / & fe co/mynge / Jat y[e] J^^^^^^of 
haue here shewed me ! 
now dar y do seruice diligent / to dyuers of ^®^ ' •'^^ ****"• 

dignyte, 
where for scantnes of connywge y durst no man ^*»e" ^'<>" ' 
y-fle. 

* The Boke of Chiriasye makes the Sewer alone assay or taste 
< alle the mete ' (line 763—76), and the Butler the drink (line 
786). 



82 



lOHN RUBSELLS REQUEST TO THE READER. 



[Fol. 189.] 
I wUl try. and 
shall learn by 
practice. 



May God reward 
yoa for teaching 
me!" 



So perfitely sethe y Mt perceue / my parte y 

wolle preue and assay ; 
1224 boJ>e by practike and exercise / yet som good 

leme y may : 
and for youre gentille lemynge / y am bound 

euer to pray 
that oure lorde rewarde you in blis that lasteth 

aye." 



" Oood ion, and 
all readers ofthit 



Boke qf NwHwXt 



pray for the tool 
of me, John 
Riusell, (Mrrant 

of Humphry, 
DukeofOlon- 
oeeter ;) also for 

the Dnke, my 
wife, fiither, and 
mother, that we 



may all go to 
bllse when we 
die." 



Little book, 
commend me to 



all learners. 



and to the ex- 
perienced, whom 
I pray 

to correct Its 
fauItB. 



Any such. 



** Iff ow, good sofl, thy self wit/t other fat 
shalle fe succede, 
1228 whiche fus boke of nurture* shaUe note / leme^ 
& ouer rede, 
pray for the sowle of lohfi Busselle, ]>at god 

do hym mede, 
Som tyme seruaunde yfi\h duke vmfrey, due * of 
Glowcetwr in dede. 

For fat prynce pereles prayethe / & for suche 
other mo, 
1232 fe sowle of my wife / my fadur and modir also, 
vn-to Mary modyr and mayd / she fende us 

from owre foe, 
and brynge vs alle to blis when we shalle hens 
goo. AMEN." 

09 (9 ibrt^e lytelle boke, and lowly fow me 
commende 
1236 vnto alle yonge gentilmefi / fat lust to leme or 
entende, 
and specially to f em fat han exsperience, prayngf^ 

f e[m] to amende 
and correcte fat is amysse, fere as y fawte or 
offende. 

^ And if so fat any be founde / as f rou^ myii 
necligence, 

1 The iAM has a red stroke through it, probably to cat it out. 



lOHN BUSSELLS BOKE OP NURTURE. 83 

1240 Cast pe cawse ofi my copy / rude / & bare of pnt to my copy- 
ing, 
eloquence, 

whiche to drawe out [I] haue do my besy dili- which i have 

done as I beet 
genCCy could. 

redily to reforme hit / by reson and bettur 
sentence. 

^ As for ryme or resofi, Je forewryter was not to The transcriber u 

. ^ not to blame ; 

blame, 
1244 For as be foimde hit afome hym, so wrote he he copied what 

was before him, 

pe same, 
and Jyaughe he or y in oure matere digres or 

degrade, 
blame neithur of vs / For we neuyre hit made ; "»* neither of as 

wrote Itt 

^ Symple as y had insight / somwhat be ryme y i only corrected 

the rhyme. 

correcte ; 
1 248 blame y cowde no man / y haue no persone sus- 

pecte. 
Now, good god, graunt vs grace / oure sowles ood! grant us 

neucr to Infecte ! *^'*°* 

bafl may we regno in bi reciouw / eternally wit^ to rule in Heaven 

thyne electe. 



[Some word or words in large black letter have been cut off at 
the bottom of the page.] 



NOTES. 



1. 11-12. John Russell lets off his won't* learns very easily. Willyam 
Bolleyn had a different treatment for them. See the extract from him on 
" Boxyng & Neckweede " after these No(e9. 

1. 49. See the interesting " Lord Fairfax's Orders for the Servants of his 
Hoashold ** [after the Civil Wars], in Bishop Percy's notes to the Northum- 
berland Household Book, p. 421-4, ed. 1827. 

1. 51. Chip . ' other .ij. pages .... them oweth to chippe bredde, but not 
too nye the crumme.' H, Ord, p. 71-2, The " Chippings of Trencher-Brede " 
in Lord Percy's household were used *' for the fedyinge of my lords houndis." 
Percy H. Book, p. 353. 

1. 56. Trencher bread. Item that the Trencher Brede be maid of the Meale 
as it cummyth frome the Milne. Percy Howtehold Book, p. 58. 

I. 66. Cannell, a Spout, a tap, a cocke in a conduit. Epistomium. Vne 
canelle^ vn rohinet, Baret. 

L 68. Faucet. Also he [the yeoman of the Butler of Ale] asketh allow- 
auncc for tubbys, treyes, ^sAfaucettes, occupied all the yeare before. H. 
Ord, p. n, 

L 74. Figs. A. Borde, Introduction, assigns the gathering of figs to " the 
Mores whych do dwel in Barbary," . . *' and christen men do by them, & they 
wil be diligent and wyl do al maner of sernice, but they be set most comonli 
to vile things ; they be called slaues, tbei do gader grapes and Jjfgges, and 
with some of the fggges they wyl wip ther tayle, & put them in the frayle.** 
Figs he mentions under Judaea. *' lury is called y« lande of Inde, it is a noble 
countre of ryches, plenty of wine & come. . . Figges and Raysions, & all 
other fmtes." In his Regyment, fol. M. iii., Borde says of * Fygges. . They 
doth stere a man to veneryous actes, for they doth auge and increase the 
seede of generacion. And also they doth prouoke a man to sweate : wherfore 
they doth ingendre lyce.* 

II. 74-95. Chese. 'there is iiij. sortes of Chese, which is to say, grene 
Chese, softe chese, harde chese, or spermyse. Grene chese is not called 
grene by y* reason of colour, but for y« newnes of it, for the whay is not 
half pressed out of it, and in operacion it is oolde and moyste. Softe chese 
not to new nor to olde, is best, for in operacion it is bote and moyste. 



lOHN RUSSELL8 BOKE OF NURTURE. 85 

Harde chese is bote and drye, and euyll to djgest. Spermyse is a Chese the 
whiche is made with curdes and with the luce of herbes. . Yet besydes these 
.iiij natures of chese, there is a chese called a Irweue [rewene, ed. 1567] 
chese, the whiche, if it be well ordered, doth passe all other cheses, none 
excesse taken.' A. Borde, Ueg, fol. I. i. See note on 1. 85. 

1. 78, 83. The Bill-berry or Windbeny, R. Holme, Bk. II., p. 52, coL 1 ; 
p. 79, col. 1 ; three Wharl Berries or Bill-Berries . . They are termed 
Whortle Berries or Wind Berries, p. 81, col. 2. § xxviii. See the prose 
Burlesques, Reliq. Antiq., y. 1, p. 82. Why hopes thu nott for sothe that 
ther stode wonus a coke on Seynt Pale stepuU toppe, and drewe up the 
strapuls of his brech. How preves thu that? Be all the .iiij. doctors of 
Wynbere hylleSy that is to saye, Vertas, Gadatryme, Trumpas, and Dadyl- 
trymsert. 

1. 79. Fruits. These officers make provysyons in seasons of the yere 
accordynge for fruytes to be had of the Kinges gardynes withoute prises ; 
as cherryes, peares, apples, nuttes greete and smalle, for somer season ; and 
lenten, wardens, quinces and other ; and also of presentes gevyn to the 
Kinge ; they be pourveyours of blaundrelles, pepyns, and of all other fruytes. 
H, Ord, p, 82. 

I. 80. Mr Dawson Turner's argument that the " ad album pulverem " 
of the Leicester Roll, a.d. 1265, was white sugar pounded (Pref. to House- 
hold Expenses, ed. 1841, p. li.), proves only that the xiiij lib. Zucari there 
mentioned, were not bought for making White powder only. 

II. 81-93. Crayme, * Rawe crayme undecocted, eaten with strawberyes, 
or hurttes, is a rural! mannes ba^iket. I haue knowe^ such bankettes hath 
put me» i» ieobardy of theyr lyues.' A. Borde, Regyment, fol. I, ij. 

1. 82, 1. 93. Junket. The auncient manner of grateful suitors, who, hauing 
prevailed, were woont to present the Judges, or the Reporters, of their causes, 
with Comfets or other Jonkets. Cotgrave, w. espice. 

1. 85. Cheese. Whan stone pottes be broken, what is better to glew 
them againe or make them fast j nothing like the Symunt made of Cheese ; 
know therfore it will quickly build a stone in a drie body, which is ful of 
choler adust. And here in Englande be diuers kindes of Cheeses, as Suff. 
Essex, Banburie .&c. according to their places & feeding of their cattel, time 
of y« yere, layre of their Kine, clenlinesse of their Dayres, quantitie of their 
Butter ; for the more Butter, the worse Cheese. Bullein, fol. Ixxxv. 

1. 89. Butter, A. Borde, Introduction, makes the Flemynge say, 
Buttermouth Flemyng, men doth me call. 
Butter is good meate, it doth relent the galL 

1. 94. Bosset is hot Milk poured on Ale or Sack, having Sugar, grated 
Bisket, Eggs, with other ingredients boiled in it, which goes all to a Curd. 
R. Holme. 

1. 94. Foset ale is made with bote mylke and oolde ale ; it is a temperate 
drynke. A. Borde, B^g. 6. iij. 

1. 98. Tremher. The College servant ' Scrape Trencher,* R. Holme, Bk. 

III., Chap, iv.j p. 099 [199], notes the change of material from bread to 

wood. 

12 



86 NOTES TO RUSSELLS BOKE OF NURTURE. 

1. 103. not wines & sweet or coafectioned with spices, or very strong 
Ale or Beere, is not good at meales, for thereby the meat is rather corrupted 
then digested, and they make hot and stinkinj vapours to ascend vp to the 
braines. Sir Jn. Harrington. Pre8, of Health, 1624, p. 23. 

1. 109. Reboyle. * If any wynes be corrupted, reboyled, or unwholsome for 
mannys body, then by the comtroller it to be shewed at the counting bourde, 
so that by assent all sache pypes or vesselles defectife be dampned and cast 
uppon the losses of the seyd chiefe Butler.' H, Ord. p. 73. 

1. 109. Lete, leek. 'Purveyours of Wyne . . to ride and oversee the places 
there as the Kingea wynes be lodged, that it be saufely kept from peril of 
Icekinff and breaking of vessels, or lacke of hoopinge or other couperage, 
and all other crafte for the rackinge, coynynge, rebatinge, and other salva- 
tions of wynes, &c.* -ff. Ord, p. 74. 

SWETE WYNES, p. 8, 1. 118-20.* 

or. Generally: 

Halliwell gives under Piment the following list of wines from MS. 
Rawlinson. C. 86. 

Malnui9ye9y Tires, and Rumneys^ 

With Capenkis, Campletes f , and Osuei/Sy 

Vernugey CutCy and Raspays also. 

Whippet and Pyngmedo, that that ben lawyers therto ; 

And I will have also wyne de Byne, 

With new maid Clarye^ that is good and fyne, 

Muscadellt Teraniyne, and Bastard, 

With Tpocras and Pymeni comyng afterwarde. 

MS. BawL C, 86. 
And under Malvesyne this : 

Ye shall have Spayneche wyne and Gascoyne, 

Rose eoloure, whyt, eliiret, rampyon. 

Tyre, eapryck, and malvesyne, 

Sak, raspyee, alycaunt, rumney, 

Oreke, ipocrase, new made clary f 

Suche as ye never had. 

Interlude of the Four Elements (no date). 

Of the wine drunk in England in Elizabeth's time, Harrison (Holinshed's 
Chron. v. 1, p. 167i col. 2, ed. 1586) says, " As all estates doo exceed herin, I 
meane for strangenesse and number of costlie dishes, so these forget not to vse 
the like excesse in wine, in so much as there is no kind to be had (neither anie 
where more store of all sorts than in England, although we have none grow- 
ing with us, but yearlie to the proportion of 20,000 or 30,000 tun and 
vpwards, notwithstanding the dailie restreincts of the same brought over 
vnto vs) wherof at great meetings there is not some store to be had. 
Neither do I meane this of small wines onlie, as Claret, White, Bed, Erench, 

* See Maison Rustigne or The Country Farme, p. 630-1, as to the qualities of 
Sweet Wines. f See Campolet in <* The Boke of Keruyng.'' 



lOHN RUSSELLS BOKE OF NURTURE. 87 

&c., which amount to about fiftie- six sorts, according to the number of 
regioiu! from whence they come : but also of the thirtie kinds of Italian, 
Grecian, Spanish, Canarian, &c., whereof Vernage^ Cate^ pument, Baspis, 
Muicadelly Romniey Bastard, Tire, 0$eie, Caprilre, Clareie, and Malmesie, are 
not least of all accompted of, bicause of their strength and valure. For as I 
haae said in meat, so the stronger the wine is, the more it is desired, by 
means wherof in old time, the best was called Theologicum^ because it was 
had from the deargie and religious men, vnto whose houses manie of the laitie 
would often send for bottels filled with the same, being sure that they would 
neither drinke nor be serned of the worst, or such as was anie waies mingled 
or bmed by the vintener : naie the merchant would haue thought that his 
soule should haue gone streight-waie to the diuell, if he should haue serued 
them with other than the best." 

On Wine, see also Royal Rolls, B.M. l^; B. xix. 

/3.. Specially: The following extracts are from Henderson's History of 
Jjudeni and Modem Wines^ 1824, except where otherwise stated : — 

1. Femage was a red wine, of a bright colour, and a sweetish and 
somewhat rough flavour, which was grown in Tuscany and other parts of 
Italy, and derived its name from the thick-skinned grape, vemaceia (corre- 
sponding with the vinaciola of the ancients), that was used in the preparation 
of it (See BaccL Nat. Yinor. Hist., p. 20, 62). It is highly praised by 
Redi.« 

2* Vernagelle is not mentioned by Henderson. The name shows it to 
have been a variety of Vemage* 

3. 1. 118. Cute, " As for the cuit named in Latin Sapa, it commeth neere to 
the nature of wine, and in truth nothing els it is, but Must or new wine 
boiled til one third part and no more do remain ; & this cttit, if it be made 
of white Must is counted the better." Holland's Plinies Nat. Hist,, p. 157. 
" (of the dried grape or raisin which they call Astaphis). . The sweet euil 
which is made thereof hath a speciall power and virtue against the Hsemor- 
rhois alone, of all other serpents," p. 148. " Of new pressed wine is made 
the wine called Cute, in Latin, Sapa ; and it is by boiling the new pressed 
wine so loDg, as till that there remaine but one of three parts. Of new 
pressed wine is also made another Cute, called of the Latines Beftutum, and 
this is by boiling of the new wine onely so long, as till the halfe part be con- 
sumed, and the rest become of the thicknesse of honey." Maison Rustiqite, 
p. 622. ' Cute. A.S. Caren, L. carenum, wine boiled down one-tiiird, and 
sweetened.' Cockayne, Gloss, to Leechdoms. 

4. PymetU, Ll order to cover the harshness and acidity common to the 
greater part of the wines of this period, and to give them an agreeable flavour, 
it was not unusual to mix honey and spices with them. Tlius compounded 
they passed under the generic name olpiments,^ probably because they were 

* Yemage was made in the Oenoese territory. The best was grown at San 
Oemignano, and in Bacci's time was in great request at Rome. The wine known as 
Yernaccia in Tuscany was always of a white or golden colour. Hendersoiif p. 306. 

t See the recipe for making Piment inHalliweirs Dictionary, s. y. 



y 



88 NOTES TO RU8SELM BOKB OF NURTURE. 

originally prepared by the pigmentarii or apothecaries ; and they were used 
much in the same manner as the liqueurs of modem times. Hend, p. 283. 

The varieties of Piment most frequently mentioned are the 

Hippocras Sf Clarry. The former was made with either white or red wine, 
in which different aromatic ingredients were infused ; and took its name from 
the particular sort of bag, termed Hippocrates's Sleeve, through which it 
was strained. . Clarry ^ on the other hand, which (with wine of Osey) we have 
seen noticed in the Act 5 Richard II. (St. 1, c. 4, tin doulce, ou elarre), 
was a claret or mixed wine, mingled with honey, and seasoned in much the 
same way, as may be inferred from an order of the 36th of Henry III. 
respecting the delivery of two casks of white wine and one of red, to make 
Clarry and other liquors for the king's table at York (duo dolia albi vini et 
garhiofilacum et unum dolium rubri vini ad claretum faciendi^JKt). Henderson, 
p. 284. Hippocras^ vinum Aromaticum. Withals. *' Artificial! stuffe, as 
ypocras & wormewood wine." Harrison^ Descr, Brit., p. 167, col. 2, ed. 1586. 

Raspice. " Vin Rape," says Henderson, p. 286, note »• " a rough sweetish 
red wine, so called from its being made with uubruised grapes, which, having 
been freed from the stalks, are afterwards fermented along with them and a 
portion of other wine."* Ducange has Raspice, Raspaticium, Ex racemis 
vinum, cujus prseparationem tradit J. Wecker. Antidot. special, lib. 2, § 6, 
page 518 et 519. Paratur autem illud ex raspaliis et vinaceis, una cum uvis 
musto immissis. Baspatia itaque sunt, qusB Varroni et Columellse scopi, 
«ra/720«^^, sibenelegitur; unde nostrum i2du^<?. I)ucange,^&. 1845. Raspecia. . 
Sed ex relate longiori contextu palam est, Raspeciam nihil aliud esse quam 
vinum mixtis acinis aliisve modis renovatum, nostris vulgo Rape ; hujus- 
cemodi cnim vinum alterationi minus obnoxium est, ut hie dicitur de Raspecia. 
Vide mox Raspetum, Vinum recenlalum, Gallis Raspe, Charta Henrici Ducis 
Brabantise pro Gommunia Bruxellensi ann. 1229 : Qui vinum supra was 
Jiabtterit, quod Raspetum vocatur, in tavernis ipsum vendere non potest. Vide 
Recentatum. Ducange, ed. 1845. 

The highly-praised Raspatum of Baccius, p. 30-2, of which, after quoting 
what Pliny says of secondary wines, he declares, " id primura animaduerti 
volumus a nostra posteritate, quod Lora Latinorum, qua^ deuterium cum 
Grsecis, et secundarium Vinum dixit Plinius, dtvrtpia, sen vorifibv Bios- 
corides, quodque rpvybv vocauit Galenus, cum Aquatis quibus hodie vtimur in 
tota Italia, & cum nouo genere, quod a delectabili in gustu asperitate, Raspa^ 
turn vocat ; similcm omnes hae Voces habent sigiiificantiam factitii .s. ex aqua 
Vini. p. 30. Quod uini genus in Italia, ubi alterius uini copia non sit, 
parari simpliciter consuevit colore splendido rubentis purpuree, sapore 
austero, ac dulcacido primis mensibus mox tamen exolescente, p. 31-2, &c. 
Raspice was also a name for Raspberries. Item, geuenc to my lady Kingston^ 
^pnxauniQ bringing Strawberes and Respeces to my ladys grace xij d. Priiy 
Purse Expenses of the Princess Mart/, p. 31 ; and in his Glossary to this 

* Besides this meaning of rapt (same as rasp^t Cotgrave gives first ** A verie 
small wine comming of water cast uppon the mother of grapes which have been 
pressed ! " 



/ 



lOHN BU8SELLS SOKE OF NURTURE. 89 

book Sir F. Madden says, ' In a closet for Ladies 12ino. London, 1654, is a 
receipt "To preserve Baspices'* and they are elsewhere called "Baspis- 
berries:* See ** Delights for Ladies," 12mo. 1654/ 

6, Museadelle of Grew : Bastard : Greke : Malvesyn, *' The wines which 
Greece, Languedoc, and Sapine doe send vs, or rather, which the delicacie 
and voluptnonsnesse of our French throats cause to be fetched from beyond 
the Sea, such as are Sacks, MuscadeU of Frontignan, Malmesies, Bastards 
(which seeme to me to be so called, because they are oftentimes adulterated 
and falsified with honey, as we see wine Hydromell to be prepared) and Cor- 
sick wines, so much vsed of the Romanes, are very pernicious unto vs, if we 
vse them as our common drinke. Notwithstanding, we prone them very 
singular good in cold diseases / . but chiefly and principally Malmesey/' 
Stevens and Liebault's Maison Bustique, or The Countrey Farme, by R. 
Snrflet, reviewed by Gerv. Markham, 1616. MuscadsU^ viuum apianum. 
Withals. Mulsum, wine and honie sodden together, swiete wine, hasterde or 
MuscadeU. Withals. William Yaughan says, '* Of Muscadell, Malmesie, and 
browne Bastard. These kindes of wines are onely for maried folkes, because 
they strengthen the back." Naturall and Artificial Directions for Health, 
1602, p. 9. 

Andrewe Borde, of Physicke, Doctor, in hb Regyment or Dyetary of 
helth made in Mou^tpylior, says, " Also these hote wyues, as Malmesey, wyne 
corse, wyne greke, Romanyke, Romney, Secke, Alygaune, Basterde, Tyre, 
Osaye, Muscadell, Caprycke, Tynt, Roberdany, with other hote wynes, be not 
good to drynke with meate, but after mete and with Oysters, with Saledes, 
with fruyte, a draughte or two may be suffered . . Olde men may drynke, as 
I sayde, hygh wynes at theyr pleasure. Furthermore all swete wynes, and 
grose wynes, doth make a man fatte." 

7. Bompneif, Henderson, p. 288, says, " Another of the above-mentioned 
wines (in the Squire of Low Degree) designated by the name of the grape, was 
the Romenay, otherwise Romenay, Rumney, Roraaine, or Romagnia. That 
it could not be the produce of the Ecclesiastical State, as the two last 
corruptions of the word would seem to imply, may be safely averred ; for at 
no period, since the decliue of the empire, has the Roman soil furnished uny 
wines for exportation ; and even Bacci, with all his partiality, is obliged to 
found his eulogy of them on their ancient fame, and to confess that, in his 
time, they had fallen into disrepute." He argues also against the notion that 
this wine came from Romana in Aragou, and concludes that it was probably a 
Greek wine, as Bacci {Nat. Fin, Hist, p. 333) tells us that the wine from the 
Ionian Islands and adjoining continent was called in Italian Romania, — from 
the Saracen Rum-ili. Now this is all very well, but how about the name of 
Bompney ofModene or Modena, just outside the Western boundary of the 
Romagna, — not Meudon, in France, " amongst all the wines which we use 
at Paris, as concerning the red, the best are those of Coussy, Seure, Vaunes, 
and Meudon^ Maison Rustique, p. 642. — Who will hold to John Russell, 
and still consider Bomney an Italian wine ? Bumney, vinum resiuatum. 
Withals. 



DO NOTES TO RU6SELL8 SOKE OF NURTURE. 

8. Bastard. Henderson argaea against the above-quoted (No. 6) supposi- 
tion of Charles Etienne's (which is supported by Cotg^ye's Vin mielU, honied 
wine, bastardy Metheglin, sweet wine), and adopts Venner's aooount {Via 
Recta ad Vitam Longam\ that ''Bastard is in virtue somewhat like to 
muskadell, and may also in stead thereof be used ; it is in goodness so much 
inferiour to muskadell, as the same is to malmsey." It took its name, Hend- 
erson thinks, from the grape of which it was made, probably a bastard 
species of muscadine. '' One of the varieties of vines now cultivated in the 
Alto Bouro, and also in Madeira, is called bastardo, and the must which it 
yields is of a sweetish quality. Of the Bastard wine there were two sorts, — 
white and brown (brown and white bastard. Measure for Measure, Act iii. sc. 
2), both of them, according to Markham.'s report, " fat and strong ; the 
tawny or brown kind being the sweetest." In The Libetle of Englysch 
Polyci/e, A.D. 1436 (Wright's Political Songs^ r. 2, p. 160), * wyne bastarde ' 
is put among the commodyetees of Spayne. 

9. lire, if not of Syrian growth, was probably a Galabrian or Sicilian 
wine, manufactured from the species of grape called tirio. Tyre, vinum 
Tyrense, ex Tyro insula. Withals. 

10. Ozey. Though this is placed among the " commodities of Portugal " 
in some verses inserted in the first volume of Hackluyt's Voyages, p. 188 — 
Her land hath wine, osey, waxe, and grain, — ^yet, says Henderson, *' a passage 
in Valois' Description of France, p. 12, seems to prove, beyond dispute, that 
oseye was an Alsatian wine ; Auxois or Osay being, in old times, the name 
constantly used for Alsace. If this conjecture is well-founded, we may pre- 
sume that oseye was a luscious-sweet, or straw-wine, similar to that which is 
still made in that province. That it was a rich, high-flavoured liquor is 
sufficiently shown by a receipt for imitating it, which may be seen in Mark- 
ham {English Housewife, 1683, p, 115), and ^e learn from Bacci p. 350) 
that the wines which Alsace then furnished in great profusion to England as 
well as different parts of the continent, were of that description* In the 
* Bataille des Yins' we find the ' Yin d'Aussai ' associated with the growths 
of the Moselle." Osey is one ' Of the commoditees of Portingalle/ Libelle, 
p. 163. 

11. Tor rent yne of Ebrew. Is this from Tarentum, Tarragon, or Toledo ? 
'Whence in Ebrew laud did our forefathers import wine ? Mr G. Grove says, 
" 1 should at first say that Torrent yne referred to the wine from some wady 
(Vulgate, torrens) in which peculiarly ricb grapes grew, like the wady of 
Eschcol or of Sorck ; but I don't remember any special valley being thus 
distinguished as ' The Torrent * above all others, and the vineyards are 
usually on hill-sides, not in vallies." 

12. Grcke Malevesyu^ "The best dessert wines were made from the 
Malvasia grape ; and Gandia, where it was chiefly cultivated, for a long time 
retained the monopoly," says Henderson. He quotes Martin Leake to 
explain the name, Monemvasia is a small fortified town in the bay of 
Epidaurus Limera. '' It was anciently a promontory called Minoa, but is now 
an island connected with the coast of Laconia by a bndge. The name of 



lOHN RUS8ELLS BOEE OF NURTURE. 91 

MoMemvaaia, derived from the circumstances of its position (jaovti IfiPaaia, 
single entrance), was corrupted by the Italians to Malvasia ; and the place 
being celebrated for the fine wines produced in the neighbourhood, Malvasia 
changed to Malvoisie in French, and MaliMey in English came to be applied 
to many of the rich wines of the Archipelago, Greece, and other countries." 
{Rewarehet in Greece, p. 197.) Matilmsey, vinum creticum, vel creteum. 
Withals. 

13. Caprik may have been a wine from the island of Capri, or Cyprus. 

14. Clarey, See abo?e under Pyment, and the elaborate recipe for 
making it, in Household Ordinances, p. 473, under the heading ''Mediciua 
optima et experta pro Stomacho et pro Capite in Antiquo horainem.*' C/aret 
Wine, vinum sanguineum subrubrum, vel rubellnm. Withals. *' The seconde 
wine is pure Claret, of a cleare lacent, or Yelow choler ; this wine doth 
greatly norish and warme the body, and it is an holsome wine with meiite.'' 
Bullein, fol. xj. 

1. 122. Spice ; 1. 171. Spicert/. Of " The commoditees and nycetees of 
Venicyans and Florentynes/' the author of the Libellc says, p. 171, 
The grete galces of Venees and Florence 
Be wel ladene wyth thynges of complacence, 
Alle spiceri/e and of grocers icare, 
Wyth swete xoynes, alle maners of cheffare, 
Apes, and japes, and marmusettcs taylcde, 
Nifles, trifles, that litelle have availede. 
And thynges wyth which they fetely blere oure eye, 
Wyth thynges not enduryng that we bye. 
1. 123. Turnsole, Newton*s Herbal, plate 49, gives Yellow Turnsole 
G(erarde), the Colouring Turnsole P(arkinson). 

1. 123. Tornesole. Achillea tormenlosa, A.S. SoJtcherf, ' This wort hath with 
it some wonderful divine qualities, that is, that its blossoms turn themselves 
according to the course of the sun, so that the blossoms when the sun is 
setting close themselves, and again when he upgoeth, they open and spread 
themselves.' Leechdoms, ed. Cockayne, v. 1, p. 155. 

1. 123, 141. Oranes are probably what are now called "Granes of 
Paradise," small pungent seeds brought from the East Indies, much 
resembling Cardamum seeds in appearance, but in properties approaching 
nearer to Pepper. See Lewis's Materia Medica, p. 298 ; in North, 11. 
Book. 

1. 131-2. I cannot identify these three sorts of Ginger, though Gerardc 
says : '* Ginger groweth in Spaine, Barbary, in the Canary Islands, and the 
Azores," p. 6. Only two sorts of Ginger arc mentioned in Parkinson's 
Herbal, p. 1613. ' Ginger grows in China, and is cultivated there.' Strothcr*s 
Harman, 1727, v. 1, p. 101. 

I. 141. Peper. " Pepir blake " is one of the commoditees of the Jannays 
(or Genoese). Libelle, p. 172. 

1. 177. In his chapter Of Prunes and Lamysens, Andrew Borde says, Syxe 
or seuen Damysena eaten before dyner, be good to prouokc a ma;rnes appe- 



92 NOTES TO RU8SBLLS BOKE OP NURTURE. 

tyde ; thej doth mollyfie the bely, and be abstersyue. the skynne and the 
stones must be ablated and cast away, and not vsed. lieg^ment, N. i. b. 

1. 178. Ale. See the praise of the nnparalleled liquor called Ale, Methe- 
glin, &c., in lohn Taylor's Brink and Welcome, 1637. In his BeffimefUy A. 
Borde says, " Ale is made of malte and water ; and they the whiche do put any 
other thynge to ale than is rehersed, except yest, barme, or goddes good,* 
doth sophysticall there ale. Ale for an £nglysshe man is a natorall drynke. 
Ale mnste haue these properties, it must be fresshe and cleare, it muste 
not be ropy, nor smoky, nor it muste haue no werte nor tayle. Ale shulde 
not be dronke under .v. dayes olde. Newe Ale is vuholsome for all men. 
And sowre ale, and dead ale, and ale the whiche doth stande a tylte, is 
good for no man. Early malte maketh better Ale than Oten malte or any 
other corne doth : it doth ingendre grose humours : but it maketh a man 
stronge. 

Beere is made of malte, of hoppes, and water. It is a naturall 
drynke for a doche man. And no we of late dayes [1557 ?] it is moche vsed 
in England to the detryment of many Englyssbe men ; specyally it kylleth 
them the whiche be troubled with the Colycke and the stone, and the strayne 
coylyon ; for the drynke is a cold drynke. Yet it doth make a man fatte, 
and doth inflate the belly, as it doth appere by the doche mennes faces and 
belyes." A. Borde, Regyment^ fol. G. ii. 

1. 194. Neck-towel. The neck-towelles of the pantrey, ewerye, confection- 
arye, comtcrs, hangers, liggers, and all that b the Kinges stuffe. H, Ord, 
p. 85. 

1. 201. Salts, Other two groomes in this office [of Panetry] to help 
serve the hall, or other lordes, in absence of the yoraan, and to cutte trench- 
ours, to make aaltes^ &c. H, Ord., p. 71. 

1. 213. Raynes. Towelles of raygnes, towelles of worke, and of playne 
clothe. H. Ord., pp. 72, 84. 

1. 237. T^ Sumape. In the Articles ordained by King Henry VII. for 
the Regulation of his Household, 31 Dec, 1494, are the following directions, 

p. 119. 

As for the Sewer and Usher, and laying of the Sumape. 

The sewer shall lay the sumape on the board-end whereas the bread and 
salte standeth, and lay forth the end of the same sumape and towell ; then 
the usher should fasten his rodd in the foresaid sumape and towell, and soe 
drawing it downe the board, doeing his reverence afore the Kinge till it passe 
the board-end a good way, and there the sewer kneeling at the end of the 
board, and the usher at the other, stretching the said sumape and towell, 
and soe the usher to laie upp the end of the towell well on the boarde, and 
rise goeing before the Kinge, doeing his reverence to the King on the same 
side the sumape bee gone uppon, and on that side make an estate with his 
rodd ; and then goeing before the Kinge doeing his reverence, and soe make 
another estate on the other side of the King, and soe goeing to the boards 
end againe, kneele downe to amend the towell, that there bee noe wrinkles 
* Halliwell says it means ye<ut. It cannot do so here. 



lOUX BUSSELL8 BOKE OF NURTURE. 93 

save the estates ; and then the usher doeing his dae reverence to the King ; 
goeing right before the Kiuge with his rodd, the side of the same towel i 
there as the bason shall stand : and doeing his reverence to the Kinge, togoe 
to the boards end againe ; and when the King hath washed, to bee ready 
with hb rodd to putt upp the surnape and meete the sewer against the 
Kinge, and then the sewer to take it upp. (The French name was Serre-nape.) 

1. 253. State. Divers Lords and Astatett p. 155 ; divers astates and gentils, 
p. 160. Wardrobe Accounts of King Edward IV, 

1. 262. The Pauntry Towells, Purpaynes, Coverpaynes, Chipping-knyfFs. 
Percy or Northumberland Hd. Book, p. 387. 

1. 277. Sifmple Condicions. Compare these modem directions to a serving 
man : " While waiting at dinner, never be picking your nose, or scratching 
your head, or any other part of your body ; neither blow your nose in the 
room ; if you have a cold, and 'cannot help doing it, do it on the outside of 
the door ; but do not sound your nose like a trumpet, that all the house may 
bear when you blow it ; still it is better to blow your nose when it requires, 
than to be picking it and snuffing up the mucus, which is a filthy trick. Do 
not yawn or gape, or even sneeze, if you can avoid it ; and as to hawking 
and spitting, the name of such a thing is enough to forbid it, without a 
command. When you are standing behind a person, to be ready to change 
the pUtes, &c., do not put your hands on the back of the chair, as it is very 
improper ; though I have seen some not only do so, but even beat a kind of 
tune upon it with their fingers. Instead of this, stand upright with your 
hands hanging down or before you, but not folded. Let your demeanour 
be such as becomes the situation which you are in. Be well dressed, and 
have light shoes that make no noise, your face and hands well washed, your 
finger-nails cut short and kept quite clean underneath ; have a nail-brush for 
that purpose, as it is a disgusting thing to see black dirt under the nails. Let 
the lapels of your coat be buttoned, as they will only be flying in your way.*' 
IS 25. T. Cosnett. Footman's Directory, p. 97-8. Lord A. Percy's Waiters 
were changed every quarter. See the lists of them in the Percy Household 
Book, p 53-4, 

1. 2 SO. Lice. See Thomas Phaire's Regiment of Life, The boke of 
Chyldren, H. h. 5 ; and A. Borders Introduction, of the Irishe man, 

Pediculus other whyle do byte me by the backe, 
Wherfore dyvers times I make theyr bones cracke. 

And of the people of Lytic Briten, 

Although I iag my hosen & my garment round abowt, 
Yet it is a vantage to pick pendiculus owt. 

1. 283. Rosemary is not mentioned among the herbs for the bath ; 
though a poem in praise of the herb says : 

Moche of this her be to seeth thu take 
In water, and a bathe thow make ; 
Hyt schal the make lyjt and joly. 
And also lykyng and jowuly. 
MS. of C. W. Loseombe, Esq., in Reliquia Antiqua, L 196. 

13 



94 NOTES TO RUSSELLS BOKB OF NURTURE. 

1. 300. Jet. 

Rogue wliy Winkest thou, 
Jenny wby Jettest thou. 

are among R. Holme's Names of Slates, Bk. III. eh. v. p. 265, col. 1. 

1. 328. Forks were not introdaced into England till Corjat's time. See 
his Crudities p. 90-1, 4!to. London, 1611, on the strange use of the Fork in 
Italy. *' I observed a custom in all those Italian Cities and Townes through 
the which I passed, that is not used in any other country that I saw in my 
travels, neither do I thinke that any other nation of Christendome doth use 
it, but only Italy. The Italian and also most Strangers that are comorant 
in Italy, doe always at their meals use a Little Forke when they cut their 
meat." Percy's notes, p. 417-18, North. H. Book. 

L 348-9. Fumositees. But to wash the feete in a decoction of Baye 
leaues, Rosemary, & Fenel, I greatly disalow not : for it turneth away from 
the head vapours & fumes dimming and ouercasting the mynde. Now the 
better to represse fumes and propulse vapours from the Brain, it shalbe 
e&ceUe»t good after Supper to chaw wtt^ the teeth (the mouth being shut) 
a few graynes of Coriander first stieped in veneiger wherin Maioram hath 
bin decocted, & then thinly crusted or couered ouer with Sugar. It is 
scarrce credible what a special commoditye this bringeth to y« memory. No 
lesse vertuous & soueraign is the confection of Conserue of Quinces. 
Quinces called Diacidonion, if a prety quantity thereof be likewise taken 
after meate. For it disperseth /ume^, & suffreth not vapours to strike 
vpwarde, T. Newton, Lemnie's Touchstone, ed. 1581, foL 126. See note 
on 1. 105 here. 

1. 358. Forced or Farced, a Forced Leg of Mutton, is to stuff or fill it 
(or any Fowl) with a minced Meat of Beef, Veal, &c„ with Herbs and 
Spices. Farcing is stuffing of any kind of Meats with Herbs or the like ; 
some write it Forsing and Farsing. To Farce is to stuff anything. R. Holme. 

1. 378. Brawn. In his chapter on Pygge, Brawne, Bacon, Andrew Borde 
says of bacon as follows : " Bacon is good for Carters, and plowe inen, 
the which be euer labouryng in the earth or dunge ; but & yf they haue the 
stone, and vse to eate it, they shall synge * wo be to the pye ! * Wherefore 
I do say that coloppes and egges is as holsome for them as a talowe candell 
is good for a horse mouth, or a peece of powdred Beefe is good for a blere 
eyed mare. Yet sensuall appetyde must haue a swynge at all these thynges, 
notwithstandynge." Regyment, foL K. iii. b. 

1. 382 & 1. 515. Venison. I extract part of Andrewe Borders chapter on 
this in his Begyment, fol. K. 4, b. 

% Of wylde Beastes fleshe. 
^ I haue gone rounde about Chrystendome, and ouerthwarte Chrys- 
tendome, and a thousande or two and moore myles out of Chrystendome, 
Yet there is not so moche pleasure for Hartc and Hynde, Bucke and Doe, 
and for Roo-Bucke and Doe, as is in Englande lande : and although the 
flesshe be dispraysed in physicke, 1 praye Ood to sende me parte oftheflesshe 
toeate,physicke notwithstanding . . all physicions (phyon suchons, orig.) sayth 



lOHN RUS8ELL8 BOK£ OF NURTURE. 95 

that Venson . . doth ingendre oolorycke humours ; ^d of tructh it doth so : 
Wherefore let them take the skynue, aud let me haue the flesshe. I am sure 
it is a Lordes dysshe, and I am sure it is good for an Englysheman, for it 
doth anymate hym to be as he is : whiche is stronge and hardy. But I do 
aduertyse euery roa^, for all my wordes, not to kyll aud so to eate of it, 
excepte it be lawfully, for it is a meate for great men. And great men do 
not set so moche by the meate, as they doth by the pasty me of kyllynge of it. 

1. 393. ChinCy the Back-bone of any Beast or Fish. K. Holme. 

I. 397. Stock Dove, Columba osfuuy Yarrell ii. 293. 

Doucs haue this propertie by themselues, to bill one another and 
kisse before they tread. Holland's Flinie, v. 1, p. 300. 

1. 401. Osprey or Fishing Hawk (the Mullet Hawk of Christchurch 
Bay), Pandion Haliaeiut, Y. i. 30. 

1. 401, 482. Teal, Jnas creeea, Y. iii. 282. 

1, 402. Mallard or Wild Duck, Anas boschas, Y. iii. 265. 

1. 421, 542. Betowre* Bittern, the Common, Botaurus siellaris, Y. ii. 571. 
In the spring, and during the breeding season, the Bittern makes a loud 
booming or bellowing noise, whence, probably, the generic term Botaurtu 
was selected for it ; but when roused at other times, the bird makes a sharp, 
harsh cry on rising, not unlike that of a Wild Goose. Farrell, ii. 573. 
The Bittern was formerly in some estimation as an article of food for the 
table ; the flesh is said to resemble that' of the Leveret in colour and taste, 
with some of the flavour of wild fowl. Sir Thomas Browne says that young 
Bitterns were considered a better dish than young Herons . . ii. 574. 
' Hearon, Byttour, Shouelar. Being yong and fat, be lightlier digested then 
the Crane, & y« Bittour sooner then the Hearon.' Sir T. Eliot, CasteU of 
Health, fol. 31. 

I. 422. Heron. Holland (Plinie, p. 301) gives — 1. A Criell or dwarfe 
Heron ; 2. Bittern ; 3. Carion Heron, for Pliny's — 1, Leucon ; 2. Aatertas ; 
3. Fellon. 

1. 437. JUariina are given in the Bill of Fare of Archbp. Nevill's Feast, 
A.D. 1466, 3rd Course. R. Holme, p. 78. 

1. 419. Cannell Bone. ' Susclavier. Yponthe kannell bone ; whence Veine 
susclaviere. The second maine ascendant branch of the hollow veine.* Cot. 

1. 457. Compare Babbet Ronners 1 doz., 2 s., temp. Hen. YIII., a^ 33. if. 
Ord. p. 223. 

1. 492. Custard^ open Pies, or without lids, filled with Eggs and Milk ; 
called also Egg-Pie. R. Holme. 

See the Recipes for ' Crustade Ryal,' * Crustade ' (with Chikonys 
y-smete or smal birdys), and 'Crustade gentyle' (with ground pork or 
veal), fol. 43, Harl. MS. 279. The Recipe for Crustade Ryal is, ** Take 
and pike out )>e marow of bonys as hool as )>ou may. f^en take )>e bonys an 
se)>e hem in Watere or )>at )>e bro)>e be fat y-now. )>en take Almaundys & 
wayssche hem dene & bray hem, & temp^ hem vppe wttA f^e fat bro)>e ; )>an 
wyl ^ mylke be broun. f'en take pouder C^anelle, Gyngere, & Suger, & caste 
)>er-on. )>en take Roysonys of coraunce & lay in f'e cofynne, & taylid Datys 



96 NOTES TO RU88ELLS BOKE OP NURTURE. 

& kjt a-long. )>en take Eyroun a fewe y-strajnid, & swenge among ^e 
Milke )>e ^olke. )>en take the botmon of ^e cofynne f^er ]>g Marow schal 
stonde, & steke \>er gret an long gobettys jT^ron vppe ry^t. & lat bake a 
whyle. )>en pore in comade ^^er-on balful^ & lat bake, & whan yt 
a-rysith, it 13 ynow j fen serue forth." 

Sir F. Madden in his not« on Frees pasties, in his Privy Purse Expenses 
of the Princess Mary, p. 131, col. 1, says, " The different species of Con- 
fectionary then in vogue are enumerated by Taylor the Water Poet, in his 
Tract intitled ' The Great Eater, or part of the admirable teeth and stomack's 
exploits of Nicholas Wood,* &c., published about 1610. ' Let any thing 
come in the shape of fodder or eating-stu£Pe, it is wellcome, whether it be 
Sawsedge, or Custard, or Eg-pye, or Cheese-cake, or Flawne, or Foole, or 
Froyze,* or Tanzy, or Pancake, or Fritter, or Flap iacke,t or Posset, or 
Galleymawfrey, Mackeroone, Kickshaw, or Tantablin ! ' " 

1, 500, 706, 730. Pety Perueis. Ferueis should be Ferneisy as the Sloane 
MS. 1985 shows. Alter text accordingly. Under the head of bake Meiis or 
Vyaunde Furne:^, in Harl. MS. 279, fol. 40 b, we have No. xiiij Fety Fernollys. 
Take fayre Floiire Cofyns. )>en take plkys of Eyroun & trye hem fro )>e 
whyte. & lat f'e ^olkys be al hole & no^ to-broke. & ley .iij. or .iiij. ^olkys 
in a cofyn. and I'an take marow of bonys, to or .iij. gobettys, & cowche 
in f e cofynn. )>en take pouder Gyngere, Sugre, Roysonys of corauince, & caste 
a-boue. & f^an kyuere f^in cofyn W2tA f e same past. £ bake hem & frye hem 
in fayre grece & ^erve forth. 

XX Fety Fetuaauni. Take fayre Flowre, Sugre, Safroun, an Salt. & make 
><?roffe fayre past & fayre cofyngw. fan take fayre y-tryid ^olkys llaw & 
Sugre an pouder Gyngere, & Haysonys of Coraunce, & myncyd Datys, but not 
to small, fan caste al f is on a fayre bolle, & melle al to-gederys, & put in fin 
cofyn, & lat bake ofer Frye in Freyssche grece. Harl. MS. 279. 

1. 501, 701. Fotoche, I suppose this to be poached-egg fritters ; but it 
may be the other potoche : * Take the Powche and the Lyno»r [P liver] of 
haddok, codlyng, and hake.' Forme of Cury, p. 47. Recii)e 94. 

1. 501. Fritters are small Pancakes, having slices of Apples in the 
Batter. R. Holme. Frutters, Fruter Napkin, and Fruter Crispin, were 
dishes at Archbp. Nevill's Feast, 7 Edw. IV. 1467-8 a.d. 

1. 503. Tansy Cake is made of grated Bread, Eggs, Cream, Nutmeg, 
Ginger, mixt together and Fried in a Pan with Butter, with green Wheat 
and Tansy stamped. R. Holme. * To prevent being Bug-bitten. Put a sprig 
or two of tansey at the bed head, or as near the pillow as the smell may be 
agreeable.' T. Cosnett's Footman's Directory, p. 292. 

* Froize, or pancake, Fritilla^ Frittur, rigulet. Baret. Omlet of Eggs is Eggs 
beaten together with Minced suet, and so fried in a Pan, about the quantity of an 
Egf together, on one side, not to be turned, and served with a sauce of Vinegar and 
Sugar. An Omlet or Froise, R. Holme. 

t Flapjack is *' a fried cake made of butter, apples, &c." Jennings. It is not 
a pancake here, eyidently. ** Untill at last by the skill of the cooke, it is trans- 
formed Into the forme of 9k flapjack^ which in our translation is cald t^ pancake.** 
Taylor's Jack-a-lent, i. p. llo, in Nares. 



lOHN RUSSELLS SOKE OF NURTURE. 97 

1. 504, 511, &c. Leach, a kind of Jelly made of Cream, Ising-glass, Sugar, 
and Almonds, with other compounds (the later meaning, 1787). IL Holme. 

1. 517-18. Poiages, All maner of liquyde thynges, as Fotage, sewe 
and all other brothes doth replete a man that eteth them with ventosyte. 
Potage is not so moche vsed in all Chrystendome at it is vsed in Englande. 
Potage is made of the lioour in the whiche flesshe is sod in, with puttynge 
to, chopped herbes, and Otmell and salte. A, Borde, Beg. fol. H. ii. 

1. 517,731. Jellg^ a kind of oily or fat liquor drawn from Calves or Neats 
feet boiled. R. Holme. 

1. 519. Grewel is a kind of Broth made only of Water, Grotes brused 
and Currans ; some add Mace, sweet Herbs, Butter and I^gs and Sugar : 
some call it Pottage Gruel. K. Holme. 

1. 521. Cabages. 'Tis scarce a hundred years since we first had cabbages 
out of Holland ; Sir Anthony Ashley, of Wiburg St Giles, in Dorsetshire, 
being, as I am told, the first who planted them in England. Jn. Evelyn, 
Acetaria, § 11. They were introduced into Scotland by the soldiers of Crom- 
well's army. 1854. Notes and Queries, May 6, p. 424, col. 1. 

1. 533. Powdered is contrasted with fresh in Household Ordinances : 
* In beef daily or moton, fresh, or elles vMpoudred is more availe, 5d.' H, 
Ord, p. 46. In Muffett (p. 173) it means pickled, 'As Porpesses must be 
baked while they are new, so Tunny is never good till it have been long 
pouldred with salt, vinegar, coriander, and hot spices.' In p. 154 it may be 
either salt or pickled; 'Horne-beaks are ever lean (as some think) because 
they are ever fighting ; yet are they good and tender, whether they be eaten 
fresh or poudred,* Powdered, says Nicolas, meant sprinkled over, and 
" powdered beef," i.e. beef sprinkled with salt, is still in use. Privy Purse 
expenses of Elizabeth of Yorke, SfC, p. 254, coL 1, See.note to 1, 378, 689, 
here. 

1. 535-683. Chaudoun, MS. Harl. 1735, foL 18, gives this Recipe. 
' V Chaudo» sauz of swannes. V Tak y« issu of y« swannes, & wasch^ hem wel, 
skoure j^ guttys wit^ salt, sethz al to-gidre. Tak of y^ fleysch^ ; hewe it 
smal, & y« guttys witA alio. Tak bred, gynger^ & galingale, Canel, grynd 
it & tempre it vp witA bred ; ooloarr it witA blood or^ with brext bred, seson 
it vp witA a lytyl vinegre ; welle it al to-gyder«.' And see the Chaudou/i 
potage of Pygys, fol. 19, or p. 37. 

1. 540. Crane, the Common, Cms cinerea, Y. ii. 530. 

1. 540. Egret, or Great White Heron, Ardea alba Y. ii. 549. (Buff- 
coloured, Buff-backed, and Little Egret, are the varieties.) 

1. 540. Hernshaw or Common Heron, Ardea cinerea. "X. ii. 537 (nine 
other varieties), 

1. 541. Plover, the Great (Norfolk Plover and Stone Curlew), ^dicne- 
mus crepitans, Y. ii. 465 (10 other varieties). 

1. 541. Curlew the Common, Numenius arguata, Y. ii. 610 (there 
are other varieties]. 

1. 542. Bustard, the Great, Otis tarda, Y. ii. 428 ; the Little (rare here), 
ii. 452. 



98 NOTES TO RU8SELLS BOKE OP NURTURE. 

1. 542. Shoveler (blue-winged, or Broad-Bill), Anae clypeata, Y, ill. 247. 
Snipe, the Common, Scolopcix gaUinago, Y. iii. 38 (11 other sorts). 

1. 543. Woodcock, Scolopax rusticola, Y. iii. 1. 

1. 543. Lapwing or Peewit, VaneUug cristaius, ii. 515. 

1. 543. The Martin, or House Martin, Hirundo urbica, Y. ii. 255 ; the 
Sand or Bank Martin, Hirundo riparia, ii. 261. 

1. 544. Quail, the Common, Cotumix vulgaris, Y. ii. 413. 

1. 546. On Fish wholesome or not, see Bullein, foL Ixxziij., and on 
Meats, fol. 82. 

L 548. Torrentille: Mr Skeat suggests *P Torrent-eel.' Though the 
spelling of Handle Holme's A Sandile or a Sandeele (Bk. IL, p. 333), and 
Aldrovandi's (p. 252 h.) "De Sandilz Anglorum" may help this, yet, as Dr 
Giinther says, eels have nothing to do with torrents. Torrentille may be the 
Italian Tarentella : see note on Torrentyne, 1. 828 below. 

1. 555. Ling. There shall be stryken of every Saltfische called a Lyng 
Fische vj Stroks after iij Strooks in a Side. Percy Household Book, p. 135. 

1.558. Stockfish. Yocatur aut^m 'Stockfisch' ^ irunco, cui hie piscis 

aridus tundendus imponitur. ariditate enim ita riget, ut nisi prsemaceratus 

aqua, aut prtetunsus, coqui non possit. Oesner, p. 219. *Ie te frotteray a 

double carillon. I will beat thee like a stockfish, I will swinge thee while I 

may stand ouer thee.* Cotgrave. ' The tenne chapitule ' of * The Libelle of 

Englysch Polycye' is headed ' Of the coundius stokfysshe of Yselonde,' &c., 

&c., and begins 

Of Yseland to wryte is lytille nede, 

Save of stockjische. 

A. Borde, in his Introduction to Knowledge, under Islond, says. 

And. I was borne in Islond, as brute as a beest ; 

Whan I etc candels ends I am at a feest ; 

Talow and raw stocke/ysh I do loue to ete, 

In my countrey it is right good meate. 

... In stede of bread they do eate stocfyshe, and they wyll eate rawe fyshe 

& fleshe ; they be beastly creatures, vnmannered and vntaughte. The people 

be good fyshers ; muche of theyr fishe they do barter with English men for 

mele, lases, a^d shoes & other pelfery. (See also under Denmarke.) 

1. 559. MackereL See Muffett*s comment on them, and the English and 

French ways of cooking them, p. 157. 

1. 569. Onions. Walnuts be hurtfull to the Memory, and so are Onyons, 

because they atmoy the Eyes with dazeling dimnesse through a hoate 

vapour. T. Newton, Touchstone, ed. 1581, fol. 125 b. 

1. 572. A Rochet or Eotbart is a red kind of Gurnard, and is so called in 

the South parts of England ; and in the East parts it is called a Ourre, and a 

Golden poUe. R. Holme. 

1. 575. A Dace or a Blawling, or a Gresling, or a Zienfische, or Weyfisch ; 

by all which the Grermans call it, which in Latin is named Leucorinus. And 

the French Vengeron, which is Englished to me a Dace, or Dace-fish. R. 

Holme. 



lOHN RUSSELLS SOKE OF NURTURE. 99 

1. 577* Befett. " I thought it clear that refstt was roe, and I do not yet give 
it up. But see P.P., Eefeccyon, where the editor gives * refet oj fisshe K., refei 
or fishc H., reuei P./ from other manuscripts, and cites in a note Roquefort 
from Fr. reffait (refait) as meaning a fish, the rouget, &o., &c. The authority 
of Roquefort is not much, and he gives no citation. If, however, in K. H. and 
P. these forms are used instead of the spelling re/eccj^fi, and defined refectio, 
re/ecturay it rather embarrasses the matter. Halliwell cites no authority for 
rivet y roe." G. P. Marsh. See note to 1. 840 here, p. 108. 

L 580. Gobbin, or Gobhet, or Ouhhins : Meat cut in large peeces, as large 
as an Y.q%, R. Holme. 

1. 584. A Thonibacke, soe called from the Sharp Crooked Pricks set on 
Studs, all down the middle of the Back. R. Holme. 

1. 584. Hound Fysck, A Sow-Hound-Fish. .. So it is called from its 
resemblance of a Dog^ and its fatuess like to a Swine : though most term it 
a Dog-Fish, It hath a small Head, great Eyes ; wide Mouth, rouglf, sharp 
and thick skinned. R. Holme. 

1. 584, 1. 830. Thorlepolle. Aldrovandi, describing the Balana vera Eon- 
del[etif\ says : Hec belua Anglis, (vt dixi) Hore vocatur, & alio nomine Horle- 
poole & YVirlepoole etiam, ni fallor, earum nimirum omnium significatione, 
qubdimpetuosuo & Aatu vorticosas in mari tanquam palude procellas ezcitet. 
Oleum ex ea colligi aiunt. p. 677. See Holland's Plinie on the Whales 
and Whirlepooles called BalseneB, which take up in length as much as foure 
acres or arpens of land, v. 1, p. 235, &c. 

Thomback, Raja. Thomback, which Charles Chester merily and not un- 
fitly oalleth Neptune*s beard, was extolled by Antiphanes in Athenseus history 
for a dainty fish ; indeed it is of a pleasant taste, but of a stronger smell than 
Skate, over-moist to nourish much, but not so much as to hinder lust, which 
it mightily encreaseth. Muffett, p. 172. 

1. 596. Verjuice is the juice of Crabs or sour Apples. R. Holme. 

1. 622. Jole of Sturgion or Salmon is the two quarters of them, the head 
parts being at them. R. Holme. 

1. 630. Lamprey pie. In the Hengrave Household Accounts is this 
entry " for presenting a lamprey pye vj d." " It^m. the xiiij day of January 
[1503] to a servant of the Pryour of Lanthony in reward for brynging of two 
bakyn laumpreys to the Queue v s. Nicolas's Elizabeth of York, p. 89, and 
Glossary." 

Under ' How several sorts of Fish are named, according to their Age or 
Growth,* p. 32i>-5, R: Holme gives 

An Eel, first a Fauser, then a Grigg, or Snigg, then a Scaffling, then a 
little Eel ; when it is large, then an Eel, and when very large, a Conger. 

A Pikey first a Hurling pick, then a Pickerel, then a Pikey then a Luce or 
Lucie, 

A Smelt or Sparlingy first a Sprat, then a small Sparling, then a Sparling, 

A Codd, first a Whiting, then a Codling, then a Codd. 

A Lamprey, first a Lampron Grigg, then a Lampret, then a Lamprell, 
then a Lamprey^ 



100 NOTES TO BUSSELI^ BOKE OF NURTURE. 

A Lamprott, first a Barle, than a Barling, then a Lamprell, and then a 
Lamprey or Lampron. 

A Crevice, first a Spron Frey, then a Shrimp, then a Sprawn, and when 
it is large, then called a Crevice, 

The cariooi Burlesques, pp. 81-2, 85-6, vol. 1 of Reliquia Antique, con- 
tain a great manj names of fish. 

1. 631. Paaiy is paste rouled broad, and the Meat being laid in Order on 
it, it is turned over, and made up on three sides, with garnishes about. R. 
Holme. 

L 634, note. Galingale. Harman (ed. Strother, 1727) notices three 
varieties, Cypents rotunduSy round Galiugal ; Galanga major, Galingal ; Galanga 
minor, lesser Galingal. 

Gallinga, Lat. Galanga, says Bp Percy, is the root of a grassy-leaved 
plant brought from the East Indies, of an aromatic smell and hot biting 
bitterish Taste, anciently nsed among other Spices, but now almost laid aside. 
Lewis, Mat. Med. p. 286. See Mr Way's note 4 in Pr. Parv. p. 185. 

'Galendyne is a sauce for any kind of roast Fowl, made of Grated Bread, 
beaten Cinnamon and Ginger, Sugar, Claret- wine, and Vinegar, made as thick 
as Grewell.' Randle Holme, Bk. HE., chap. III., p. 82, col. 2. See also 
Recipes in Markham's Houswife, the second p. 70, and the first p. 77* 

1. 657* A sewer, appositor cihorum. Appono, to sette vpon the table. 
Withals. 

1. 686. See Randle Holme's 'relation of the Feast made by George 
Nevill, Arch-Bishop of York, at the time of hb Consecration, or Installation, 
7. Edw. IV. 1467-8,* and his other Bills of Fare, p. 77-81, Book III. Chap. III. 

1. 686. Mustard is a kind of sharp biting sauce, made of a small seed 
bruised and mixed with Vinegar. R. Holme. 

1. 686. DyTiere. Compare the King's dinner in The Squyr of Lowe Degree. 

The Squyer 

He toke a white yeard in his hande, 

Before the kynge than gane he stande. 

And sone he sat hym on his knee, 

And serned the kynge ryght royally 

With deynty meates that were dere, 

With Partryche, Pecocke, and Plouere, 

With byrdes in bread ybake, 

The Tele, the Ducke, and the Drake, 

The Cocke, the Corlewe, and the Crane, 

With Fesanntes fayre, theyr ware no wane, 

Both Storkes and Snytes ther were also, 

And venyson freshe of Bucke and Do, 

And other deynt^s many one. 

For to set afore the kynge anone. 

1. 312-27, B, Popular Poetry, v. 2, p. 36. 
Several of the names of the dishes in Rnssell are used burlesqnely in the 



lOHN RUSSELLS BOKE OF NURTURE. 101 

Feest oC the Tumament of Tottenham, E. Pop. F,, v. 3, pp. 94-6, " saduls 
sewys, mashefatls in mortrewys, mylstones in mawmary, iordans in iussall, 
ehese-crustis in charlett," &c. 

1. 688, Swan. " Cap. xxviij. The Swan;ie is veri a fayr birde, with whyte 
feders / & it hath a blacke skiune & flusshe / the mariner seeth hym gladly / 
for whan he is mery, the mariner is without sorowc or daunger ; & all his 
strengthe is in his wy;/ges / and he is coleryke of complexio^z / & whan they 
will engender, than they stryke wyth theyr nebbys toged^r, and cast theyr 
neckes oner eche other as yf thei wolden brace eche other ; so come they 
togeder, but the male doth hurt Me female ; & as sone as he beknoweth that 
he hathe hurte her, tha» he departeth frome her cowpani in all the haste 
possible / and she pursueth after for to reuenge it / but Me anger is sone 
past, & she wassheth her with her bylle in the water / and clenseth herselfe 
agayne." — L. Andre we, Xoble Lyfe. Pt. II. sign. m. 1. 

1. 688, Feysaund, " Cap. xlvi. Fascianiw is a wyld coeke or a fesa^it 
cocke that byde in the forestes, & it is a fayre byrde with goodly feders. but he 
hath no cowmbe as other cockes haue / and they be alway alone except whane 
they wylle be by the henne. and they that will take this bird / and in many 
places the byrders doth thus, they pay»te the figure of this fayre byrde in a 
cloth, & holdeth it before hym / & whan this birde seeth so fayr a figure of 
hym selfe / he goeth nother forward nor bacwarde / but he standeth still, 
staringe vpon his figure / & sodenly comraeth another, and casteth a nette ouer 
his hede, and taketh hym. Thys byrde mometh sore in fowle weder, & hideth 
hym from the rayne vnder Me busshes. Towarde Me morninge and towardes 
night, than com^ieth he oat of the busshe, and is ofte;itimes so taken, & he 
putteth his hede in the gron/zd, & he weneth that all his boddy is hyden / and 
his llessh is very light and good to disiest." — L. Andrewe, Noble hf/e. 
Pt. 11. (m. 4.) 

L 689. Fensoun hahe^ or Venison Pasty. Of the Hart and Hinde, Topsel 
says, '* The flesh is tender, especially if the beast were libbed before his horns 
grew : yet is not the juice of that flesh very wholesome, and therefore Galen 
adviseth men to abstain as much from Harts flesh as from Asses, for it eugen- 
dereth melancholy ; yet it is better in Summer then in Winter. Simeon Sethi, 
speaking of the hot Countries, forbiddeth to eat them in Summer, because 
then they eat Serpents, and so are venemous ; which falleth not out in colder 
Nations, and therefore assigneth them rather to be eaten in Winter time, 
because the concoctive powers are more stronger through plenty of inward 
heat ; but withal admonisheth, that no man use to eat much of them, for it 
will breed Palsies and trembling in mans body, begetting grosse humors, 
which stop the Milt and Liver : and Auicen proveth, that by eating thereof 
men incur the quartane Ague ; wherefore it is good to powder them with salt 
before the dressing, and then seasoned with Peper and other things, known 
to every ordinary Cook and woman, they make of them Pasties in most 
Nations," p. 103, ed. 1658. 

1. 694. Blanchmanger, a made dish of Cream, Eggs, and Sugar, put into 
an open puff paste bottom, with a loose cover. Blamanger, is a Capon roast 

14 



102 NOTES TO BUSSELLS SOKE OF NURTURE. 

or boile, minced small, planched (sic) Almonds beaten to paste, Cream, Eggs, 
Grated Bread, Sagar and Spices boiled to a pap. R. Holme. 

1. 694. Po > tage is strong Broth of Meat, with Herbs and Spices Boiled. 
Pottage is the Broth of Flesh or Fowl, with Herbs and Oatmeal boiled 
therein. R. Holme. 

1. 694, Fensoun ; and 1. 696, Heironseto, 

But many men byn nowe so lekerous 
That they can not leve by store of howse, 
As brawne, bakyn, or powderd beef; 
Snch lyvelod now ys no man leef. 
But venyson, wyldfowle or heronsewes. 
So newfanggell be these men of her thewes ; 
Moche medlyd wyne all day men drynke ; 
j haue wyste wyldfowle sum tyme stynke. 
Piers ofFullham, 11. 171-8, p. 8, ▼. 2, of Early Popular Poetry, 

ed. HazUtt, 1866. 

1. 695, Bustard. " Cap. xv. The Bistarda is a birde as great as an egle, 
of th^ maner of an egle, and of suche colour, saue in tk^ winges & in the tayle 
it hath some white feders ; he hath a crooked byll, & longe talants. and it 
is slowe of flight / & wha» he is on the growude, than must he ryse .iij. or 
iiij. tymes or he can come to any fulle flight, he taketh his mete on the erth ; 
for .V. or .vL of them togeder be so bold that they festen on a shepe & tere 
hyj» a-sonder / & so etc the flesshe of him / & this birde dothe ete also of 
dede bestes & stinkyn caryon, and it eteth also grasse & grene erbes / & it 
layth his eggis ypon the grou»de, & bredeth the/» out the while that the 
come groweth on the felde." — L. Andrewe, Noble Lyfe^ L ij back. 

1. 695, Crane, " Cap^ lix. The Crane is a great byrde / and whan they 
flye, they be a greate many of them to-gyder in ordre, and a-monge them they 
chose a kynge the whiche they obey / whan the crane sleep th, than standeth 
he ypon one fote with his hede vnder his winges / & ther is one that kepeth 
the wache vrith his hede vpryght to-wardes the ayre / & wha» they ete, tha« 
the kynge kepeth the wache fore them, and than the cranes ete without 
sorowe. Aristotiles sayth that aboue Egipt in farre lo»des come the cranes in 
the wi;iter / and there the fight wit^ the pygmeis as before is shewed in the 
.c. & .xvi. chapt^*.* 

The Operacion. 

Basi. The flesshe of him is grosse, & not good to disiest / & it maketh 
mclancolious blode. % The crane that is kille in somer shalbe hanged vp one 

* Pigmeis be men & women, & but one cubite longe, dwellinge in the mount- 
ay nes of ynde | they be full growen at their third yere, & at their seuenyerc they be 
olde I & they gader them in may agrete company togeder, & arme them in thcyr best 
maner | and than go they to the water syde, & where>B0-euer they fynde any craneR 
nestis they breake all the egges, & kyll all the yonges that they fynde | and this they 
do because the cranes do them many displeasures, & fight with them oftentymes, & 
do them great scathe | but these folke couer their houses witA the cranes feders & 
cgshels. fol. h. ij. back. 



I 

I 



lOHN BUS8ELL6 BOKE OF NURTURE. 103 

daye / and in winter season .ij. dajes or it be eten, and than it is the more 
disiestioos." — L. Andrewe, NobLe L^fe, Pt. II. (n. iij.) 

1. 695, peacock. " Paon revestu. A Peacocke flayed, parboyled, larded, 
and stucke thicke with Clones ; then roasted, with his feet wrapped vp to 
keepe them from scorching ; then couered againe with his owne skinne as 
soone as he is cold, and so vnderpropped that, as aliue, hee seemes to stand 
on his legs : In this equipage a gallant, and daintie seruice/'— 1611, Cotgrave. 

L 696, Peacock. " Pauo / the pecocke is a very fayre byrde / and it hath 
a longe necke, and hath on his hede feders lyke a lytell crowne / he hathe a 
longe tayle the whyche he setteth on liye very rycheli, but whan he loketh on 
hys lothly fete, he lateth his tayle sinke. Be nyght, whan the Pecocke can 
nat see hymselfe, tha/j he cryeth ernefully, and thynketh that he hath lost hys 
beantye / and with his crye he feareth all serpentes / in suche maners thai 
they dare nat abyde in those places whereas they here hym crye / and whan 
the pecocke cly»/raeth hye, that is a token of rayne . . also the pecocke is 
enyions & wylle nat knowe his yonges tyll that they haue Me crowne of feders 
vpon theyr hede, and that they begynne to lyken hym. . . . The flesshe of hyai 
will nat lightely rote nor stynke / and it is euyll flesshe to disiest, for it can 
nat lightely be rosted or soden ynough." — L. Andrewe, NohU L^e (o. iv.). 

Cap. xci. 

1. 696, Heironsetc, Ardea is a byrde that fetcheth his mete in y« water, & 
yet he byldeth vpo» the hyest trees that he can. This birde defendeth his 
yonges from y« goshawke, castiuge his dou«ge vpon him / & tha» the fedders of 
the goshawke rote of y« dounge of ardea as far as it touchet[h]. Nob. Lj^fe, L. ij . 

1. 696, Partrich. "Cap. xcvi. Perdix is a byrde very wylye, & the cockes 
feght oftentymes for the he^mes. and these byrdes flye of no heght / and they 
put theyr hedes in the erthe, & they thinke thai they tha» be well hydew, for 
whaii she seeth nobody she thinketh thai nobody seeth here. & she bredeth 
out other ptfrtriches egges / for wha» she hath lost her eges, tha« she steleth 
other egges & bredeth the»f / & wha» they be hatched thai they can go on the 
grouflde / than this dawnne setteth thew out of Me nest / but whan they be 
a-brode, & here the wyse of theyr owne dawmes, incontinent they leue theyr 
dai«me \hai brought thew up, & go to their owne natural da»ime / & than she 
thai brought thew vp hath lost her labour. The Operacion. The flesshe of 
a ptfrtriche is most holsomest of all wylde fowles, the brest & vppermoste 
parte of Me bodie is the swetest, & hathe the best sauoure / but Me hinder 
parte is nat so swete." L. Andrewe, Noble L^e, sign. p. i. & back. 

I. 698, Lark. Alauda : the larke is a lytel birde, & wftA euery man well 
beknowen through his songe / in Me somer thA begy«neth to singe in the 
dawning of Me day, geuynge knowlege to the people of Me cominge of the 
daye ; and in fayre weder he reioyseth sore / but wha« it is rayne weder, than 
it singeth selden / he singeth nat sittinge on the grownde nouther / but whan 
he assendith vpwarde, he syngeth mereli / & in the descending it falleth to 
the grownde lyke a stone. The Operacion. The larkes flesshe hardeneth 
the beli, and the brothe of hym that he was soden in, slaketh the beli. L. 
Andrewe, Noble L^e, sign. L. iv. back, and L. i. 



104 NOTES TO RU88ELLS BOKE OP NURTURE. 

1- 706, Snyte or Snipe. " Cap. Ixxxiiij. Nepa is a byrde wit A a longe 
by 11 / & he putteth his by 11 ia th^ erthe for to seke the worms in the grouade 
/ and they put their bylles in Me erthe sometyme so depe thai they can nat 
gete it vp agayne / & tha^ they scratche theyr billes out agayn with theyr 
fete. This birde restcth betimes at nyglit / and they be erly abrode on the 
mominge / & they haue swete flesshe to be eaten." L. Andrewe, Noble lA^fe, 

1. 706, Sparow. " Passer / The Sparowe is a lytell byrde / and wha» the 
cucko fyndeth the sparowes nest / tha/i he suppeth vp Me egges, & layeth 
newe egges hym self therin agayne / & the sparowe bredeth vp these yo»ge 
cuckoes tyl they can flee ; tha« a great many of olde sparowes geder to-geder 
to thente;tt thai thei sholde holde vp the yo//ge sparowes that can nat flee / & 
theyr mete is wormes of Me erthe . . All sparowes flesshe is euyl / and their 
egges also. The flessh is very bote, and mouetii to the operacion of 
lechery." L. Andrewe, Noble Liffe (o. iv.), Cap. xci. 

1. 713. Comfits are round, long or square pellets of Sugar made by the 
Art of a Confectioner. R. Holme. 

1. 737, Eles, Trevisa in his Higden says of Britain * J?e lond ys noble, 
copious, & ryche of noble welles, & of noble ry vers wi> pleute of fysch. |>ar 
ys gret plente of smal fysch & of eelef, so J>at cherles in som place feedefi 
sowes wi)» fysch.' Motrins Specimens^ p. 334. 

Comyth ther not al day owt of hollond and flaundre 
0£f fatte eles full many a showte, 
And good chepe, who that wayteth the tyddys abowte ? 
Fiers ofFullham, 11. 71-3, Early Pop. Poetry, v. 2, p. 4 (and see 11. 7-10). 

1. 747, 812. Minces, so called either for their littleness, or (as Dr. Cajus 
imagined) because their fins be of so lively a red, as if they were died with 
the true Cinnabre-lake called Miniuni .• They are less than Loches, feeding 
upon nothing, but licking one another . . they are a most delicate and light 
meat . . either fried or sodden. Muffett, p. 183. 

1. 758. Totcse. Can this be a form oi dough ? G. P. Marsh. 

1. 782. Sotiltces were made of sugar and wax. Lei. Coll. VI. p. 31. Peggc. 

1. 788-795, Sanguineus, Colericus, Fleumatieus, Malencolicus. Men were 
divided into these four classes, according to their humours. Laurens Andrewe 
says, in his Noble Zyfe, " And the bodij of man is made of many diners sortes 
of lywmes / as senewes / vaynes / fatte / flesshe & skynne. And also of the 
foure moistours / as sanguyne / flematyke/ coleryke & melancoly." (fol. a iv. 
back) col. 2. In his Chapter '* Howe that man co;nmeth into the house 
of dethe," he has drawings of these four types of man, on either side of King 
Death & the skeleton under him. Men die, he says in thre ways. 1. by one 
of the four elements of which they are made, overcoming the others ; 2. by 
humidum radicate or * naturall moystour ' forsaking them ; 3. by wounds; " & 
these thre maners of dethes be contained in the four co;»plexcions of man / 
as in the sanguyne / colerike / flematike / & mela«coly. The sanguyne 
wareth ofte«tymes so olde through gode gouernaunce / that lie must occopy 



lOHN RUSSELLS BOKB OP NURTURE. 105 

spectacles, & liQe ionge or hummidui/t radicale departe frome him / but than 
he dyeth. The colerike cowmeth oftentynies to* dethe be accide»tall maner 
through his hastines, for he is of nature bote & drye. The flematike cowmeth 
often to dethe thorough great excesse of mete & drinke, or other great 
labours doinge / for his nature is colde and moyste, & can not well disiest. 
And mela^coly is heuy / full of care & heuynes / whereof he engendereth 
moche euyll blode that causet.h great sekenes, which bringeth him vnto dethe. 
Thus go we al vnto the bowse of dethe / the one thrugh ensuynge of his 
complexion / the other through the ordenances of almyghty god. The thirde 
through the planetis & signes of the firmameitt." fol. a vi. 

1. 799, Beef, Laurens Andrewe, Noble L^e, sign. C. i., Pt. i. says, " Of the 
oxce, ca. xiiij. *' The oxce is a companable beste, & amonge his compani he is 
very roeke / & alwaye he seketh his felowe that was wont to go in the plowghe 
wyth hym / and whan he fyndeth nat his felow, than cryeth he wyth a lowde 
Toyce, roakyng gret roone / as it were one thai wolde make a mourninge 
complaynt. A bull lyneth .xy. yere, and a oxce .xx. yere. % Isaac sayth 
that an oxce flessh is the dryest flesshe amonge all other / & his blode is nat 
holsome to be et«n, for it wyll nat lightly disieste. & therfore it fedeth sore, 
& it maketh euyll humoures, & bredeth melajicoly / & they melancolicus that 
eat moche suche metes be like to suffer many diseases, as to gete an harde 
mylte / the febris quartayn / the dropcy / mangnies, lepry, &c." 

1. 799, Mutton, Wether mutton was rightly held the best See " The 
operacion " below. " \ Of the Ramme or weddr. Ca. iij. Ysydorus sayth 
that the ramme or wedder is the lodysman of other shepe / and he is the male 
or man of the oye, and is stronger than the other shepe / & he is also called 
a wedder because of a worme that he hath in his hede / & whan that begi;i- 
neth for to stirre, than wyll he tucke and feght / and he fereth naturally the 
thonder, as other shepe dothe. For whan a shepe is with frute, hering the 
thonder, she casteth her frute, and bryngeth it dede to the worlde. and the 
wedder in the tyme that he bespryngeth the oye, than is it in the tyme of 
loue amonge the shepe / and the Ramme or wedder wyl feght boldly for theyr 
wyues one with another .... 

The Operacion. 
\ The flesshe of a yoxge wether that is gelded is moch better than any other 
motton / for it is nat so moyste as other motton, and it is hoter, and whan it 
disgesteth well it maketh gode blode / but the flessh of an oled ramme wyll 
nat lightely disgest, & that is very euyll.** L. Andrewe, Noble I^e^ Pt. I. sign, 
b. i. back. / 

1. 800, Chykon, On the cocke & hen L. Andrewe discourses as follows : 
" the Cocke is a noble byrde with a combe on his bed & vnder his iawes / be 
croweth in tH night heuely & light in th^ momij»ge / & is fare herd ^iih the 
wixde. The lyon is afrayd of the cocke / & specially of the whyte / the 
crowyng of the cocke is swete & profitable ; he wakeneth tht sleper / be 
conforteth the sorowful / & reioyseth the wakers in tokenynge thai the night 
is passed . . . The flesshe of the coscke is groser thaw the flesshe of the 

' • orig. do. 



106 NOTES TO RUS8ELLS BOKE OP NURTURE. 

he;;ne or capon. Nota / the olde oockes flesshe is tenderer than the yonge. 
The capons flesshe is mightiest of all fowles & maketh gode blode. Auicenna. 
The cokerels flesshe fAat neuer crewe is better than the olde cockes flesshe : 
the stones be gode forthe;n that hane to light a disiestyon / the brothe of 
hym is gode for the payn in Me mawe thai co^imeth of wynde." Noble I^e, 
n. i. back. Of the hen, L. Andrewe says : "ihe henne is the wyfe of the cocke/ 
& ye shall lay odde egges vnder her for to hatche / . . The flesshe of the 
yonge he;/ne or she haue layde / is better than of the olde henne / also 
the grese of the cheken is moche hoter than of the he»ne." Noble J^e, n. i. 
back. 

I. 802, Goose, "The tame gese . . be heny in fleinge, gredi at their mete, 
& diligent to theyr rest / & they crye the hoares of y« night, & therwith they 
fere y*' thcues. In the hillis of alpis be gese as great, nere ha/ide, as an 
ostricbe : they be so heuy of body that they cannat flee, & so me take them 
with the hande . . The gose flessh is very grose of nature in disiestion." 
Noble Lyfe^ L. i. back. Part ii, cap. 10. 

1. 803, Capon, " Gallinacius / the capon is a gelded cocke / & becaase 
thai he is gelded he waxeth the soi^er fatte / & though he go' with the 
hennes, he dothe nat defende them / nor he croweth nat," L. Andrewe, 
Noble Zy/e, fol. n. ij. 

1. 804, ^ffis, " the new lyde egges be better than the olde / the heune 
egges be better tha« ani other egges, whan thei be fresshe, & specialli whan 
thei be rere, tha» they make gode blode / but the egges that be harde rested 
be of the grose metis. 

The Opecacion. 
All maners of egges waken a man to the worke of lecherie, & specialli 
sparowes egges. Auice^na: The ducke egges & suche Uke make grose 
humoures. The best of the egges is the yolke, & that causeth sperma / the 
white of the egge cnclineth to be cole, whan an he»ne shall brede, take hede 
of those egges that be blont on bothe endes, & thei shal be he«ne cliekens / 
& those that be longe & sharpe on bothe endes shall be cocke chekens." L. 
Andrewe. Noble Lyfe (o iij. back). 

1.808, Zflff;^. Laurens Andrewe, Pt. i. says. ^OftheLa/y/me. Cap. pnmo. 

In the begi»nynge we haue the La^/me, because he is the moste mekest beste 

leuinge, for it ofiPe»deth nobody / and all that he hathe on him is gode / y* 

flesshe for to eate, the skynne to make parchemewt or ledder / the donge for 

to doffge the felde / the clawes & homes be medicinable / he dredeth the 

wolfe sore / & he knoweth his damme best be her bleting, though she be 

amonge many shepe. 

The Operacion. 

The Lam;/te that soucketh his damme hath his flesshe very slymie, & nat 

lowable / and it will nat be disgested, principally of them that haue cold 

stomakes. la;7<mes of a yere olde be better & lighter to disgest / & they make 

gode blode / and specyally they be gode for theym that be hote & drye of 

complexcyon & dwell in a hote & drye lande / lammes flesshe is very gode for 

one that is bole & lusti, but for theim thai be seke it is very euyll : though 



lOHN RUSSELLS BORE OF NTJBTURE. 107 

it iightely disgest and descende out of the man / yet it is euyll for other 
partes of the body, for it maketh slimy humours, sign. b. i. 

1. 808, Cony. " The coney is a ly tel beste dwellynge in an hole of the 
erthe / & thore as he vseth he eucreaseth very moche, and therfore he is 
profitable for man, for he casteth oftentymes in the yere . . Ysaac sayth. 
That co;iys flesshe hath properli Me vertue to strengen Me mawe and to 
dissolue the bely / and it casseth moche vryne." The Noble Ljffe^ sign. e. i. 

1. 811. Mead or Meath, a drink made of Ginger, Sugar, Honey and 
Spring water boiled together. R. Holme. 

MeHieglin, a drink made of all sorts of wholesome Herbs boiled and 
strained with Honey and Water, and set to work with Bearm, as Ale or Beer. 
JR. Holme, Dan. miod, 

1. 811. BraggoL This drinke is of a most hot nature, as being composed 
of Spices, and if it once scale the sconce, and enter within the circumclusion 
of the Perricranion, i% doth much accelerate nature, by whose forcible 
atraction and operation, the drinker (by way of distribution) is easily 
enabled to afford blowes to his brother. In Taylor. I>rink ^ Welcome, 
1637, A 3, back. 

1. 812. Mussels (Miiyli, Chamm) were never in credit, but amongst the 
poorer sort, till lately the lilly-white Mussel was found out about Eomers- 
wall, as we sail betwixt Flushing and Bergen-up-Zon, where indeed in the 
heat of Sommer they are commonly and much eaten without any offence to 
the head, liver, or stomach : yea my self (whom once twenty Mussels had 
almost poisoned at Cambridg, and who have seen sharp, filthy, and cruel dis- 
eases follow the eating of English Mussels) did fill my self with those Mussels 
of the Low Country, being never a whit distempered with my bold adventure. 
MuffeU, p. 159. 

1. 824, Samon. 

Also sumtyme where samons vsen for to haunte. 
Lampreys, luces, or pykkes plesaunte, 
wenyth the fyscher suche fysche to fynde. 

Tiers ofFullham, 11. 11-13. 

1. 828. Torrentyne, The passage before that quoted from Aldrovandi, de 
Piscibus, p. 585, in the note, is, "Trutta, sine ut Platina scribit Truta, sine 
Trotta Italicuw nome« est, k Gallis, quibus Troutte vel potius Truette, vel 
ab Anglis quibw* a Trutc, vel Trovvt appella^jt, acceptum. Rhaeti qui 
Italica lingua corrupta vtuntur, Criues vocant, teste Gesnero." The special 
fish from the Tarentine gulf is the " Tarentella, Piscis genus. Tract. MS. 
de Pise. cap. 26 ex Cod. reg. 6838. C. : Magnv* thunnvs^ is scilicet qui a 
Hostris Ton vocatur . . dicitur Italis Tarentella, a Tarentino, unde advehitur, 
jtittu.** Ducange, ed. 1846. 

1. 838. Hake. Merlucim (or Gadus) vulgaris Y.ii. 258, 'the Seapike. . . 
It is a coarse fish, not admitted to the tables of the wealthy ; but large 
quantities are annually preserved both by salting and drying, part of which is 
exported to Spain.' ' Fish, samon, hake, herynge ' are some of the com- 
moditees of Irelonde mentioned in the Ubelle (a.d. 1436), p. 186. 



108 NOTES TO RUS8ELL8 BOKE OF NURTURE. 

1. 840, reffeti. In the following extract refeU has the Promptorium meaning : 
eteth of the [full grown] fysche, and be not so lykerous, 
Let the yong leve that woll be so plenteous ; 
ffor though the bottomlea belyes be not ffyllyd with such refete. 
Yet the saver of sauze may make yt good mete. 

Piers o/FullAam, 11. 80-3, £. Pop, P., v. 2,. p. 6. 
1. 842. b rente. 

. . y schall none pondes with pykes store, 
Breme, perche, ne with tenche none the more. — Ibid. 11. 51-2. 
1. ^4tZ,flowndur9, 

But now men on deyntees so bem delyte, 
To fede hem vpon the fyschea lyte, 
K&flowndresj perches, and such pykyng ware ; 
Thes can no man gladly now-a-day spare 
To suffyr them wex vnto resonable age. — Ibid. 11. 74-8. 
1. 867- Hose. For eight pair of hosen of cloth of divers colours, at xiij s. 
iiij d. the pair ; and for four pair " of sokks of fustian " at iij d. the pair 
(p. 118) . . for making and lyning of vj pair of hosen of puke lyned with 
cloth of the goodes of the saide Richard, for lynyng of every pair iij s. iiij d. 
XX s. Wardrobe Accounts of Edw. IV. (ed. Nicolas) p. 120. 

1. 879. Combing the head was specially enjoined by the doctors. See 
A. Borde, Vaughan, &c., below. 

1. 915. Fustian. March, 1503, 'for v yerdes ffutyan for a cote at vij d. 
the yerd ij s. xj d.* Nicolas's Elizabeth of York, p. 105. See A. Borde, 
below. 'Coleyne ihrede, /ustia/te, and can vase' are among the *com- 
modites . . fro Pruse ibroughte into Flaundres,' according to the Libeller 

p. 171, 

But tha Flemmyngis amonge these thinges dere 
In comen lowen beste bacon and here : 
Thus am thy hogges, and drynkye wele staunt ; 
Fare wele Flemynge, hay, horys, hay, avaunt. (See n. p. 131, below.) 
A. Borde, in his Introduction, makes one of the Januayes (Genoese) say, 
I make good treacle, and ^^o fustian. 
With such thynges I crauft with many a pore man. 
1. 941-5. See the extracts from Andrew Borde, W. Vaughan, &c., below. 
1. 945. The Motte bredethe amonge clothes tyll that they have byten it a 
sonder / & it is a maniable worm, and yet it hydeth him in y« clothe that it 
can scantly be sene / & it bredethe gladly in clothes that haue ben in an 
euyll ayre, or in a rayn or myst, and so layde vp without hanging in the sonne 
or other swete ayre after. 

The Operacyon. 
The erbes that be bitter & well smelli^fge is good to be layde amo»ge 
suche clothes / as the baye leuis, cypres wode. The Noble Ljife (i. 3.) Pt. i. 
Cap. c.xlij. sign. i. 3. 

1. 969. (kitte. The mouse hounter or catte is an onclene beste, & a 



lOHN RUSSELL8 BOKE OF NURTURE. 109 

poyson eniieray to all myse / and whan she hath goten [one], she playeth 
therwith / but yet she eteth it / & y* catte hath lo«ge here on her mouthe / 
and whan her heres be gone, than hathe she no boldnes / and she is gladli in 
a warme place / and she licketh her forefete & wassheth therwith her face. 
Laurens Andre we, The Noble Lyfe (g. iv.), Part I. cap. c.i. 

1. 970, dogge. Here is the first part of Laurens Andrewe's Chapter. 

Of the dogge. ca. xxiiij. 
The dogge is an onclenly beste / thai eteth so moche that he vomyteth it out 
& eteth it vp agayne / it is lightly angry, and byteth gladly strau/jge dogges / 
he barketh moche / he kn[oweth] his name well / he is hered [all over his 
b]ody, he loueth his mast[er, and is eselye] lerned to many games / & be 
night he kepeth the house. There be many hou/des that for the loue of 
theyr maister they wyll ro^ne in their owne dethe / & whan the dogge is 
seke / he seketh grasse or other erbes / & that he eteth, and heleth himselfe 
so / and there be many mauer of dogges or hott;2des to hawke & hunt, as 
grayhoumles / braches / spanyellis, or suche other, to hunt hert and hynde / 
& other bestes of chace & venery, &c. and suche be named ge»tyll hou;2de?. 
The bitche hath my Ike .v. or vij. dayes or she litter her whelpes / and that 
milke is thicker tha» any other my Ike excepte swynes mylke or hares my Ike. 
fol. c. iv. 

I. 970, Catte, L. Andrewe says 

" Of the Catte. ca. xxv. 
The catte is a beste thai seeth sharpe, and she byteth sore / and scratcheth 
right perylously / & is principall ennemye to rattis & myce / & her colour is 
of nature graye / and the cause thax they be other wyse colowred, that 
cojnmethe through chaunge of mete, as it is well marked by the house catte, 
for they be selden colored lyke the wylde catte. & their flesshe is bothe nesshe 
& soffte." Noble Lgfe, Part IL c. iv. 

I. 983. Bathe. ' Bathing is harmful to them [who are splenitic] chiefly 
after meat, and copulation (following) on surfeit. . . Let him also bathe him- 
self in sweet water. Without, he is to be leeched and smeared with oil of 
roses, and with onlayings (or poultices made of) wine and grapes, and often 
must an onlay be wrought of butter, and of new wax, and of hyssop and 
of oil ; mingle with goose grease or lard of swine, and with frankincense and 
mint ; and when he bathes let him smear himself with oil ; mingle (it) with 
saffron.' Leechdoms, v. 2, p. 245. 

l. 9S7. Scabitjsa, so named of old tyme, because it is giuen in drinke 
inwardly, or ointmentes otitwardly, to heale scabbes, sores, corrupcion in the 
stomacke, yea, and is most frend emong all other herbes in the tyme of the 
Pestilence, to drinke the water with Mithridatum a mornynges . . the 
flowers is like a Blewe or white thrummed hatte, the stalk rough, the 
vpper ieaues ragged, and the leaues next the grose rootes be plainer. Under 
whom often tymes, Frogges will shadowe theim seines, from the heate of 
the daie : hoppyng and plaiyng vnder these leaues, whiche to them is a 
pleasaunt Tente or pauillion, saieth Aristophanes, whiche maie a plade 

15 



110 



NOTES TO RUSSELL8 BOKE OP NURTURE. 



(= made a play), wherein Frogges made pastime. BuUein*8 Bulwarhe, 1562, 
or. The booke of Simples, fol. xvj. b. 

1. 995. Bilgres, Can this be bugloss ? I find this, as here, in juxtaposition 
with scabiose, in Bullein's Bultoarke of Defence, Book of Simples, fol. xvj. b. 
G. P. Marsh. 

1. 1004. For Selden's Chapter on Precedence, see his Titles of Honour, 
oh. xi. Kouge Dragon (Mr G. Adams) tells me that the order of precedence 
has varied from time to time, and that the one now in force differs in many 
points from Husseirs. 

1. 1040. Nurrieris, I find no such name in Selden's chap, ix., Of Women. 
Does the word mean ' foster-mothers or fathers,' from the Latin " Nutricarii, 
Matricularii, quibus enutriendi ac educandi infantes projectos cura incumbe- 
bat : Nourissiers. Vita S. Goaris cap. 10 : Hacque comuetudo erat, ut quando 
aliquis homo de ipsis infantibus projectis misericordia vellet curam habere, ab 
illis, quos Nutricarios vocant, matriculariis S. Petri compararet, et illi Episcopo 
ipsum infantem prasentare deberent, et postea Epufcopi auctoritas eumdem homi- 
nem d^ illo Nutricario confirmabat. Id clariua erplicatur a Wandelberto in 
Vita ejusdem Sancti, cap. 20." Ducange, ed. 1845. 



The following list of Names of Fish, from Yarrell, may be found conve- 
nient for reference. 

Names of Fish from TarreWs History of British Fish, 1841, 2nd ed. 



English Names. 


Latin Names. Yar.. 


toK. pa«e 


Basse 


Perca labrax 


i 8 


Bleak 


LuciscMs, or Cyprinus albumm 


i419 


Bream or Carp-Bream 


Abramis, or Cyprinus brama 


i388 


„ the common Sea- 


Bagellus centrodontus 


il23 


BriU, or Pearl, Kite, 


Rhombus vulgaris, or 




Brett, Bonnet-Fleuk 


Pleuronectes rhombus 


ii231 


Butt, Flook, or Flounder 


Pleuronectes Jlesus, or 
Platessa fiesus 


ii303 


Common Cod, or Keeling 


Morrhua vulgaris, or 
Gadus morrhua (Jenyns) 


11221 


Green Cod 


Merlangus virens (Cuvier) 
Gadus virens (Linufeus) 


ii256 


Conger 


Conger vulgaris, or Murana conger 


- 11402 


Dace, Dare, or Dait 


Leuciscus vulgaris, or Cyprinus 
leuciscus 


1404 


Dog Fish (the common), 


Spinas acanthias, or 


ii524 


The Picked Dog-Fish, or 


Squalus acanthias 




Bone Dog (Sussex), Hoe 






(Orkney) 






Small Spotted Dog Fish 


Seyllium canicula, or 


ii487 


or Morgay (Scotl.), Robin 


Squalus canicula 





Hubs (Sussex Coast) 
Large Spotted Dog Fish, or 
Bounce (Scotl. & Devon) 



Seyllium stellaris 



11493 



lOHN RUS8ELL8 BOKE OF NURTURE. 



Ill 



English Nunes. 


LaUn Names. Yar. 


, vol, i>ag« 


Black-mouthed Dog-rish, or 


Scyllinm melanmiomum 


ii495 


Eyed Dog-Fish (Cornwall) 






The Smooth Hound or 


Squalus ntustelus, or 


ii512 


Shate-toothed Shark, 


Mustelus loots 




Ray-mouthed Dog (Cornwall] 






Dory, or Dor6e 


Zeus/aber 


il83 


Sharp-nosed Eel 


Anguilla acutirosiris, or vulgaris 


ii381 


Broad-nosed Eel 


Anguilla latirostris 


ii896 


Flounder, or Flook (Merret). 


FlaUssa flesus 


ii303 


Mayock, Fluke (Edinb.), Butt 






Grayling 


Thymallus vulgaris^ or 
Salmo thymaUas 


iil36 


Gudgeon 


Gdbio fluviatilis, or 
Cyprinus gobio 


1371 


lied Gurnard 


Trigla cuculus, or lineata 


i 3863 


Haddock 


Morrhua <egle/iniis, or 
Gadus €sglefinus 


11233 


Hake 


Merlucius vulgaris^ or 
Oadus merlucius 


11253 


Herring 


Clupea karengus 


11183 


Holibut 


Hippoglossus vulgaris^ or 
Pleuronectes hippoglossus 


11321 


Homfish, Garfish, Sea-pike, 


Belone vulgaris, or 


1442 


Long Nose, &c. 


Esox belone 




Keeling. See Common Cod 




11221 


Lampem, or Elver Lamprey • 


Petromyzonjluviatilis 


li604 


Lamprey 


Petromyzon marinus 


11598 


Ling 


Lota molca (Cuvier), or 
Gadus molva (Linnaeus) 


11264 


Luce, or Pike 


Hsox lucius 


1434 


Lump-fish 




11365 


Mackarel 


Scomber scombms, or tmlgaris 


1137 


Merling, or Whiting 


Merlangus tmlgaris (Cuvier), or 
Gadus merlangus (Linnieus) 


11244 


Minnow 


Zeuciscus, or Cyprinus phoxinus 


1423 


Mullet, grey, or Common 


Mugil capita, or cephalus 


1234 


Murtena 


Murana Helena 


11406 


Perch 


Percajluviaidis 


1 1 


Hke 


Esox lucius 


1434 


Plaice 


Platessa vulgaris 


11297 


Roach 


Cyprinus rutilis 


1399 


Salmon 


Salmo Salar 


li 1 



* The Lampems have been taken in the Thames at Teddington this autumn 
(1866) in extraordinary quantities. 



112 



NOTES TO RU8SELL8 BOKB OF NURTURE. 



EagUsh Namea. 
Smelt. Spirling and Sparling in 

Scotland 
Sturgeon, the Common, 

„ the Broad -nosed 
Swordfish 
Tench 

Thomback 

Trout, Common 

Turbot, or Rawn Fleuk and 

Bannock Fluck (Scotl.) 
Vendace or Vendis (? Venprides, 

1. 821, RusseU) 
Whiting, or Merling 



Lfttfn Kamet. Tar., vol., pa«re 

Sahno SperUinus^ or ii 75 & 

Osmerus Sperlanus 129 

Acipenser Sturio ii 475 

Acipen9er latirastris ii 479 

Xiphias gladiuB i 1C4 

Tinea vulgaris, or i 875 
CypriniLs tinea 

Raia clavata ii 583 

Salmofario ii 85 

Rhombus maximus, or ii 324 
Pleuronectes maximus 

Curegonus Willughbii, or ii 146 
Coregonus Maratiula (Jenyns) 

Merlangus vulgaris (Cuvier) ii 244 
Gadus merlangus (Linneus) 



NOTES TO RUSSELL. LA WRENS ANDREWE ON FISH. 113 



CjctxndB about Jis^ from '' £^e noblt Igft & naturrs 

of man, 61 bnitB / srrpentgs / fofoks £ fiss^es 

S be mo0ije knoioen." 

A VERT rare black-letter book, without date, and hitherto 
undescribedi except perhaps incorrectly by Ames (vol. 1, p. 
412, and vol. 3^ p. 1531), has been lent to me by Mr 
Algernon Swinburne. Its title is given above : " The noble 
lyfe and natures of man " is in large red letters, and the rest 
in smaller black ones, all surrounded by woodcuts of the 
wonderful animals, mermaids, serpents, birds, quadrupeds 
with men's and women's heads, a stork with its neck tied in 
a knot, and other beasts *' y be most knowen.*' The illustra- 
tions to each chapter are wonderfully quaint. The author of it 
says in his Prologus " In the name of ower sauiour criste 
lesu, maker & redemour of al ma^kynd / I Lawrens Andrewe 
of Me towne of Calis haue translated for Johanuea does- 
borrowe, booke prenter in the cite of Andwarpe, this present 
volume deuyded in thre partes, which were neuer before in 
no matemail langage prentyd tyl now '/ " As it is doubtful 
whether another copy of the book is known, I extract from 
the Third Part of this incomplete one such notices of the fish 
mentioned by Russell or Wynkyn de Worde, as it contains, 
with a few others f6r curiosity's sake : — 

here after followeth of the natures of the fisshes of the See 
whiche be right profitable to be vndersta^tde / Wherof I wyll 
wryte be the helpe and grace of almighty god, to whose laude 
ft prayse this mater ensueth. 

Cap. Pruco. 



A 



Bremon* is a fruteful fisshe that hathe moche sede / but it Ainmum .- 
is nat through mouynge of the he / but only of the owne oap. ziu; p. iis 



proper nature / and than she rubbeth her belly upon the ''*'*^' 
grouxde or sande / and is sharpe in handelinge / ft salt of 
sauour / and this fisshe saueth her yonges in her bely whan it 
is tempestius weder / ft when the weder is ouerpast, than she 
Yomyteth them out agayne. 

* iifipatiitf a fish fonnd in the sea and the Nile, perhaps the 
kream^ 0pp. Hal. i. 244. liddell & Seott. 



114 



KOTES TO BUS8ELL. LA WRENS ANDBEWE ON FISH. 



Eel (Busaell, !• 

71% 



la or no sex ; 



ia best roasted. 



Herring (Ruaaell, 
1. 722). 



Is delicious when 
ftrsh, 

(RoMell. 1. 748) 
or salted. 

Dies when it feels 
the air. 



WhaU f (Bunell. 
1. 662). 



Shipmen cast 
anchor on him. 



andnukea'flre 
on him. 

He swims away, 
and drowns them. 



OoldenpoU; 



Ahuna. 



When the Ahnna 
1« in danger, 

he pnts his head * 
in his belly, and 



Cap. ij. 

ANguilla / the £Ie is Ijke a 8erpe;/t of fascyon, & may leue 
eight yere, & without water vi. dayes whan the wind is in 
the northc / in the wint^ they wyll haue moche water, & that 
elere / amo;/ge them is nouther male nor female / for they 
become fisshes of ihe slyme of otiier fisshes / they most be 
flayne / they sufTer a longe dethe / they be best rested, but it 
is longe or they be ynouge / the droppiitge of it is gode for 
paines in the cares. 

Cap. iij. 

A Lee, the heringe, is a Fisshe of the see / & very many be 
taken betweeue bretayn & gerroaia / & also in denmarke 
aboute a place named schonen / And he is best from the 
beginnynge of August to december / and when he is fresshe 
taken / lie is a very delicious to be eten. And also whax he 
hath ben salted he is a specyall fode vnto man / He can nat 
leue without wat^, for as sone as he feleth the ayre he is 
dede / & they be taken in gret hepis togcder / & 'specially 
where they se light, there wyll they be, than so they be taken 
with nettis / which commeth be the dinyne Pronydens of 
almighty God. 

Cap. V. 

ASpidocheloA / as Phisiologi» saith, it b a moirstrous tbinge 
in the see, it is a gret whale fisshe, & hath an ouer-growex 
rowgh skiAue / & he is moste parte witk his bake on hye aboue 
the water in such maner that some shypmen that see bim, wene 
that it is a lytell ylande / & whan they come be it, they 
cast their ankers upon him / & go out of theyr sbippes & make 
a fyre upon hym to drcsse theyr metys / and as sone as he 
feleth the hete of the fyre / thajene he swymmeth fro the place, 
& drowneth them, & draweth the shippe to the grounde / And 
his proper nature is, whan he hath yonges, iAai he openeth bis 
mouthe wyde open / & out of it fleeth a swete ayre / to Me 
which the fisshes resorte, and than he eteth them. 

AAurata is a fysshe in the see that bathe a hede shinynge 
lyke golde. 

Cap. xi. 

AHuna is a monster of the see very glorisshe, as Alberts 
saith / what it eteth it toumeth to greas in his body / it 
bathe no mawe but a bely / & that he filleth so full that he 
speweth it out agayne / k that can he do so lyghtely / for he 
hath no necke / whan he is in peryl of dethe be other fisshes / 
than he onfacyoneth himselfe as rounde as a bowle, witildraw- 
ynge his hede into his bely / whan he bathe then honnger / He 



NOTES TO RUSSELL. LAWRENS AKDREWE OK FISH. 115 



• 



dothe ete a parte of himselfe rather than the other iisshes eats a ut of 
sholde ete him hole and aU. ^^"^^^ 

Cap, xiii. 

BOrbotha be fisshes very slepery, somewhat lyke an ele / Borbotha. 
haui/tge wyde mouthes & great hedes / it is a swete mete / 
and whan it is xij. yere olde, than it waxeth bigge of body, 
Nota / Botte that is a flouwder of the fresshe water / & they Butt, or Flounder 
swifftme on the flatte of their body, & they haue finnes roa;f de and^ote 2). ' 
about theyr body & with a sothem wynde they waxe fatte / 
& they have rede spottis. Bre«na is a breme, & it is a fisshe Bream (Rusbcii. i. 
of the riuer / & whan he seeth the pyke that wyll take hym / 
than he sinketh to the botom of iAe wat^r & maketh it so 
trobelons that the pyke can nat se hym. 

Cap. xiiii. 

BAlena is a great beste in the see^ and bloweth moche water Botota. (The 
from him, as if it were a clowde / the shippes be in great m^rd. "seo** 
dao/fger of him somtyme / & they be sene moste towardes J"^- p- ^^ *»«"'• 
winter / for in the somer they be hidden in swete brod places i. S82.) 
of the wat^r where it casteth her yo»ges, & suffereth so grete ^^" "*"'* ^"^ 
payne ikat tha» he fleteth aboue the water as one desiringe breed in summar. 
helpe / his month is in the face, & therefore he casteth the more 
water / she bringeth her yonges forthe lyke other bestis on 
erthe, & it slepeth / in tewpestius weder she hydeth her inrongb Y^^^^ 
yonges in her monthe / and wha;» it is past she voydeth them young in her 
out agayne / & they growe x. yere. month. 

Cap. xvi. 

CAncer the creuyce is a Tishe of Me see that is closed in a oreviee (Se* and 
harde shelle, hauyng many fete and clawes / and euer it crayfish )*'^^ 
crepeth bacward / & tlie he hathe two py»nes on his bely, & (Rii«eii, i. 002, i. 
the she hathe none / whan he wyll engender, he climmeth on How they 
her bake, and she tumeth her syde towardes him, & so they «n««nder, 
fulfyll their workes. In maye they chaunge their cotes, & in 
wi/iter they hyde they» fiue monethes duringe / whan the and hybernate. 
crenes hath dro^iken milke it may leue loiige wttAout wat^r. 
when he is olde, he hathe ij. stones in his bed with rede 
spottes that haue great vertue / for if they be layde in 
drynke / they withdryue the payne frome the herte. the 
creuyce eteth the Oysters, & geteth them be policye / how the Oraytish 
for whan the oyster gapeth, he throweth lytell stones in him, ^JJ^** ^ **' 
and so geteth his fishe out, for it bydeth than open. 

The Operacion. 

^ The Asshes of hym is gode to make white tethe / & to 
kcpe the motes out of the clothes / it wit^dryueth byles, & 



116 



NOTES TO RUSSELL. LAWRENS ANDREWE ON FISH. 



Fresh-Water 
Crayflah ia hard 
to digest. 



Caudua. 
CapiUlua. 



(Tarp. 



Is difficult to net 



Whale. 



Likee Harmony. 



Oeto Iiarpooned, 



nilM tlie bariMion 
into liimaelf. and 
slays himself. 



Conche. or 
Jihtsrle. 



Se«-«nails. 



heleth xnangynes. The creuyce of the fresshe water geueth 
gi*et fode, but it is an heuy mete to disieste. 

Cap. xviij. 

CAxxcius is a fisshe that will nat be taken w/tA no hokes / but 
eteth of the bajte & goth his way quyte. Capitaiif^ 
is a lytel fisshe wttA a great hede / a wyde rou»de mouthe / & 
it hydeth him vnder the stones. Nota. Carpera is a carpe, & 
it is a fysshe that hathe great scales / and the female hathe a 
great rowghe, & she can bringe forthe no yonges tyll she haue 
receyued mylke of her make / & that she receyueth at the 
mouth / and it is yll for to take / for whan it perceyueth that 
it shalbe taken with the net, than it thrusteth the hede into 
the mudde of the water / and than the nette slyppbth ouer 
him whiche waye soeuer it come ; & some holde them fast be 
the grounde, grasse / or erbis, & so saue themselfe. 

Cap. xix. 

CEtus is the greatest whale fisshe of all / his moathe is so 
wyde that he bloweth vp the water as yf it were a clowde / 
wherwitA he drowneth many shippes / but whan the maryners 
spye where he is / than thei accojnpany them a gret many of 
shyppes togeder about him with diners instrumentis of musike, 
& they play with grete armonye / & the fische is very gladde 
of this armonye / & co;7/meth iietynge a-boue the watere to 
here the melody, & than they haue amonge them an instru- 
ment of yron, (he whiche they festcx in-to the harde ski^^ne, & 
the weght of it synketh downwarde in to the fat & grese / & 
sodenly w^'tA that al the instrumentes of musike be sty II, and 
the shyppes departe frome thens, & anone he sinketh to the 
grownde / & he feleth that the salt watere smarteth in the 
wouffde, than he tumeth his bely vpwaerd and rubbeth his 
wownde agaynst the grou^td, & the more he rubbeth, the 
depere it entreth / & he rubbeth so longe that he sleeth hym- 
self / and whan he is dede, than co»?meth he vp agayne and 
sheweth him selfe dede / as he dyd before quicke / and than 
the shippes gader them togeder agayne, and take, & so lede 
hym to lo»de, & do theyr profyte with hym. 

Cap. xxij. 

COnche be abydynge in the harde shellis: as the mone 
growth or waiieth, so be the conches or muscles fulle or 
nat full, but smale / & there be many sortes of conches or 
musclys / but the best be they that haue the perles in. 

Cap. xxiij. 

COochele / is n snaylc dwelli^rge in the water & also on the 
lo«de / they go out of theyr bowses / & they thruste out 



NOTES TO RUSSELL. LAWBBN8 ANDREWE ON PISH. 117 

.ij. longe homes wherwith they fele wether they go / for they 
se nat where they crepe. 

Cap. xxiiij. 

THe Conger is a se fisshe facioned like an ele / but they be conger. 
moche greter in qua;*tyte / & whan it bloweth sore, than 
waxe they fatte. ^ Polippus is also a stronge fisshe t?iat Poiippus. 
onwarse he wyl pull a man out of a sliyp. yet the conger is so 
stronge that he wyll tere polippu/^i asonder witA his tetfa, & in 
winter ihe conger layth in the depe cauemes or holes of the 
water. & he is nat taken but in somer. ^ Esculapius sayth. 
Coretz is a fissbe that hydeth hym in the depe of the water Corptn. 
whan it rayneth / for yf he receiued any rayne, he sholde waxe 
blynde, and dye of it. % lorath sayth. The fisshes that be 
named se craues / wha//ne they haue jonges j they make suche sta-ereviee. 
noise thai through theyr noyse they be foujide and taken. 

Cap. xxvij. 
Elphinir^ is a mobster of the see, & it hath no voyce, but Doiiihin or 



D 



it singheth lyke a man / and towarde a tempest it play- ^""'^^ " 
eth ypon the water. Some say whan they be taken that they 
wepe. The delphin hath none eares for to here / nor no nose 
for to smelle / yet it smeUeth very well & sharpe. And it 
slepeth vpon the water very hartely, that thei be hard ronke 
a farre of / and thei leue C.xLyere. & tliey here gladly playwge 
on instrumentes, as lutes / harpes / tabours / and pypes. They 
loue their yonges very well, and they fede them lo;;ge with the 
mylke of their pappes / & they haue many yonges, & amonge 
the;» all be .ij. olde ones, that yf it fortuned one of tht yonges 
to dye, tha» these olde ones wyll burye them depe in the 
gorwnd [sic] of the see / because othere tisshes sholde nat ete 
thys dede delphyn ; so well they loue theyr yonges. There 
was ones a kinge thai had take;! a delphin / wbyche he caused 
to be bounde vfiih chaynes fast at a hauen where as the 
shippes come in at / & there was alway the pyteoust 
wepynge / and lamentynge, that the kinge coude nat for 
pyte / but let hym go agayne. 

Cap. xxxi. 

Ij^Cheola is a muskle / in whose fysshe is a precious stone / scheoia, « 
-i & be night they flete to the water syde / and there they ^""**- 
receyue the heuenly dewe, where throughe there groweth 
in iham a costly margaret or orient perle / & they flete a great 
many togeder / & he thai knoweth the water best / gothe 
before & ledeth the other / & whan he is taken, all the other 
scater a brode, and geteth them away. 

16 



118 



NOTES TO RUSSELL. LAWBENS ANDREWE ON FISH. 



Echinus. 



E 



Esox. 



PhocM. 1 

Kills his wife uid 
frets another. 



HalftU. 

Takes her young 
out of her womb 
to look at 'em. 



Sword-Flsb. 



Gastarioe. 



QIaucus. 



Gudgeon. 



GravuB. 



Cap. xxxvi. 
chjnt^ is a lytell f jssbe of half a fote longe / & hath sharpe 
prykcles ynder his belj in stede of fete. 

Cap. xxxvii. 

Ezox is a very grete fisshe in that vater danowe be the 
londe of huxgarye / he is of suche bygnes that a carte 
with .iiij. horses can nafc cary hym awaye / and he hath nat 
many bones, bat his«hedeis fall / and he hath swete fisshe 
lyke a porke, and whan this fysshe is taken, thanne gene hym 
mylke to drynke, and ye may carye hym many a myle^ and 
kepe hym longe quicke. 

xxxviii. 

FOcas is a see bulle, & is very stroirge & dangerous / and 
he feghteth euer with his wyf tyll she be dede / and 
whan he hath kylled her, than he casteth her oat of his place, 
& sekcth another, and leaeth with her very well tyl he dye / 
or tyll his wyfe ouercome him and kylle hy»i / he bydeth alway 
in one place / he and his yonges leue be suche as they can 
gete. ^ Htdata is a beste that dothe on-naturall dedys / for 
whaji she feleth her yoffges quycke, or stere in her body / 
than she draweth the/» out & loketh vpon thei» / yf she se 
they be to yonge, tha» she putteth them in agayne, & lateth 
them grow tyll they be bygger. 

Cap. xv. 

GLaditfS is a fisshe so named because he is mouthed after 
the fascyoM of a sworde poynt / and ther-fore often 
tymes he perseth Me shyppes thorough, & so causeth them to 
be drowned. Aristotiles. Gastarios is a fisshe lyke the 
scorpion / and is but lytell greter than a spyder / & it 
styngeth many fisshes with her poyson so that they can nat 
endure nowhere / and he styngeth the dolphin on the hede that 
it eutreth in-to tAe brayne. % Isidorus. Glaucus is a whyte fissh 
that is but selden sene except in darke rayne weder / and is 
nat in season but in the howndes dayes. 

Cap. xli. 

GObio is a smale longe fissh with a rouizde body / full of 
scales and litell blacke spottys / and some saye they leue 
of drou»de caryo» / & the fisshers say contrarye, that they 
leue in clere watere in sandye graueil / and it is a holsom 
mete. ^ Grauus is a fisshe that hath an iye aboue on hys hede, 
and therwitA he loketh vp, and saueth hym from them that 
wyll eat hym. 



NOTES TO RUSSELL. LAWRENS ANDREWB ON PISH. 119 

liii. 

LUcins is a pike / a fisshe of ihe riuer mth a wjde mouthe p**^ • 
8t sharpe teth : whan Me perche spieth him / he tameth 
his tayle towardes him / & than the pike dare nat byte him 
because of his finnes, or he can nat swalowe him because he is 
so sharpe / he eteth yenimo»« bestes, as todes, frogges, & eats yenomom 
suche like ; yet it is sayde thai he is very hobom for seke **®"*' ' 
peple. He eteth fisshes almost as moche as himselfe / wha^ 
they be to bigge, than he by teth the^ in ij. peces, & swaloweth 
the one halfe first, & thax the other / he is engendered with is begotten by a 
a westeme wynde. ^"'^ ^*"^- 

Cap. Ivii. 

MUs marine, the see mouse, gothe out of the water, & there Sea-Mouae. 
she laith her egges in a hole of the erthe, & couereth the 
eges, & goth her way & bydeth frome them x x x, dayes, and 
than commeth agayne and oncouereth tiiem, & than there be 
yoffges, and them she ledeth into the water, & they be first al 
blynde. Musculi/^ is a fisshe that layth harde shellis, and of Miucoius is the 
it the great monster balena receyueth her nature, & it is «>«kofBaiena. 
named to be the cocke of balena. Mustek is the see wesyll / Sea-weaiie. 
she casteth her yonges lyke other bestes / & wha» she hath 
cast them, yf she perceiue that they shall be fou^ide, she 
swaloweth them agayne into her body, and than seketh a place 
wher as they may be surer without dau;fger / & than she 
speweth them out agayne. 

Cap. lix. 

MUrena is a hnge fisshe with a weke skinne lyke a serpent / Lamprey. 
& it^conceyueth of the serpe«t vipera / it liueth longest 
in the tayle, for wlia;» that is cut of, it dyeth inco;itinent / it 
must be soden in gode wyne wtt^ herbes & spices, or ellis it Must be boUed lu 
is very daw^gerow^ to be eten, for it hath many venymous 
humours, and it is euyll to disieste. 

Cap. Ixi. 

MUIns is a see fysshe thai is smale of body / & is only a Maiua : 
mete for gentils : & there be many maners of these / 
but the best be those that haue ij. berdes vnd^r the mouthe / has s beards. 
& whan it is fayre weder, than they waxe fatte / whan he is 
dede than he is of many colours. 

Cap. Ixiiij. 

NEreydes be monsters of the see, all rowghe of body / & whan Nereids, 
any of them dyeth, tha;i the other wepe. of this is 
spoken in balena, the .xiiij. chapter. 



120 



NOTES TO RUSSELL. LAWRENS ANDREWB ON FISH. 



Orchon. 



Ifl Balena'fl deadly 
enemy. 



PearI-Oy»ter. 



Pagrua. 
Sea-Peacock. 

Percufl. 
Pecten : winka. 



Pinna. 



How he catches 
■mall flahes. 



Plai<-f. 



Polippua. 



Rnmbna. 



^ r^'^^'^ ^* * monster of tht se / whose Ijkenes can nat 
\j ligbtely be sliewed / & he is mortal ewnemye to the 
balene, & tereth asonder the bely of the balene / & the balene 
is so bojstous thai he can nat tome hym to defende him, and 
thai costeth him his lyfe / for as sone as he feleth hii» selfe 
wounded, than he si»keth doune to the botom of the water 
agayne / & the Orchuw throweth at him vfith stones / & thus 
balena eudith his lyfe. 

Cap. Ixvi. 

OStren is an oyster tliat openeth his shell to receyue the 
dewe & swete ayre. In Me oyster groweth natundi 
orient perles that oftentynies laye on the see stronde^ & be bnt 
lytell regarded, as Isidorus saith. 

Cap. Ixvij. 

Pagrus is a fisshe that hath so harde tethe thai he byteth the 
oyster shelles in peces, & cteth out the fisshe of them. 
Nota. Pauus maris is the Pecocke of the Se, & is lyke the 
pecocke of the londe, bothe his backe, necke, & hede / & the 
nether body is fisshe Nota. Percus is of diuers colours, & 
swift in ro;;nynge in the water, & hathe sharpe finnes, & is a 
holsome mete for seke people. Pecten is a fisshe that is in 
sandy grouffde, & wha» he is meued or stered, he wynketh. 

Cap. Ixx. 

Pinna is a fisshe thai layeth alwaye in the mudde, and hathe 
alway a lodisman, & some name it a lytel hoge, & it hathe 
a rou/(de body, & it is in a shell lyke a muscle ; it layth in 
the mone as it were dede, gapyng open / and than the smaie 
fisshes come into his shel, weni^tg of him to take their repaste / 
but whan he feleth thai his shell is almoste ful / than he 
closet h his mouthe, & taketh them & eteth them / & parteth 
them amoffge his felowes. The playce is well knowen fisshe, 
for he is brode & blake on the one syde, and whyte on the 

other. 

Cap. Ixvij. 

POlippus hath gret strength in his fete / what he therin 
cacheth, he holdeth it fast / he spri^rgeth somtyme vp to 
the shippes syde, & snacheth a ma» wtt^ him to the grouitde 
of the see, & there eteth him / & that thai he leueth, he 
casteth it out of his denne agayn / they be moche in the se 
about Yenis / & he is taken in barellis where hartys homes 
be layd in / for he is gladly be those homes. 

Cap. Ixxvij. 

RUmbus is a great fisshe stronge & bolde / but he is very 
slow in swimmij^ge, therfor can he gete his mete but 



NOTES TO RUSSELL. LAWRENS ANDREWE ON FISH. 121 

soberly witA swiwmyng / therfor he layth him down in the 
gronnde or mudde, & hideth him there / and all the fisshes 
that he can ouercome / cowimynge forby him, he taketh and 
eteth them. 

Cap. Ixxviij. 

RUbus is a fisshe of the grekes se & of the sees of ytaly / Rubn*. 
they be ron»de lyke a ringe, & haue many rede spottes / 
& is full of sharpe finnes & pinnis / he is slow in swimmynge 
because he is so brode / he gothe be the grou/rde, & wayteth 
there his praye / & suche fisshes as he can gete he burieth in 
the sandes, & it is a very swete fisslie. Ryache be fisshes Ryuche. 
that be rou^de / somtyme they be in length & brede two 
cubites / & it hath a long tayle / t heron be sharpe pinnes / & 
it is slowe in 8wi;»mynge. 

Cap. Ixxix. 
Oalmo is a fysshe engendred in the swete water, & he waxeth Salmon. 
O longe & gret / & also he is heuy / & his colour nor sauour 
is nat gode tyll he haue ben in the salt wat^r & proued it / 
thus draweth the samon to the water agaynst the streme ; he 
neuer seaseth tyll he haue ben in the se and returned agayn to 
his olde home, as Phisiologua saith / his fisshe ' is rede, & he [n iieshe.] 
may nat liue in a swet stajidinge water / he must be in a 
fresshe riuer that he may playe up and doujee at his plesure. 

Salpa is a fowle fisshe and ly tell set by / for it will neuer be Saipa. stoehflah f 
ynough for no maner of dressinge tyll it haue ben beten 
with grete hamers & staues. 

Cap. Ixxij. 

SErra is a fysshe with great tethe, and on his backe he hathe serra. 
sharpe fynnes lyke the combe of a cocke / and iagged 
lyke a sawe wherewitA thys monstrous fisshe cutteth a ship catB through 
thorough, & whan he seeth a shippe cowmynge, than he •WpswithhisflM. 
setteth irp his fixnes & thixketh to sayl with the shippe as 
fast as it / but whan he seeth that he can nat co/itinue / than 
he latteth his finnes fall agayn & destroieth the shippe with 
the people, and tha;i eteth the dede bodyes. Nota. Scilla is scyiia. 
a monster in the see betwene Italye & SiciU / it is great 
ennemye vnto maji. It is faced & handed lyke a gentylwoman / 
but it hath a wyde mouthe & ferfuU tethe / & it is belied like 
a beste, & tayled lyke a dolphin / it hereth gladly singinge. It 
is in the wat^ so stronge that it can nat be ouercome / but 
on Me loud it is but weke. 

Cap. Ixxxiij. 

Syrene. the mermayde is a dedely beste that bringeth a man siren, 
gladly to dethe / frome the nauyll vp she is lyke a woman 



122 



NOTES TO RUSSELL. LAWRENS ANDREWS ON FISH. 



Siren is like an 
eagle below. 



Kings Bweet songs 
to mariners. 



And tears them to 
pieces. 



Sirens, serpents. 



Solaris. 



Solf. 



Solopendria. 



Sea-Scorploil. 
[1 orig. Tge] 



Sturgeon. 

Eats no food, 
has no mouth. 



grows fat on east 
wln± 



Has no bones In 
his body. 



Tmeh. 
Tlntinalus. 



w»t^ a dredfull face / a long slynjye here, a grete body, & is 
lyke the egle in the nether parte / haui^ge fete and taleirtis to 
tear asonder suche as she geteth / her tayl is scaled like a 
fisshe / and she singeth a maner of swete song, and therwith 
deceyueth many a gode mariner / for wha» they here it, they 
fall on slepe commonly / & than she commeth, and draweth 
them out of the sbippe, and tereth them asonder / they here 
their yonges in their armes, & geue them souke of their papis 
whiche be very grete, ha«ginge at their brestis / bat the wyse 
maryners stoppe their eares whan they se her / for whan she 
playth on the wat^, all they be in fear, & than they cast out 
an empty tonne to let her play wttA it tyll they be past her / 
this is specifyed of them ihat haue sene it. Ther be also in 
some places of arabye, serpe;2tis named sirenes, that ronne 
faster than an horse, & haue wynges to flye. 

[Cap. Ixxxv,] 

Solaris is a fishe so named because it is gladly be the londes 
syde in the 8o»ne / he hathe a great hede, a wyde mouth, 
& a blake skine, & slipper as an ele / it waxeth gret, & is gode 
to be eten. Solea is the sole, that is a swete fisshe and 
holsom for seke people. 

Cap. Ixxxvi. 

SOlope^idria is a fisshe / whan he hathe swalowed in an 
angle, than he spueth out al his guttes till he be quyt of 
the hoke / and than he gadereth in all his guttes agayne. ThCi 
Scorpion of the see is so named because wha^i he is taken in 
any mannys bandes he pricketh him wtt^ his stinge of his 
tayle. Plini«« saith that the dede creuyce that layeth on the 
drye sonde be the see syde, beoommeth scorpyons. 

Cap. Ixxxix. 

STurio / the sturgio/i is a gret fisshe in the ro^ninge waters / 
and he taketh no fode in his body, but lyueth of ihe 
styl and swete ayres therfore he hathe a small bely / wttA a 
hede and no roouthe, but vnder his throte he hathe a hole that 
he closeth whan he wyll / he openeth it whan it is fayre 
wedcr / & with an east wynde he waxeth fat / and whan that 
the north winde bloweth, than falleth he to the grouxde / it is 
a fisshe of ix. fote longe whan he is ful growen / he hath 
whyte swete flesshe & yolow fatte / & he hathe no bone in all 
his body but only in his hede. 

Cap. xcij. 

TEcna is a tenche of the fresshe water, and is fedde in the 
mudde lyke the ele / & is moche lyke of' colours : it is a 
swete fisshe, but it is euyll to disiest. % Tintinalus is a fayre 



r^/or Trutta] 



NOTES TO RUSSELL. LAWREN8 ANDREWE ON FISH. 123 

mery fisshe, & is swete of sauour, & well smellinge lyke the 
tyme, where of it bereth the name. % Torpido is a fisshe. Torpedo, 
but who-so handeleth hym shalbe lame & defe of lymmes / 
that he shall fele no thyng / & it bathe a maner of Squitana 
iAat is spoken of in the Ixxxiiii. chapter', and his nature. 

Cap. xciij. 

% Tmcka * / the trowte is a fisshe of the ryuer, & Tr&ut. 

bathe scales, & ypo;i his body spottys of yelow and blodye 
coloure. & his fisshe^ is rede frome Me monthe of July to the ptflesshe] 
monthe of Noae;»ber / and is moche sweter than Me fressbe 
samoii; and all the other part of the yere his fisshe' is whyte. 

Cap. xcv. 
rpEstudo is a fysshe in a shelle / & is in ^^ se of Inde / & his xestudo. 
J. shelle is very great & like a muskle / & be nyght they 
go out for theyr mete / & whan they haue eten theyr bely 
full / than they slepe awjmming ypon the wat^. tha» tlier 
come iij. fisshers botes / of Me wiche .iij. twayn take one of 
these muskles. Solinus sayth. tkat this muskle bathe his 
yppermest shell so brode that it may couere a bowse / where 
many folke may hyde them ynder / And it gothe out the 
wat^ irpon the londe / & there it layth an hondred egges as 
grete as gose eggis / and couer thei» wttA erth / & often- 
tymes be night it gothe to the eggys & layeth ypo» them wtt^ 
her brest, & than become they yo;2ges. 

[This copy of Admiral Swinburne's Jndretoe ends with the 
next column of this page, sign. y. i. back, with an illustration 
not headed, but which is that to Cap. xcvij.] 

* Squatinitf is a fisahe in the 8e, of flue cubites longe : hit tayle is 
a fote brode, & he hidetb him in the slimy mudde of the se, & 
marreth al other fisshes that come nigh him : it hath so sharpe a 
skinne that in som places they shaue wode with it, & bone also / 
on his sidnne is blacke short nere. The natnre hathe made him so 
harde that he can nat almoste be persed with nouther yron nor stele. 



Note to Baiena^ p. 115. bar [in fye se of Brytain] bu}7 ofte 
ytake dolphyns, & se-calves, a hatenes, (ffret iysch, as hyt were of 
whaales lunde) & dyvers nxanere schyl-fysoh, among l^e whoche 
schyl-fysch bu}7 mosUes )»at habbcb wi^ynne ham maivey perles 
of fu manere colour of hu^, of rody & red, of purpre & of blu), & 
specialych & moost of whyte. Trevisa's Uigden, m Morris's Speci- 
menty p. 334. For 'the oocke of Balena' see Musculus, p. 119, 
aboye ; and for its * mortal ennemye,' Orehun, p. 120. 



124 



For Macy louts, 



the best core is 
Boxing. 



^ilsam §nIUp 0r 

(From The Booke of CompoundeSy foL IxviiL) 

Sicknes, 
Will boxyng doe any pleasure ? 

^^lEa forsotlie, verie moche : As example, if you haue 
-*- any sausie loughte, or loitryng lubber within your 
house, that is either to busy of his hand or tongue : 
and can do nothing but plaie one of the partes of the 
.24. orders of knaues. There is no pretier medic^n for 
this, nor soner prepared, then boxyng is : iii or .iiii. 
tymes well set on, a span long on bothe the chekes. 
And although perhaps this will not alter his lubberly 
condicioTzs, yet I assure you, it wil for a time chaunge 
his knauishe complexion, and helpe him of the grene 
sicknes : and euery man maie practise this, as occasion 
shall seme hym in his familie, to reforme them. Bui- 
leins Bidwarke of Defence^ 1562. 



The names of 
Hemp. 



(From The hooke of Simples, fol. xxviL back.) 

Marcellvs, 

THere is an herbe whiche light fellowes merily will 
call Gallowgrasse, Neckeweede, or the Tristrams 
knot, or Saynt Andres lace, or a bastarde brothers 
badge, with a difference on the left side, &c. you know 
my meaning. 

Hillari^is, 

WHat, you speake of Hempe? mary, you terme it 
with manie pretie names. I neuer heard the like 



WILYAM BULLETN ON KECKEWEEDE. 125 

termes giuen to any simple, as you giue to this ; you 
cal it neckwede. A, well, I pray you, woulde you 
know the propertie of this Neckeweede in this kinde 1 Neckweed (« 
beinge chaunged into such a lace, this is his vertue. 
Syr, if there be any yonkers troubled with idelnesse 
and loytryng, hauyng neither leamyng, nor wiUyng 
handes to labour : or that haue studied Phisicke so 
longe that he or they can giue his Masters purse a Pur- ugood for thievish 
gacion, or his Chist, shoppe, and Countinghouse, a 
strong voinit ; yea, if he bee a very cunning practicioner 
in false accomptes, he may so suddenly and rashely 
minister, that he may smite his Father, his Maister, or 
his friende &c, into a sudden incurable consumption, 
that he or they shall neuer recouer it againe, but be 
vtterly vndone, and cast either into miserable pouertie, 
prisonment, bankeroute &c. If this come to passe, then 
the * best rewarde for this practicioner, is this Necke- p foi. xxviH.] 
weede : if there be any swashbuckler, common theef e, for iwisbbackien 
ruffen, or murtherer past grace, y nexte remedie is p*"*™*** 
this Lace or Corde. For them which neuer loued concored, 
peace nor honestie, this wil ende all the mischief ; this 
is a purger, not of Melancholy, but a fin all banisher of 
all them that be not fit to line in a common wealth, no and au acamps. 
more then Foxes amonge sheepe, or Thistles amonge 
good Corne, hiurters of trew people. This Hempe, I 
say, passeth the new Diat, bothe in force and antiquitee. 
If yonge wantons, whose parentes haue left them fayre Aiao for young 
houses, goods and landes, whiche be visciously, idle, "p*"**^**" 
vnleamedly, yea or rather beastly brought vp : after the 
death of their saied parentes, their fruites wH spryng who after tbeir 
foorth which they haue learned in their wicked youthe : ^^^"^^ ^'^ 
then bankets and brothels will approche, the Harlots waate their aii 
will be at hande, with dilightes and intisementes, the ^ ' 
Baude will doe hir diligence, robbyng not onlie the 
pursses, but also the hartes of suche yongemen, whiche 
when they be trapped, can neuer skape, one amonge 

17 



126 



WILYAH BULLETN ON NECKEWEEDE. 



and robboiy 



an hundreth, vntill Hempe breaketh the bande ainonge 
and in Kambiing these loytiing louers. The Dice whiche be bothe smalle 
and light, in respecte vnto the Coluering, or double 
Cannon shotte or BoUet, yet with smaU force and noyse 
can mine, break downe, and destroy, and caste away 
their one Maisters houses, faire feldes,pleaBaunt Woddes, 
and al their money, yea frendes and al together, this 
can the Dice do. And moreouer, can make of worship- 
which makes men f^u bome Gentilmen, miserable beggers, or theefes, yet 
thieves. for the time "a-loft syrs, hoyghe childe and toume thee, 

Aiifeofreckieu what should youth do ols : I-wisse, not liue like slaues 
tewuc eiy ^^ pesautes, but all golden, glorious, may with dame 

Venus, my hartes delight" say they. "What a sweete 
heauen is this : Haue at all, kockes woundes^ bloud and 
nayles, caste the house out at the window, and let the 
Diuell pay the Malte man : a Dogge hath but a day, a 
good mariage will recouer all together:*' or els with a 
Bamards blowe, lurkyng in some lane, wodde, or hill 
top, to get that with falshead in an hower, whiche with 
trueth, labour, & paine, hath bene gathered for per- 
happes .XX. yeares, to the vtter vndoyng of some 
honest familie. Here thou seest, gentle Marcellus, a 
miserable Tragedie of a wicked shamelessc life. I nede 
not bring forth the example of the Prodigall childe. 
Luke .xvi. Chapter, whiche at length came to grace : It 
is, I feare me, in vaine to talke of him, whose ende was 
good ; but a greate nomber of these flee from grace, and 
come to endes moste vngracious, finished only life by 
this Hempe. Although sometime the innocente man 
dieth that way, through periurie for their one propper 
gooddes, as ^aboth died for his owne Vineyarde, 
miserable in the eies of the worlde, but precious in the 
sight of God. This is one seruice whiche Hempe 
doeth. 

Also this worthy noble herbe Hempe, called Canna- 
bis in Latten, can not bee wanted in a common wealtli. 



ehds with 



Hemp. 



The use of Hemp 



WILT AM BULLEYN ON NECKEWEEDE. 127 

no Shippe can sayle without Hempe, y sayle clothes, the 
shroudes, stales, tacles, yarde lines, warps <& Cables can to the saiior, 
not he made. No Plowe, or Carte can he without Plowman, 
ropes 'halters, trace &c. The Fisher and Fouler PFoi.xxviii.b.] 

Fisher and 

muste haue Hempe, to make their nettes. And no 
Archer can wante his howe string: and the Malt Archer.* 
man for his sackes. With it the belle is rong, to 
seruice in the Church, with many mo thynges profit- 
able whiche are commonly knowen of euery man, be 
made of Hempe. 



128 



drom |is Regyment, ?i557.] 



[FoL B. I.] 



After Dinner, 
sleep standing 

againbt a 
cnpboard. 



[1 Fol. B, i. b.] 



Before bedtime 
be merry. 



Have a fire in 
your bedroom. 



but stand a good 
way off It. 



Shut your 
windows. 



Whole men of what age or complexion so euer they 
be of, shulde take theyr naturall rest and slepe in the 
nyght : and to eschewe merjdyall sleep. But and nede 
shall compell a man to slepe after his meate : let hym 
make a pause, and than let hym stande & lene and 
slepe agaynst a cupborde, or els let hym sytte upryght 
in a cha3rre and slepe. Slepynge after a full stomacke 
doth ingendre dyuers infyrmyties, it doth hurte the 
splene, it relaxeth the synewes, it doth ingendre the 
dropses and the gowte, and doth make a man looke euyll 
colored. * Beware of veneryous actes before the fyrste 
slepe, and specyally beware of suche thynges after 
dyner or after a full stomacke, for it doth ingendre the 
crampe and the gowte and other displeasures. To 
bedwarde be you mery, or haue mery company aboute 
you, so that to bedwarde no angre, nor heuynes, 
sorowe, nor pensyfulnes, do trouble or dysquyet you. 
To bedwarde, and also in the momynge, vse to haue a 
fyre in your chambre, to wast and consume the euyl 
vapowres within the chambre, for the breath of man 
may putryfye the ayre within the chawbre: I do 
advertyse you not to stande nor to sytte by the fyre, 
but stande or syt a good way of from the fyre, takynge 
the flauour of it, for fyre doth aryiie and doth drye vp 
a mannes blode, and doth make sterke the synewes and 
ioyntes of man. In the nyght let the wyndowes of 



ANDREW BORDB ON BLEEP, RISING, AND DRESS. 120 

your howse, specyallye of your chambre, be closed. 

Whan you * be in your bedde,* lye a lytle wbyle on t* foi. b. u.] 

your lefte syde, and slepe on your ryght syde. And ^ft^°"^**°' 

whan you do wake of your fyrste slepe, make water yf 

you feel your bladder charged, & than slepe on /the 

lefte side; and looke as ofte as you do wake, so oft 

tume your selfe in the bedde from one syde to the 

other. To slepe grouellynge vpon the stomacke and To sleep grovei- 

ing <m the belly» 

bely is not good, oneles the stomacke be slowe and ubad; 

taide of dygestion ; but better it is to laye your hande, 

or your bedfelowes hande, ouer your stomacke, than to 

lye grouellynge. To slepe on the backe vpryght^'is ®"*^®^^ 

vtterly to be abhorred* : whan that you do slepe, let 

not your necke, nother your sholders, nother your 

hands, nor feete, nor no other place of your bodye, lye 

bare vndiscouered. Slepe not with an emptye stomacke, 

nor slepe not after that you haue eaten meate one 

howre or two after. In your bed lye with your head 

somwhat hyghe, leaste that the * meate whiche is in C* poL »- li. b.] 

your stomacke, thorowe eructuacions or some other 

cause, ascende to the oryfe (sic) of the stomacke. Let 

your nyght cap be of scarlet : and this I do aduertyse ^' * •<*^*®* 

you, to cause to be made a good thycke quylte of cotton, 

*■> Compare what BuUeyn says : — slepe. The uight is the 
best time : the daie is cuill : to slepe in the fielde is perilous. 
But Tpon, or in the bedde, liyng firste vpon the right 
side, untill you make water: then ypon the lefte side, is good. 
But to lye vpon the backe, with a gaping mouth, is daungerous : how to lie in bed. 
and many thereby are made starke ded in their slepe : through 
apoplexia, and obstruccion of the sinewes, of the places yitalle, 
animall, and nutrimentalle. Bullein*a Bultcarke, The booke of 
the vte of aieke men and medicenesj fol. Izx. See aUo Sir -John 
Harrington's directions from Ronsovius : ^* They that are in 
health, must first sleepe on the right side, because the meate 
may come to the liuer, which is to the stomack as a fire vnder the 
pot, and thereby is digested. To them which haue but weake di- who should put 
gestion, it is good to sleepe prostrate on their bellies, or to haue ^*»®*' *"'^** *"* 
their bare hands on their stomackes : and to lye ypright on the 
backe, is to bee vtterly abhorred." p. 19. 

' This wenche lay upright^ and faste slepte. Chaucer. The 
Reevet Tale, 1. 4192, ed. Wright. 



130 



ANDREW BORDB ON SLEEP, RISING, AND DRESS. 



Have a flock bed 
over your 
featherbed. 



On rising, re- 
member God, 
brash your 
breeches, put on 

your hose, 
stretch, 

[• Fol. «. ill.] 
^o to stool. 



Truss your 
points, comb 
your head, 

wash your hands 
:ind face, 

take a stroll, 



pr^' to (iod. 



Of FricAtion 



aud (tombing the 
head. 



or els of pure flockes or of cleane wolle, and let the 
couerynge of it be of whyte fustyan, and laye it on the 
fetherbed that you do lye on ; and in your bed lye not 
to hoto nor to colde, but in a temporaunce. Olde 
auneyent Doctors of physicke sayth .viii. howres of 
slepe in sowimer, and ix. in wynter, is suffycent for 
any man : but I do thynke that slepe oughte to be 
taken as the complexion of man is. Whan you do 
ryse in the momynge, ryse with myrth and remembre 
God. Let your hosen be brusshed within & without, 
and flauer the insyde of them agaynst the fyre ; vse 
lynnen sockes, or lynnen hosen nexte your legges : 
whan you be out of your bedde, stretche forth your 
♦legges & armes, & your body ; cough, and si)ytte, and 
than go to your stoole to make your egestyon, and 
exonerate youre selfe at all tymes, that nature wolde 
expeU. For yf you do make any restryction in kepynge 
your ftgestyon or your vryne, or ventosyte, it maye put 
you to dyspleasure in breadynge dyuers infyrmyties. 
After you haue euacuated your bodye, & trussed your 
poyntes,* kayme your heade oft, and so do dyuers tymes 
in the day. And wasshe your ha7?des & wrestes, your 
face, & eyes, and your teeth, with colde water; and 
after y' you be apparayled, walke in your gardyn or 
parke, a thousande pase or two. And than great and 
noble men doth vse to here masse, & other men that 
can not do so, but muste applye theyr busynes, doth 
seme god wit^ some prayers, surrendrynge thankes to 
hym for hys manyfolde goodnes, with askynge mercye 

1 Fricacion is one of the euacuacioiu, yea, or elensynges of man< 
kinde, as aU the learned affirmetli : that mankinde should rise in the 
momyng, and hane his apparell warme, stretchyng foorthe his 
handes and legges. Preparyng the hodie to the stoole, and then 
begin with a fine Combe, to kembe the heere vp and down : then 
with a course wanne clothe, to chafe or rnbbe the hedde, necke, 
breast, armeholes, bellie, thighes, &c., and this is good to open the 
pores. 1 562 Bullein*s JBultcarke, The booke of the vse of sicke men 
and medicenes, fol. Ixvij. See Yaughan below, No. 2, p. 133. 



ANDREW BORDE ON SLEEP, RISING, AND DRESS. 131 

for theyr offences. And before you go to your refec- 

ti*on, inoderatly exercise your body with some labour, C* ^^- »• *"• *>-3 

or playeng at the tennys, or castyng a bowle, or paysyng PUy at tenniB, 

or wield wcizhts. 

weyghtes or plommettes of leede in your handes, or 

some other thyng, to open your poores, & to augment 

naturall heate. At dyner and supper * vse not to drynke At metia, 

sundry drynkes, and eate not of dyuers meates : but 

feede of .ii or .iiL dysshes at the moste. After that ^J^^^^ '*^*"'* 

you haue dyned and supte, laboure not by and by 

after, but make a pause, syttynge or standynge vpryght 

the space of an howre or more with some pastyme : 

diynke not moch after dyner. At your supper, vse Jet supper-dishoa 

lyght meates of dygestyon, and refrayne from grose 

meates; go not to bed with a full nor an emptye 

stomacke. And after your supper make a pause or you 

go to bed ; and go to bed, as I sayde, with mjTtL 

Furthermore as concemynge your appareU. In 
>vynter, next your shert vse you to weare a petycote of ^^J^/***^^** 
scarlet : your dowb*let vse at plesure : But I do C* foi. b. iv.] 
aduertyse you to lyne your Jacket vnder this fasshyon Have a jacket 
or maner. Bye you fyne skynnes of whyte lambe & of white and uiadc 
blacke lambe. .And let your sky nwer cut both y sortes diamond-wisc. 
of the skynnes in smale peces triangle ^vyse, lyke halfe 
a quarell of a glasse wyndowe. And than sewe 
togyther a* whyte pece and a blacke, lyke a whole [•Ms.oa] 
quarell of a glasse wyndowe : and so sewe vp togyther 

* Drunkards, bench- wislcrs, that will quaffe untill thei are starcke 
staring madde like Marche Hares : Fleming-like Sinckars ; brain- 
Icsse like infemall Furies. Drinkyng, braulyng, tossyng of the 
pitcher, staryng, pissyng*, and Bauyng your reuerence, beastly 
spuyng vntill midnight. Therefore let men take hede of dronken- 
nes to bedward, for feare of sodain death : although the Flcmishe f 
nacion vse this horrible custome in their vnnaturall watching all 
the night. Btdlein^ fol. Ixix-lxz, see also fol. xj. 

* Compare A. fiorde of the ** base Doche man," in his Introduction, 
t I am a Flemyng, what fur all that 
Although I wyll be dronken other whyles as a rat. 

A. Borde, Introdtiction* 



132 ANDREW BORDE ON SLEEP, RISING, AND DRESS. 

quarell wyse as moche as wyll lyne your lacket : this 
furre, for holsommes, is praysed aboue sables, or any 
other fur. Your exteiyall aparel vse accordyng to your 
honour. In som77ier vse to were a scarlet petycote 
made of stalnell or lynse wolse. In wynter and sommer 
kepe not your bed to hote, nor bynde it to strayte ; 
Keep your neck kepe euer your necke waime. In somer kepe your 
Wear goatskin necke and face from the sonne; vse to wear gloues 
made of goote skyn, perfumed with Amber degrece. 
[• Foi.Liv.b.] And beware in staridyng or lyeng on the *grounde in 
the reflection of the sonne, but be mouable. K thou 
Don't suuid long shalt comTTiou or talko wit^ any man : stande not styll 
htonee. ' i^^ ouc placc yf it be vpon y bare grouwde, or grasse, 

or stones : but be mouable in suche places. Stande 
nor syt vpon no stone or stones : Stande nor syt longe 
barehed vnder a vawte of stone. Also beware that you 
do not lye in olde cha?}^bres which be not occupyed, 
Don't Bleep in spccyally suche chambres as myse and rattes and snayles 
ratty rooms. regorteth vuto : lye not in suche chambres, the whiche 
be depreued cleane from the sonne and open ayre ; nor 
lye in no lowe Chambre, excepte it be boorded. Be- 
Don't take cold in ware that you take no colde on your feete and legges. 
And of all weather beware that you do not ryde nor go 
in great and Impytous wyndes. (A Compendyous Regy- 
ment or a Dyetary of helth, mude in Mountpylior: Com- 
pyled by Andrews Boorde, of Physicke Doctor, (Colo- 
phon.) Imprinted by me Robert Wyer : Dwellynge at 
the sygne of seynt Johfi Euangelyst, in S. Martyns 
Parysshe, besyde Charynge Crosse.) 



133 



Jfifteen girdions k pmwk licaU|. 

(From his Naturall ^ Artificial Directicms 
f(yr health, 1602, p. 57-63.) 



Declare vnto mee a dayly dyet, whereby I may 
liue in health, and not trouble my selfe in Physicke. 

(1) I will : first of all in the morning when you i.strotch 
are about to rise vp, stretch your self strongly : for 
thereby the animall heate is somewhat forced into the 
outward partes, the memorie is quickned, and the 
bodie strengthened. 

(2) Secondarily, rub and chafe your body with the «. Bub yourwif. 
palmes of your hands, or with a course linnen cloth ; 

the breast, back, and belly, gently : but the armes, 
thighes, and legges roughly, till they seem ruddy and 
warme. 

(3) Euacuate your selfe. s. oo to stooL 

(4) Put on your apparell : which in the summer 4. Pat on your 
tune must be for the most part silke, or buffe, made of 

buckes skinne, for it resisteth venime and contagious 
ayres : in winter your vpper garment must be of cotton 
or friezeadow. 

(5) When you have apparelled your selfe han- s-Combyoar 
somely, combe your head softly and easily with an 

luorie combe: for nothing recreateth the memorie 
more. 

(6) Picke and rub your teeth : and because I «. clean your 

would not haue you to bestow much cost in making 

18 



134 



VAUGHAN S FIFTEEN DIRECTIONS FOR HEALTH. 



(How to keep the 
teeth sound and 
the breath sweet. 



ITse Yaughan's 
Water 



made after this 
recipe. 



It's better than 
1000 Dentriflces.) 

7. Wash. 



dentrifices for them; I will aduertise you by foure 
rules of importance how to keepe your teeth white and 
vncorruyt (mc), and also to haue a sweete breath. First, 
wash well your mouth when you haue eaten your 
meat : secondly, sleepe with your mouth somewhat 
open. Thirdly, spit out in the morning that which is 
gathered together that night in the throate : then take 
a linnen cloth, and rub your teeth well within and 
without, to take away the fumositie of the meat and 
the yellownesse of the teeth. For it is that which 
putrifieth them and infecteth the breath. But least 
peraduenture your teeth become loose and filthy, I 
will shew you a water farre better then ponders, which 
shall fasten them, scoure the mouth, make sound the 
gums, and cause the flesh to growe againe, if it were fallen 
away. Take halfe a glasse-full of vineger, and as much 
of the water of the mastick tree (if it may easily be 
gotten) of rosemarie, myrrhe, mastick, bole Armoniake, 
Dragons herbe, roche allome, of each of them an 
ounce ; of fine cinnamon halfe an ounce, and of foun- 
taine water three glassefulles ; mingle all well to- 
gether and let it boile with a small fire, adding 
to it halfe a pound of honie, and taking away the 
scumme of it ; then put in a Kttle bengwine, and 
w^hen it hath sodden a quarter of an houre, take it 
from the fire, and keepe it in a cleane bottle, and wash 
your teeth there withall as well before meate as after ; 
if you hould some of it in your mouth a little while, it 
doth much good to the head, and sweetneth the breath. 
I take this water to be better worth then a thousand of 
their dentifrices. 

(7) Wash your face, eyes, eares and hands, with 
fountaine water. I have knowne diners students 
which vsed to bathe their eyes onely in well water 
twise a day, whereby they preserued their eyesight 
free from all passions and bloudsheds, and sharpened 



vaughan's piptbbn directions for health. 135 

their memories maraaylously. You may sometimes 

bathe your eyes in rosewater, fennell water, or eyebright 

water, if you please ; but I know for certaintie, that 

you neede them not as long as you vse good fountaine 

water. Moreouer, least' you by old age or some other 

meands doe waxe dimme of sight, I will declare vnto 

you, the best and safest remedie which I knowe, and The be»t remedy 

this it is : Take of the distilled waters of verueine, 

bettonie, and fennell one ounce and a halfe, then take 

one ounce of white wine, one drachme of Tntia (if you 

may eaailie come by it) two drachmes of sugarcandy, 

one drachme of Aloes Epatick, two drachmes of 

womans milke, and one scruple of Camphire: beat 

those into i>ouder, which are to be beaten, and infuse 

them together for foure and twenty houres space, and 

then straine them, and so vse it when you list. 

(8) When you haue finished these, say your mom- 8. say your 
ing prayers, and desire God to blesse you, to preserue 

you from all daungers, and to direct you in all your 
actions. For the feare of God (as it is written) is the 
beginning of wisedome: and without his protection 
whatsoeuer you take in hand, shall fall to mine. 
Therefore see that you be mindfull of him, and re- 
member that to that intent you were borne, to weet, to 
set foorth his glorie and most holy name. 

(9) Goe about your businesse circumspectly, and 9. set to work, 
endeauour to banish all cares and cogitations, which are 

the onely baits of wickednesse. Defraud no man of his 
right : for what measure you giue vnto your neighbour. Be honwi. 
that measure shall you receiue. And finally, imprint 
this saying deepely in your mind : A man is but a 
steward of his owne goods ; wherof God one day will 
demaund an account. 

(10) Eate three meales a day vntill you come to the lo. Eat only three 
age of fourtie yeares : as, your breakefast, dinner, and * * ^' 
supper ; yet, that betweene breakefast and dinner there 



136 



vaughan's fifteen directions for health. 



Eat Ught food 
before heavy. 



Drink hinders 
digestion. 



Use silver caps. 



11. Don't work 
directly after 
meals, but talk. 



wash, 

and clean yoar 
leeth. 



11 Undress I7 
the Are in winter. 



be the space of foure houres, and betwixt dinner and 
sapper seauen houres : tbe breakfast must be lesse 
then dinner, and the dinner somewhat lesse then 
supper. 

In the beginning of meales, eate such meates as 
will make the belly soluble, and let grosse meats be the 
last. Content your selfe with one kind of meate, for 
diuersities hurt the body, by reason thdt meats are not 
all of one qualitie : Some are easily digested, others 
againe are heauy, and will lie a long time vpon tlie 
stomack: also, the eating of sundrie sorts of meat 
require often pottes of drinke, which hinder concoction ; 
like as we see often putting of water into the meat- 
potte to hinder it firom seething. Our stomack is our 
bodies kitchin, which being distempered, how can we 
line in temperate order : drinke not aboue foure times, 
and that moderately, at each meale : least the belly- 
God hale you at length captiue into his prison house of 
gurmandise, where you shall be afflicted with as many 
diseases as you haue deuoured dishes of sundry sorts. 
The cups whereof you drinke, should be of siluer, or 
siluer and gilt. 

(11) Labour not either your mind or body presently 
after meales : rather sit a while and discourse of some 
pleasant matters : when you haue ended your confabu- 
lations, wash your face and mouth with cold waters, 
then go to your chamber, and make cleane your teeth 
with your tooth-picker, which should be either of 
iuorie, silver, or gold. Watch not too long after supper, 
but depart within two hours to bed. But if necessitie 
compell you to watch longer then ordinary, then be 
sure to augment your sleepe the next morning ; that you 
may recompence nature, which otherwise through your 
watching would not a little be impaired. 

(12) Put of your clothes in winter by the fire side : 
and cause your bed to bee heated with a warming panne : 



vaughan'h fifteen directions for health. 137 

vnless your pretence bee to harden your members, and 
to apply your selfe vnto militarie discipline. This 
outward heating doth wonderfully comfort the inward 
heat, it helpeth concoction, and consumeth moisture. 

(13) Kemember before you rest, to chew down two is. Before bed, 

.■%_ J -I /♦ i» 1 /» •! •^t chew Martic, and 

or three drachmes of mastick : tor it will preserue your 
body from bad humours. 

(14) Pray feruently to God, before you sleepe, to u. pray to God. 
inspire you with his grace, to defend you from all 

perils and subtelties of wicked fiends, and to prosper 
you in all your affaires : and then lay aside your cares 
and businesse, as well publicke as priuate: for that 
night, in so doing, you shall slepe more quietly. Make 
water at least once, and cast it out : but in the morn- 
ing make water in an vrinal : that by looking on iL Look at your 

water in a 

you may ghesse some what of the state of your body, urinai. 

Sleep first on your right side with your mouth open, 

and let your night cappe haue a hole in the top, through Have a hole in 

yoar nightcap. 

which the vapour may goe out. 

(15) In the morning remember your affayres, and if i*. Against 

rheums, eat 

you be troubled with rheumes, as soone as .you haue white pepper, 
risen, vse diatrion piperion, or eate white pepper now 
and then, and you shall be holpen. 



FINIS. 



138 



%\t ggct for rfierj gag. 

(fbom 

Sir |ff^n laringtra's ' St^Mlt flf Saltm/ 

2nd part. 

C^e ^rtseifmtion of $taU^, or h ^get for t^ Pealt^fuK 

Pan, 1624, p. 358.) 

. . first I will begin with the dyet for every day. 
In the beginning when you arise firom the bed, 
extend forth all your members, for by this meanes the 
animal spirits are drawne to the outward members, 
the *braine is made subtill, & the body strengthened. 
Then rub the whole body somewhat with the pahnes, 
the brest, back and belly gently, but the armes and legs 
with the hands, either with warm linnen : next, the 
head is to be scrubbed from the forepart to the hinder- 
part very Ughtly. After you are risen, I will that you 
defend with all care and diligence your head, necke, 
and feet, from all cold in the morning ; for there is no 
doubt, but in the morning and euening the cold doth 
offend more, then it doth about noone tide, by reason 

drew, washing in ^f the wcakues of the Suu-beames. Put on your clothes 
neat and cleane : in the Summer season, first wash with 
cleane pure water, before described ; but in the Winter 

wanniDK yourself seasou sit somcwhat by the fire, not made with turfe or 
stinking coale, but with oake or other wood that 
burnetii cleare, for our bodies are somewhat affected 
with our clothes, and as strength is increased by the 



stretch your 
limlM, 

C* Page 36.] 
rub ydur body 



and head ; 



protect younelf 
from cold ; 



Summer, 



in Winter. 



SIR JN. HARINGTON's DYET FOR EVERY DAY. 139 

vse of meat and clrinke, and our life defended and 
preserued ; and so our garments doe conserue the heat 
of our bodies, and doe driue away colds : so that as 
diet and apparel may seeme alike, so in either of them 
a like diligence is to be preferred. 

In the Summer-time I chiefly commend crairments in summer 

•^ ^ [Pago S70 

of Harts-skinnes, and Calues-skins, for the Hart is a ^«a' ^'^^^ ^^ 

calvee' skins, 

creature of long life, and resisteth poyson and Serpents ; 
therefore I my selfe vse garments of the like sort for 
the winter season, also neuerthelesse lined with good 
linnen. Next I doe iudge it not to bee much amisse 
to vse garments of Silke or Bombace, or of^ purple : 
also of Martyn or Wolfe-skinnes, or made of Fox in winter, woif 
skinnes, I suppose to be good for the winter ; notwith- 
standing in the time of Pestilence, apparell of Silke and 
skinnes is condemned, because it doth easily admit and 
receiue the contagious ayre, and doth retain it long. 
After the body is well clothed, kembe your head wel comb your head 

40 times, 

with an luory comb, from the forehead to the backe- 

part, drawing the comb some forty times at the least ; 

then wash all the instruments of the sences, as the eies, wash your Auw, 

the ears, the nostrils, the mouth, the tongue, the teeth, 

and all the face with cold water ; and the eyes are not 

only to be washed, but being open plainly, immerg'd : 

and the gumme and foulnes of the eie-lids that do there dean yoar 

stick, to remoue; somtimes also to besprinkle the 

water with Rose-water or Fenel-water, also rubb the mbyoumeck 

welL 

neck well with *a linnen napking somewhat course, for [♦ Page as.] 

these things doe conflime the whole body ; it maketh 

the mind more cheerefull, and consemeth the sight. 

In this place it pleaseth me to adioyne some Dentifrices 

or clensers of teeth, waters not only to make the teeth 

white, but also to conserue them, with some medicines 

also to conserue the sight 



HO 



#n llising, giet, nrih §m^ k geb. 



(fbom 

Sir |0(nt farington's ' Srfefftfle 0f Salerw; 

2nd part. 

C^e ^rtserfration 0f Ptolt^, or a ^i^ti for t^e Ptali^U 

|p[mr, 1624, p. 358.) 



On rising, 
empty your 
bladder and 
belly, nose and 
lungs. 



Cleanse yoar 
whole body. 



Say your Prayers. 



Walk gently. 



go t<o stool. 
[•PageW.] 



Work in the 
forenoon. 



Also to prosecute our former purpose, when you 
arise in the morning, to auoyd all superfluities, as well 
by vrine as by the belly, which doe at the least euery 
day. Auoid also from the nostrils and the lungs all 
filthy matter, as wel by clensing, as by spittle, and 
dense the face, head, and whole body ; & loue you to 
be cleane and wel apparelled, for from our cradles let 
vs abhor vncleannes, which neither nature or reason 
can endure. Whew you haue done these things, re- 
member to powre foprth your prayers vnto God with a 
cleare voice, that the day may be happy and prosperous 
vnto you, that God may direct your actions to the 
glory of his name, the profit of your country, & the 
conseruation of your bodies. Then walke ye gently, 
and what excrements soeuer do slip down to the in- 
feriour parts, being excited by *naturall heate, the 
excretion thereof shall the better succeed. 

As for your businesses, whether they be publike or 
priuate, let them be done with a certaine honesty; then 
afterwards let your hunting ioumeyes bee performed ; 
apply your selues to studie and serious businesse the 



SIR JN. HABRINOTON ON DIET AND SLEEP. 141 

homes of the fore-noone, and so likewise in the after- 
noone, till twoor three houres before sapper : al^Yaies in 
your hands vse eyther Corall or yellow Amber, or a Always wear & 

prodoiii Btofte 

Chalcedoniunly or a sweet Pommander, or some like 
precious stone to be wome in a ring vpon the little 
finger of the left hand : haue in your rings eyther a in a ring; 
Smaragd, a Saphiie, or a Draconites, which you shall 
beare for an ornament : for in stones, as also in hearbes, 
there is great efficacie and yertue, but they are not 
altogether perceived by ys: hold sometime in your hold a cryttai 

Ai n ▼▼ • .1 AM . -.■• ^ In your mouth; 

mouth eyther a Hyacinth, or a Crystall, or a Granat, 
or pure Gold, or Siluer, or else sometimes pure Sugar- 
candy. For Aristotle doth affirme, and so doth Albertus 
Magnus, that a Smaragd wome about the necke, is 
good against the Falling-sicknes : for surely the yertue 
of an hearbe is great, but much more the yertue of a fortheyirtneof 
precious *8tone, which is yery Hkely that they are [•p«ge«,] 
endued with occult and hidden yertues. *'^**^ 

Feede onely twice a day, when yee are at mans Eat only twice a 

day. 

age ^ neuerthelesse to those that are subiect to choUer, 
it is lawfuU to feede often : beginne alwayes your 
dinner and supper with the more liquid meates, some- 
times with drinkes. In the time betweene dinner and Don't drink 

. between dlnm0r 

supper, abstain altogether from cups, ynlesse necessitie and tapper, 
or custome doe require the same : notwithstanding the 
same custome being so yitious, must be by little and 
little changed. 

w 

I would not that you should obserue a certaine 
houre, either for dinners or suppers, as I haue sufficiently i>on't have one 
told you before, lest that daily custome should be for your meaia. 
altered into nature : and after this intermission of 
this custome of nature, hurt may follow ; for custome 
doth imitate nature, and that which is accustomable, 
the yeiy same thing is now become naturall. 

Take your meate in the hotte time of Summer in 
cold places, but in the Winter let there bee a bright in winter eat.in 

19 



142 



SIR JN. HABRINQTON ON DIST AKD SLEEP. 



hot weU'Olred 
pli 



[•PiW««^] 



Fast for a day 
now and then. 



Eat more at 
rapper than 
dinner. 



After meals, wash 
yourftoe^and 
clean yoar teeth. 



chat and walk 
soberly. 

Don't sit ap 
late. 

[•Page4^] 



Before bed, 

rub yottr body 
K«ntly. 



Undress by a fire 
in Winter, 



fire, and take it in hotte placesi yoni parlois or Cbambeis 
being fijst purged and ayred with Buffumigations, which 
I would not haue you to *enter before the BufiPamigation 
bee plainely extinct^ leet you draw the fume by leaBon 
of the odour. 

And seeing one and the same order of diet doth not 
promiflcuously agree with all men, take your meate in 
order, as is before said, and Bometimes also intermit the 
Yse of meats for a whole day together, because through 
hunger, the faults of the stomacke which haue beene 
taken eyther by much drinking or suifetting, or by any 
other meanes, may be depelled and remoued. 

By this meanes also your bodies shall be better 
accustomed to endure and suffer hunger and fasting, 
eyther in ioumeyes or war& Let your suppers bee 
more larger then your dinners, ynlesse nightly diseases 
or some distilations doe afflict you. 

After meat taken, neither labour in body nor mind 
must be vsed, and wash the face and mouth with cold 
water, dense the teeth either with luory, or a Harts 
home, or some picker of pure Biluer or gold. 

After your banquets, passe an houre or two in 
pleasant talkes, or walke yee yery gently and soberly, 
neither Yse much watchings long in the night, but the 
space of two howres goe to your bed ; but if honest 
* businesse doe require you to watch, then sleepe afteiv 
wards so much the longer, that your sleepe may well 
reoompence your former watchings. Before that you 
go to your bed, gently smooth down your head, armes, 
and shoulders, the back and all the body, with a gentle 
and soft rubbing, ynlesse you meane to do it in the 
morning to mooue distribution, whose time is best to be 
done in the morning. 

In the Winter, sitting by the fire, put off your gar- 
ments, and dry your feet by the fire, neuerthelesse 
auoyd the heat and the smoke, because it is very hurt- 
full both to the lungs, and the eyes. 



SIR JN. HARRINGTON ON DIBT AND SLEEP. H3 

In the Winter time, wanne well your gannents at and warn your 

' . gErmentswell 

the fire, and warm the linings of the same, for it helpeth 
concoction, and remoueth all humidity and moysture. 
But my father did not allow of this custome, warning 
men of strength, and those that are borne for the 
Common-wealth, not to accustom themselves to such 
kind of softnesse, which doe weaken our bodies. Also 
when you put off your garments to go to bed, then put Put off your carcn 

with your ciothest 

away all your cogitations, & lay them aside, whether 

they be publike or priuate, for when all your *member8 C* p^« **0 

be free from all cares, yoa shall then sleep the quieter, 

concoction and the other naturall actions shall best be 

performed. 

But in the morning when you rise againe, resume and take them 
to your selues your former dayes thoughts and cares ; momimj. ° 
for this precept my Father had often in his mouth, 
therfore I deliuer it vnto you as the more worthy of 
vour obseruatioiL 



U5 

IFrom Harleian MS, 6401, ah. 1480-1500 A.D.] 

FRUTUB8. (page 194 or foL 69 b.) 

^Recipe ' f e cromys of whyte brede, & swete apyls, & jokkter of 

eggw, & bray Jam wele, & temper' it mtA wyne, & make it to sethe ; 

& when it is thyk, do ^er-to gode spyces, gyngar & gali/tgay Sl canyll 

& clows, & &erve it forthe. (See also Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 39-40.) 

PEUTURS OP FTOis. (p. 197 or foL 98.) 
Recipe & make batur^ of floure, ale, peper & saferon, wiih oper 
spices ; ^an cast f&m ^ in to a frying pann wtt^ batter, & ole, & bake 
yam & serve, (See another recipe in Household Ordinances, p. 460, 
under the head " Turtelettys of Frutnre.*') 

IU88BLL. (p. 198 or foL 98 b.) 
Recipe brede gratyd, & eggis ; & swyng Jam to-gyder^, & do 
^erto sawge, & saferon, & salt ; pan take gode brothe, & cast it ])6r-to, 
& bole it enforesayd, & do ^er-to as to charlete &c. (See also Ldber 
Cure Cocorumy p. 11 j Jussel of Flesh, Household Ordinances^ p. 
462 ; Jussel enforsed, p. 463 ; Jussel of Fysshe, p. 469.) 

MAWMENT. (p. 201 or foL 100.) 
Recipe brawne of Capons or of hennys, & dry fam wele, & 
towse f&m smalle ; ^an take thyk mylk of almonds, & put ^e saide 
brawfi f er-to, & styr it wele ouer ye fyre, & seson it with sugar, & 
powder of Canelle, wit^ mase, quibibs, & anneys in confete, & 
serve it forthe. (See also the recipe " For to make momene " in 
Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 26 ; for ** Mawmene for xL Mees " in 
Household Ordinances^ p. 466 ; and " Mawmene to Potage," p. 430.) 

FRETOURE. (Harl, MS. 276.) 
▼TMmdeiMha Pretoure. Take whete Floure, Ale, 3est, Safroun, & 
^^' Salt, & bete alle to-gederys as f ikke as Jwu schuldyst 
make oyer bature in fleyssche tyme, & ])an take fayre Applys, & kut 
hem in maner of Fretouiys, & wete hem in f e bature vp on downe, 
& frye hem in fayre Oyle, & caste hem in a dyssche, & caste Sugre 
J)er-on, & serue forth. [The recipe for " Tansye " is No. Lvi] 
1 The > is always y in Harl. 6401. ' that is, the figs. 



U6 



[From Earl. MS. 279, ah. U3040 a.d. A pretty MS, that 

ought to he printed.'] 

Poteffedyam Hsrys in ojraeye. Take Harys, & Fie hem, & make 
(foi. 15 a.) ^^^ cleue, an backe hem in gobettys, & sethe hem in 
Watere & Salt a lytylle ; )»an take Pepyr, an Safroon, an Biede, 
y-grounde y-fere, & temper it wyth Ale. Jan take Oynonys & 
Percely y-mynced smal to-gederys, & sethe hem be hem self, &, after- 
ward take & do ))er-to a porcyon of vynegre, & dresse in. (See also 
the recipe for "Harus in Cyue" in lAher Cure Cocoruniy p. 21, & 
that for " Conyngos in cyne" p. 20. Cfhive is a kind of small onion.) 

1*^4 Oonyngys in oyveye. Take Conyngys, an fle hem & se])e 
(fid. 16 a.) 2^Qjj^ ^ make lyke Jou woldyst make a sewe, sane aU^ 
to-choppe hem, & caste Safroun & Iyer Jer-to, & Wyne. (See also 
" Conyngos in cyue " in L, C (7., p. 20 ; and " Conynges in Cyue " 
in Household Ordinances, p. 434.) 

XT. Donoettes. Take Creme agode cupfulle, & put it on a stray- 
(foi. 89 b.) jjQ^jje^ Janne take jolkys of Eyroun, & put ^r-to, & a lytel 
mylke ; fen strayne it frow a straynoure in-to a boUe ; Jen take Sugre 
[ifoi. 40.] y-now, & put Jer-to, or ellys bony for defaute' of Sugre ; Jwm 
coloure it yriih Safroun ; Jan take Jin cofyns, & put it in Je oyynne 
lere, & lat hem ben hardyd ; Jan take a dyssshe y-fastenyd on Je pelys 
ende, & pore Jin comade in-to Je dyssche, & firo Je dyssche in-to Je 
cofyns ; & whan Jey don arryse Wei, teke hem out, & seme hem 
forth. 



Donoettes. Take Porke h hakke it smal, & Eyroun y-mellyd 
:foi. 48 b.) to-gederys, & a lytel l^Iilke, & melle hem to-gederys wzt^ 
Hony <fe Pepir, & bake hem in a cofyn, & serue forth. 

xzxTiiij. Donoettes a-foreyd. Take Almaunde Milke <& 3olkys of 
Eyroun y-mellid to-gederys, Sfirfroun, Salt, &, Hony : dry Jin cofyn, 
A ley Jin Maribonys Jer-on, & oerae forth. 



wi^ §«i^ 0f mittpi^. 



f^t 




0k 0f '§tmpi^^ 



that is to say, 



The boke of Seruyce & Keraynge and Sewynge 

& all Maner of Offyce in his kynde 

vnto a Prynce or ony other Estate, 

& all the Feestes in the yere. 



Enprynted by Wynkyn de Worde at London in 

Flete Strete at the sygne of the Sonne. The 

yere of our Lorde Grod. M.CCCC.xiij. 

and now reprinted^ 

1866. 



JOHN CHILDfi AND BON, PBINTBB8. 



i>\t '%(ik d ^rnpge. 



[Fol A 1.] 



% Here begynneih. the boke of keruynge and [Fol ▲ 1 1.] 
aewynge / and all the feestes in the yere, for the seruyce ina and Arrma- 
of a prynce or ony other estate, as ye shall fywde eche ^'mouFzomu 
ofi^ce, the seray ce accordynge, in this boke folowynge. ** ^ ^'^' 



^ Termes of a Kenier. 



TermsofaOanrer. 



'OBeke that deie 


tyere that egge 




\j lesche y brawne 


chyne that samon 


Slioe brawn. 


leie that goose 


strynge that lampraye 




lyft that swanne 


splatte that pyke 


•plat a pike. 


sauce that capon 


sauce that playce 


« 


spoyle that henne 


sauce that tenche 


■poUaheD, 


frusshe that chekyn 


splaye that breme 




vnbrace that malarde 


syde that haddocke 


nabraoe a mallard. 


vnlace that cony 


tuske that barbell 




dysmembre that heion 


culpon that troute 




dysplaye that crane 


fyune that cheuen 


An a ehnb. 


dysfygore that pecocke 


transsene that ele 




vnioynt that bytture 


traunche that sturgyon 




vntache that curlewe 


vndertraunche y purpos 


nntaobe a enrlew. 


alaye that fesande 


tayme that crabbe 




wynge that partryche 


barbe that lopster 


barb a lobster. 


wynge that quayle 




- 


mynce that plouer 


% Here hendeth the 




thye that pegyon 


goodly termes. 




border that pasty 




border a party. 


thye that wodcocke 


% Here begyimeth 




thye all maner of small byrdes Butler and 


thigh nnaU Urds. 


tymbre that fyre 


. Pant/er. 





THS BUTLEB A5D PAITTEBS DUTIEB. 



Th^ Botler hm t 
kiiires . 



n FM. A a.] 

2. a chipper, 
». « MUM/Uier. 



Trrnrbrr bread 
mtut be 4 dajra 
old: 

the Salt-PUneror 
1*017; 



toble cloUw kepi 
in a cheat, or 
banc oa a pecch. 



To broach a Pipe. 
haTetaofen, 



faBBeb, and 
taben, aad pieree 
the Pipe 4 inchea 
from the bottom. 



Alfrajn hare 
readjfruJto 
"i Orig. Maaona] 



and hard cheeM. 



Beirare of cow 



Hard ebeeee l« 
aperient, and 



keepaoffpoiaon. 
MUk and Junket 
cloM the ICaw. 



Li Fol. A. U b.] 



fllHoa slialte be Bailer and Panter all the fyrst jere / 
-*- and ye mnste bane thre pantrj knynes / one 
knvfe to square treTichoure loues / an other to be a 
' chyppere / the thyrde shall be sharpe to make smothe 
tre/ichoores / than chyppe your soneraynes brede bote, 
and all other brede let it be a daye olde / housholde 
brede thre dayes olde / trenchonr brede foure dayes 
olde / than loke your salte be whyte and drye / the 
planer made of luory, two inches brode ^ thre inchea 
longe / & loke that yonre salte seller lydde toache not 
the salte / than loke your table clothes, toweUes, and 
napkynSy be fayre folden in a cheste or hanged vpon a 
perche / than loke your table knynes be fiayre pnllysshed, 
& your spones clene / than loke ye haue two tarryours, 
a more & a lesse, & wyne cannelles of boxe made 
accordynge / a sharpe gymlot & fancettes. And whan 
ye sette a pype on broche, do thus / set it foure fynger 
brede aboue y nether chyme vpwardes aslaunte / and 
than shall y lyes neuer a-ryse. Also loke ye haue in 
all seasons^ butter, chese, apples, peres, nottes, plommes, 
grapes, dates, fygges & raysyns, compost, grene gynger 
and chardequynce. Serue fastynge butter, plommes, 
damesons, cheryes, and grapes, after mete, peres, nottes, 
strawberyes, hurtelberyes, & hard chese. Also bran- 
drels or pepyns with carawey in confetes. After 
souper, rost apples & peres, with blaunche poudre, & 
harde chese / be ware of cowe creme, & of good straw- 
beryes, hurtelberyes, louncat, for these wyll make your 
souerayne seke but he ete harde chese / harde chese 
hath these operacyoTts / it wyll kepe y stomacke 
open / butter is holsome fyrst & last, for it wyU do awaye 
all poysons / mylke, creme, & louncat, they wyU close 
the mawe, & so dooth a posset / therfore ete harde 
chese, So drynke romney modon / beware of grene 
sallettes & rawe fruytes, for they wyll make your 
sourayne seke / therfore set no mo-' che by suche metes 



THE SOKE OF KERUTNOE : WTNKTN DE WORDS. 7 

as wyll set your tethe on edge ; theifoie ete an almonde For food that seta 
& harde chese / but ete non moche chese without edge, eat an 
romney modon. Also yf dyuers drynkes, yf theyr che^. *" 
fumosytees haue dyspleased your souerayne, let hym ete 
a rawe apple, and y fumosytees wyll cease : mesure is a raw apple wiu 

cure indlgeitlon. 

a meiy mene & it be well vsed / abstynence is to be 

piaysed whan god therwith ia pleased. Also take good see erenr night 

that your vdnes 

hede of your wyneis euery nyght with a candell, bothe don't bou over or 

rede wyne and swete wyne, & loke they reboyle nor 

leke not / &^wasshe y pype hedes euery nyght with 

colde water / & loke ye haue a chynchynge yron, addes, 

and lynen clothes, yf nede be / & yf thefy] reboyle, ye youti know their 

fermenting by 

shall knowe by the hyssynge / theifore kepe an empty their hinfaig. 
pype with y lyes of coloured rose, & drawe the 
reboyled wyne to y lyes, & it shal helpe it. Also yf 
your swete wyne pale, drawe it in to a romney vessell 
for lessynge. 

% Here foloweth the names of wynes. Name* nf wi»M. 

If Reed wyne / whyte wyne / clared wjme / osey / 
capryke / campolet / renysshe wyne / maluesey / bas- oampoiet, 
tarde / tyer, romney / muscadell / clarrey / raspys / 
yemage / yemage wyne cut / pymente and ypocras. 

For to make ypocras. To Mote Ypoeraa 

% Take gynger / peper / graynes / caneU / synamon / 
suger and tomsole / than loke ye haue fyue or syxe lue ipioei: put e 
bagges for your ypocras to renne in, & a perche that 
your renners may ren on / than muste ye haue .yi « pewter badna 
peautre basyns to stande ynder your bagges / than loke 
your spyce be redy / & your gynger well pared or it be ginger and 
beten ' to poudre / than loke your stalkes of synamon be [i fol 1 in.] 
weU coloured; & swete caneU is not so gentyll in (orthequaiitieeof 
operacyon ; synamon is hote and drye / graynes of parar **** 
dico*ben hote and moyste / gynger / graynes / longe cs«<e, o/brei 
peper / and suger, ben hote and moyst / synamon / 



8 



FOR TO MAKE YPO0RA8, AND LAYB THE CLOTH. 



Pound each iploa 
fepantely, put 'em 
In bUdden, and 

hang 'em in yoor 
bass. 



pat a gallon of 
red wine to 'em, 



■tir It well, run 
it through two 
bags, 



taste it. 



pass It through 
runners, and put 
itlnacloserflflsel. 

Keep the dregs for 
cooking. 

Have 7onr Gom- 
post clean, and 
your ale 6 days 
old. 



but not dead. 
To lay the Cloth. 



Put on a ooifdk, 
then a second 
cloth. 

the fold on the 
outer edge ; a 
third, the fold on 
the inner edge. 
lFoI. a iii. 6.] 

Cover your cup- 
board. 



put a towel round 
your neck, one 
side lying on your 
left arm; 

on that, 7 loaves of 
eating bread and 
4 trencher loaves. 
In your left hand 
a saltcellar, 



canelly & rede wyne, ben hote and drye / tomsole is 
holsome / for reed wyne colourynge. Now knowe ye the 
proporcyons of your ypocras / than bete your poudies 
eche by themselfe, & put them in bladders, & hange 
yoiir bagges sure, that no bage touche other / but let 
eche basyn touche other ; let the fyrste basyn be of a 
galon, and eche of the other of a potell / than put in 
your basyn a galon of reed wyne, put thereto your 
poudres, and st3rre them well / than put them in to the 
fyrste bagge, and let it renne / than put them in to the 
seconde bagge / than take a pece in your hande, and 
assaye yf it be stronge of gynger / and alaye it with 
synamon / and it be 8tro[w]ge of synamon / alaye it 
with suger / and loke ye lette it renne thrughe syxe 
renners / & your ypocras shall be the fyner / than 
put your ypocras in to a close vessell, and kepe 
the receyte / for it wyll seme for sewes / than serue 
your souerayne with wafers and ypocras. Also loke 
your composte be fayre and' clone / and your ale fyue 
dayes olde or men drynke it / than kepe your hous of 
ofiyce clene, & be curtoys of answere to eche persone, 
and loke ye gyue no persone noo dowled drynke / for it 

A 

wyll breke y scabbe. And whan ye laye the clothe, 
wype y borde clene with a cloute / than laye a cloth, 
a couche, it is called, take your felawe that one ende, & 
holde you that other ende, than drawe the clothe 
straught, the bought on y vtter edge / take the vtter 
parte, & hange it euen / than take the tbyrde clothe, 
and lay y bought on the inner ^ edge / and laye estat 
with the vpper parte halfe a fote brode / than couer thy 
cupborde and thyn ewery with the towell of dyaper / 
than take thy towell about thy necke, and laye that one 
syde of y towell vpon thy lefte arme / and there-on 
laye your soueraynes napkyn / and laye on thyn arme 
seuen loues of brede, with thre or foure trenchour loues, 
with the ende of y towell in the lefte hand^, as the 



THE BOKB OP KERUTNGE : WYNKTN DE WORDB. 9 

maner is / than take thy salte seller in thy lefle hande *» y^^a right the 

' e "^ '^ » towel 

and take the ende of j towell in your ryght hande to 8«t the Saitceiiar 

. . on your lord's 

here in spones and knyues / than set your salt on the right, and 

e trencher* on the 

ryght syde where your souerayne shall sytte, and on y left of it. 

lefte syde the salte set your trenchours / than laye your 

knyues, & set your brede, one lofe by an other / your U7knivea,bre*d. 

spones, and your napkyns feyre folden besyde your 

brede / than couer your brede and trenchoures, spones "** *'**^*' *" "'*■ 

and knyues / & at euery ende of y table set a salte 

seller with two treachour * loues / and yf ye wyll wrappe ci tie. t^/or n] 

your soueraynes brede stately, ye muste square and ^^J^^^Sfwd^ 

proporcyon your brede, and se that no lofe be more J^lSS^theioavM- 

than an other / and than shall ye make your wrapper 

man[er]ly / than take a towell of reynes of two yerdes ^^^ ^ Reynea 

and an halfe, and take the towell by y endes double, J^^^b? thTendH 

and laye it on the table / than take the ende of y ?"V**'!'*J* 

*/ I *f table, pinch up a 

bought a handfull in your hande, and wrappe it harde, J»j<"^ «' »»• 
and laye the ende so wrapped bytwene two towelles; »nd lay u between 
vpon that ende so wrapped, lay your brede, botom to fajj^jroureo??^*^ 
botom, syxe or seuen loues / than set your brede }^ttom^***^™** 
manerly in fourme / and whan your soueraynes table is put salt, eupe.Ac.. 
thus arayed, couer all other hordes with salte, tren- tables^ 
choures, & cuppes. Also so* thynewery be arayed witli see^thatTouT 
basyns & ewers, & water hote & colde / and se' ye haue f^\^^^^^ ^ 
napkyns, cuppes, & spones / & se your pottes for ^p/^d*? '■'^*' 
wyne 'and ale be made clene, and to y sumape make j-oa^^^^the 
ye curtesy with a clothe vnder a fayre double napry / ^^^\^ 
than take be toweUes ende nexte you / & the vtter ende » <>««we towel, 

'^ "^ ' hold 3 ends 

of the clothe on the vtter syde of the table, & holde together, 
these thre endes atones, & folde them atones, that a ?^??**"L*"*, 

' ' foot-broad pleat, 

plyte passe not a fote brode / than laye it euen there it »nd lay it smooth. 

sholde lye. And after mete wasshe with that that is After washing. 

at y ryghte ende of the table / ye muste guyde it 

out, and the marshall must conuey it / and loke the Marshal nnut 

on eche clothe the lyght syde be outwarde, & drawe oat. 

it streyght / than must ye reyse the vpper parte 

2 



10 



HOW TO WAIT AT TABLE. 8EWYNGE OF FLES8HB. 



Leave out half a 
yard to make 
estate. 

When your lord 
has washed, 
remove the 
Siimape. 

When he Lb seated, 
- [I /or Is] 



salate him, un- 
cover your broad, 



kneel on your 
knee till 8 loaves 
are served ont (!) 



Provide as many 
cups as dishes. 



of y to well, & laye it w?'t7i-out ony gronynge / and at 
euery ende of y towell ye must conuey halfe a yerde 
that y sewer may make estate reuerently, and let it 
be. And whan your souerayne hath wasshen, drawe y 
sumape euen / than here the suniape to the myddes of 
the horde & take it vp before your souerayne, & here it 
in to y ewery agayne. And whan your souerayne it ' 
set, loke your towell be aboute your necke / than make 
your souerayne curtesy / than vncouer your brede & set 
it by the salte & laye your napkyn, knyfe, & spone, afore 
hj'in / than knele on your knee tyll the purpayne passe 
eyght loues / & loke ye set at y endes of y table foure 
loues at a messe / and se that euery persone haue 
napkyn and spone / & wayte well to y sower how many 
dysshes be couered ; y so many cuppes couer ye / than 
serue ye forth the table manerly y euery man may 
speke your curtesy. 



Seievtiigt. of 
Flf*9he. 



% Here endeth of the Butler and Panter, yoman of 
the seller and ewery. And here folowcth scwynge of 
flesshe. 



cFol. a 4 b.] 
TheSeieeror 
arranger of dishes 



must ascertain 
what dishes and 
fhiits are pre- 
pared daily for 
dinner; and he 
must have people 
ready to carry up 
the dishes. 



12 for he] 



THe sewer muste sewe, & from the horde conuey all 
maner of potages, metes, & sauces / & euery daye 
comon with the coke, and vnderstande & wyte how 
many dysshes shall be, and speke with the panter and 
ofFycers of y spycery for fruytes that shall be ete7? 
fastynge. Than goo to the horde of sewynge, and se ye 
haue offycers redy to conuey, & seruaimtes for to here, 
your dysshes. Also yf marshall, squyers, and ser- 
uauntes of armes, bo* there, thaw serue forth your souer- 
ayne withouten blame. 



Tkf Sueeestion 
of Diahea. 

1. Brawn, ftc. 
i. Phciitunt, Ac. 



% Seruyce. 

% Fyrste sette ye forthe mustarde and brawne, 
potage, befe, motton stewed. Fesande / swanne / 



THE SOKE OF KERUTNGE : WYNKTN DE WORDB. 1 1 

capon / pygge, venyson bake / custarde / and leche a. Heat Fritteru. 
lombarde. Fruyter vaunte, with a subtylte, two pot- 4. For a standani. 
ages, blauwche manger, and gelly. For standarde, 
venyson roste, kydde, fawne & cony / bustarde, storke, 
crane, pecocke with his tayle, herowsewe, bytture, wood- •peacock with his 
cocke, partryche, plouer, rabettes, grete byrdes, larkes / 
doucettes, paynpnffe, whyte leche, ambre /"gelly, creme s^Doucettes. 
of almondes, curlewe, brewe, snytes, quayle, sparowes, Brew, snipe. 
marty net, perche in gelly / petyperuys, quynces bake / PetypemyB and 
leche dewgarde, fruyter fayge, blandrelles or pepyns F*yge. 
with carawaye in confettes, wafers and ypocras, they be c»»w»y«. *c. 
a-greable. Now this feest is done, voyde ye the table, ci*" '^o uwe. 



% Here endeth the sewynge of flesshe. And begyn- Ktrayngt oj 
neth the keruynge of flesshe. 

THe keruer must knowe the keruynge and the fayre 
handlynge of a knjrfe, and how ye shall seche al 
maner of fowle / your knyfe muste be fayre and * your „ ^ ^®^- ^ '* ^ 

I ^ J J J Tour handi! miut 

handes muste be clene : & passe not two fyngers & a *» <^*®" - 

Q only two fingers 

thombe vpon your knyfe. In y myddes of your hande *"<* » thumb 

set the haKe sure, vnlassynge y mynsynge wich* two your knife. 

fy72gers & a thombe ; keruynge of brede, layenge, & 

voydynge of cromraes, with two fyngers and a thombe / 

loke ye haue y cure / set neuer on fysshe / flesshe / ®' ^^ "■^' ""**' 

beest / ne fowle, more than two fyngers and a thombe / ®' '^*'^' 

than take your lofe in your lefte hande, &, holde your 

knyfe surely ; enbrewe not the table clothe / but wype wipe jour knife 

. on your napkin. 

vpon your napkyn / than take your trenchouer lofe in 



your lefte hande, and with the edge of your table knyfe 
take vp your trenchours as nye the pojait as ye may / 
than laye foure trenchours to your soferavne, one bv an i*y * trenchers 

1 for your lonl. 

other / and laye theron other foure trenchours or elles '^t^ 2 or 4 on 

them ; 

twayne / than take a lofe in your lyfte hande, & pare Md the upper 
y lofe rounde aboute / than cut the ouer cruste to loaf. 
your souerayne, and cut the nether cruste, & voyde 



12 



EBRUTNOE OF FLB8SHE. 



V9ta] 



the parynge, & touche the lofe no more after it is so 
serued / than dense the table that the sewer may seme 

Give hoed to what 7^^^® souerayne. Also ye -muste knowe the fumosjrtces * 
iB Indigestible, Qf fysshe, flesshe, and foules, & all maner of sauces 

accordynge to theyr appetytes / these ben the fumosytes / 
as resty, fat things, salte, soure, resty, fatte, fryed, senewes, skynnes, hony, 
feathers, heads, croupcs, yonge feders, heddes, pygous* bones, all maner 
legs. *c. of legges of bestees & fowles the vtter syde ; for these 

ben fumosytees ; laye them neuer to your souerayne. 



Keruyngtof 
FlfstKt. 



How to canre 
Brawn, 



Venison. 



pFol. A5b.] 
(cat it in 12 bits 
and slice It into 
the funnity.) 



Pheasant. 
Stoclcdoros, 



(mince the wings 
into the syrnp.) 



Oooee. Teal, Ac., 
(take off the legs 
and wings,) 



Cn|»on. 

(mince the wing 
with wine or ale.) 



FloTsr, Lapwing. 



^ Seruyce. 

% Take your knyfe in your hande, and cut brawne 
in y dysshe as it lyeth, & laye it on your soueraynes 
trenchour, & se there be mustarde. Venyson with 
fourmenty is good for your souerayne : touche not the 
venyson with your haTwie, but with your knyfe cut it 
.xii. draught tes with the edge of your knyfe, and cut it 
out in to y fourmenty / doo in the same wyse with 
pesen & bacon, befe chyne and mottow / pare the befe, 
cut the motton / & laye to your souerayne / beware of 
fumosytees / salte, senewe, fatte, resty & rawe. In 
syrupe, fesande, partryche, stockdoue, & chekyns / in the 
lefbe hawde take them ty the pynyow, & with the fore- 
parte of your knyfe lyfte vp your wynges / than mynce 
it in to the syrupe / beware of skynne rawe & senowe. 
Goos, tele,malarde, & swanne, reyse* the legges, than the 
wynges / laye the body in y myddes or in a nother 
plater / the wynges in the myddes &, the legges ; after 
laye the brawne bytwene the legges / & the wynges in 
the plater. Caport or henne of grece, lyfte the legges, 
tha7i the wynges, & caste on wyne or ale, than mynce 
the wynge & giue your souerayne. Fesande, partryche, 

A 

plouer or lapwynge, reyse y wynges, & after the legges. 

* The top of the a is broken off, making the letter look like an 
/ rubbed at the top. 



THB BOKB OP KERUYNGE : WYNKYN DE WORDB. 13 

woodcocke, bytture, egr3rt, snyte, curlewe & heronsewe, Bittom. Egret. 

vnlace them, breke of the pynyons, necke &, becke / 

than reyse the legges, &, let the fete be on styU, than 

the wynges. A crane, reyse the wynges fyrst, & beware How to carve a 

of the trnmpe in his brest. Fecocke, storke, bnstarde trump in hiB 

& shouyllarde, vnlace them as a crane, and let y fete shoveier. 

be on styU. Quayle, sparow, larke, martynet, pegyon, Quail, Martins. 

Bwalowe, & thnisshe, y legges fyrst, than y wynges. swaUow, 

Fawno, kyde, and lambe, laye the kydney to your Fawn. Kid. 

souerayne, than lyfe vp the sholder & gyue your souer- 

ayne a lybbe. Venyson roste, cut it in the dysshe, & ^'**"* Venison, 

laye it to your souerayne. A cony, lay hym on the ^^^^ 

backe, cut away the ventes bytwene the hynder legges, 

breke the canell bone, than reyse the sydes, than lay Oay Wm on his 

e '' , e bellj with his two 

the cony on y wombe, on eche syde the chyne y two cutoff aides, on 
sydes departed from the chyne, than laye the bulke, 

chyne, & sydes, in y dysshe. * Also ye must my?ice [• Poi. a e.] 

foure lesses to one morcell of mete, that your soverayne each wt of meat. 

for 7our lord to > 

may take it in the sauce. All bake metes that ben pick it up by. 

- Open hot Meat- 

hote, open them a-boue the cofFyn ; & all that ben colde. Pies at the top: 

,, . ^1 1 ^ . 1 1 "I , cold in the middle. 

open tneym m the mydwaye. Custarde, cheke them cut custards in 
inche square that your souerayne may ete therof. Dou- Doucettes. pare 
cettes, pare awaye the sydes & the bottom : beware of bottom, 
fumosytes. Fruyter vaunte, fruyter say, be good; better prittcn hot are 
is fruyter pouche ; apple frayters ben good bote / and all '^^' 
colde fruters, touche not. Tansey is good / bote wortes, ^^^ **^- 
or gruell of befe or of motton is good. Gelly, mortrus, jeiij, Blanche 
creme almondes, blaunche manger, lussell, and charlet, Aclltre'gooJf and 
cabage, and nombles of a dere, ben good / & all other 
potage beware of no other potages. 

% Here endeth y keruynge of flesshe. And sauoeajbr au 

rt 1-1 manner iif Fowle». 

begynneth sauces for all maner of fowles. 

TlITJstarde is good with brawne, befe, chyne, bacon, ^ or e , 
-1^ & motton. Vergius is good to boyled chekyns SuSirtiidkens: 
and capon / swanne with cawdrons / rybbes of ^^'^ '''' 



14 



8A.UCES FOR FOWLES. FEESTES AND BERUYCE. 



Gftrlick, &c., for 
beef. 

Ginger for Iamb/ 
Gamelyne for 
heroiuBewe. &c. 
Salt, Sugar and 
Water of Tame for 
brew, Ac. 



White salt for 
lapwings, Ac. 
Cinnamon and 
salt for thrushes, 
ftc. 



befe with garlj'cke, mustarrle, peper, vergyus ; gyngor 
sauce to la^^be * pygge * & fawne / mustarde & suger to 
fesande, partryclie, and conye / sauce gamel^Tie to 
hero7isewe, cgryt, plouer, & crane / to brewe, curlewe, 
salte, suger, & water of tame / to bustarde, shouyllarde, 
& bytture, sauce gamelyne: woodcocke, lapwynge, 
larke, quayle, mertynet, venyson, and snyte, with whyte 
salte / sparowes & throstelles with salte & synamon / 
thus with all metes, sauce shall haue the operacyons. 

^ Here endeth the sauces for all maner of fowles 
and metes. 



[Pol. A 6 b.] 
The IHnner 
Cownet/rmn 
Raster to 
iVhittumlay. 
From Easter to 
Pentecost, 
set bread, 
treochen and 
spoons: 



6 or 8 trenchers 
for a great lord. 



3 for one of low 
degree. Then cat 
bread for eating. 



For Easter-day 
Feast: 

First Course : 
A Calf. boUed and 
blessed ; 

trailed Eggs and 
greon sauce ; 



Potage, with beef. 



% Here bcgynueth the feestes and seruyce from 
Eester vnto whytsondaye. 

ON Eester daye & so forthe to Pe?2tycost, after y 
seruywge of the table there shall be set brede, 
trewchours, and spones, after the estymacyon of them 
that shall syt there ; and thus ye shall serue your 
souerayne; laye [six or eight *] tre/ichours / &yf he be 
of a lower degre [or] estate, laye fyue trenchours / & yf 
he be of lower degre, foure trenchours / & of an other 
degre, thre trenchours / than cut brede for your souer- 
ayne after ye knowe his condyoyons, wheder it be 
cutte in y myddes or pared, or elles for to be cut in 
small peces. Also ye must vnderstawde how y mete 
shall be serued before youre souerayne, & namely on 
Eester daye after the gouemaunce & seruyce of y 
countree where ye were borne. Fyrste on that daye he 
shall serue a calfe soden and blessyd / and than soden 
egges with grene sauce, and set them before the most 
pryncypall estate / and that lorde by cause of his hyghe 
estate shall depai'te them aU aboute hym / than serue 
potage, as wortes, lowtcs, or browes, with befe, motton, 

1 See above, in the Keraynge of Flesshe, p. 11, lines 5 and 4 
from the bottom. 



THE BOKB OF KBRUYNGE : WYNKYN DB WORDE. 15 

or vele / & capons that ben coloured with saffron, and M'fron^tainwi 
bake metes. And the seconde course, lussell with second Coam: 
mamony, and rosted, endoured / & pegyons with bake Mameny,!PiKeon». 
metes, as tartes, chewettes, & flawnes, & other, after tlie cheweta, 
dysposycyon of the cokes. And at soupertymo dy uers Sapper : 
sauces of motton or vele in broche*, after the ordynaunce C« ? brothe] 
of the stewarde / and than chekyns with bacon, vele, cwckenB. Veai, 
roste pegyons or larabe, & kydde roste with y heed roost Kid. 
& the portenaunce on lambe & pygges fete, mth Piga'-Feet. 
vinegre & percely theren, <& a tansye fryed, & other a Tansey fried, 
bake metes / ye shall vndersta/ide this maner of seruyce 
' dureth to Pentecoste, saue fysshe dayes. Also take [2 foi. b i.] 
hede how ye shall araye these thynges before your 
souerayne / fyrst ye shall se there be grene sauces of green sauccs of 
sorell or of vynes, that is holde a sauce for the fyrst fo^e'flretcours*.. 
course / and ye shall begyn to reyse the capon. 

^ Here endeth the feest of Eester tyll Pentecoste. Keruvngqfau 
And here begynneth keruyng of all maner of fowles. 

-r CI ^t- A ^ow to carve a 

1 oauce that capon. capm, 

^ Take vp a capon, & lyfte vp the lyght legge and 
the ryght wynge, & so araye forth & laye hym in the 
plater as he sholde flee, & serve your souerayne / & 
knowe well that capons or chekyns ben arayed after 
one sauce ; the chekyn shall be sauced with grene saucc: green 

aauce or reijuice. 

sauce or vergyus. 

^ Lyfte that swanne. swan. 

% Take and dyghte hym as a goose, but let hym chawdron is the 
haue a largyour brawne, & loke ye haue chawdron. 

% Alaye that fesande. pKeoMmt 

If Take a fesande, and reyse his legges & his wynges 
as it were an henne, & no sauce but onely salte. No sauce but sait. 

IT wynge that partryche. partridoe, 

% Take a partryche, and reyse his legges and his 
wynges as a henne / A ye mynce hym, sauce hym with 



16 



KEBUTNG OF ALL MANER OF F0WLE8. 



Sanoe for 
Partridges. 



ffioio to earve a 
QtutH, 



Sauce: salt 
Crant. 



Sauce: ginger, 
mustard, Tlnegar, 
and salt 

[Fol. B 1. b.] 
MetifH. 



Sauce as before. 
BUttm. 

Salt, the sauce. 
Effret. 

Salt the sauce. 
CurUw. 

Salt as sauce. 
Brew. 



Salt ss sauce. 



Cony or Rabbit. 



Sauce: rlnegar 
and ginger. 



wyn, poudre of gynger, & salte / that set it vpon a 
chaufyng-dysshe of coles to warme & serue it. 

% wynge that quayle. 

% Take a quayle, and reyse his legges and his 
wynges as an henne, and no sauce but salte. 

Dysplaye that crane, 

% Take a crane, and vnfolde his l^ges, and cut of 
his wynges by the loyntes : than take vp hys wynges 
and his legges, and sauce hym with poudres of gynger, 
mustarde, vynegre, and salte. 

Dysjnembre that heron. 
% Take an heron, and reyse his legges and his 
wynges as a crane, and sauce hym with vynegre, mus- 
tarde, poudre of gynger, and salte. 

Vnioint that bytture. 
% Take a bytture, and reyse his legges & his 
wynges as an heron, & no sauce but salte. 

Breke that egryt. 
% Take an egryt, and reyse his legges and his 
wynges as an heron, and no sauce but salte. 

Vntache that curlewe. 
% Take a curlewe, and reyse his legges and his 
wynges as an henne, and no sauce but salte. 

% Vntache that brewe. 
^ Take a brewe, and reyse his legges and his 
wynges in the same maner, and no sauce but onely 
salte, & serue your souerayne. 

Vnlace that cony. 
% Take a cony, and laye hym on the backe, & cut 
awaye the ventes / than reyse the wynges and the 
sydes, and laye bulke, chyne, and the sydes togyder ; 
sauce, vynegre and poudre of gynger. 



THE BOKB OP KERUYNGE : WTNKYN DE WORDS. 17 

Breke that sarcelL sarwi or Teat. 

% Take a sarcell or a teelo, and reyse hia wynges & 
his legges, and no sauce but salte onely. 

Mynce that plouer. p^^^*^- 

If Take a plouer, and reyse his legges and his 
wynges as an henne, and no sauce but onely ^alt. 

A snyte. snipe. 

% Take a snyte, and reyse his wynges, his legges, 
and his sholdres, as a plouer ; and no sauce but salte. 

% Thyo that woodcocke. cfoi. b u.] 

Take a woodcocke, & reyse his legges and his 
wynges as an henne ; this done, dyght the brajTie. 
And here begynneth the feest from Pentecost vnto 
mydsomer. 



I 



N the seconde course for the metes before sayd ye sauces for the 
shall take for your sauces, wyne, ale, vyn^e, and 
poudres, after the mete be ; & gynger & canell from 
Pentecost to the feest of saynt lohn baptyst. The Ftatoounw: 

Beef and Gapona. 

fyrst course shall be befe, motton soden with capons, 
or rosted / & yf the capons be soden, araye hym in 
the maner aforesayd. And whan he is rosted, thou How to aaaoe and 
must caste on salte, with wyne or with ale / thaTi take ^^n* ****** 
the capon by the legges, & caste on the sauce, & 
breke h3rm out, & laye hym in a dysshe as he sholde lay him oat as if 
flee. Fyrst ye shall cut the ryght legge and the ryght 
sholdre, & bytwene tlie foure membres laye the 
brawne of the capon, with the croupe in the ende by- 
twene the legges, as it were possyble for to be loyned 
acayne tocyder/ & other bake metes after : And in the Second Ooune : 

o^ / Potage: Charleta, 

seconde course, potage shall be, lussell, charlet, or young oeeie. 

^ .^, , , Payne Puffe, Ac. 

mortrus, with yonge geese, vele, porke, pygyons or 
chekyns rested, with payne puffe / fruyters, and other 
bake metes after the ordynaunce of the coke. Also the How to carve a 

GOOM. 

goose ought to be cut membre to membre, begynnynge 
at the ryght legge, and so forth vnder the ryght wynge, 

3 



18 



THE SERVICE FROM MIDSUMMER TO CHRISTMAS 



Goo«e murt be &, not vpon the loynte aboue / & it ought for to be 
garUcorveijuioe. eteii with gTone garlyke, or with soreil, or tender vynes, 
or vergyus in sonier season, after the pleasure of your 
souerayne. Also ye shall vnderstande that all maner 
of fowle that hath hole fete sholde be reysed vnder the 
wynge, and not aboue. 



% Here endeth the feest from Pentecost to myd- 
somer. And here begynneth from the feest of saynt 



Dinner Oour$e» 
from the Na- 
tivity o/8t John 

M,)to^MidhMHmM. lohn the baptist vnto Myghelmasse. 



First Conne : 
soaps, T^eUblet, 
legs of Pork, Ac. 



Second Coiine : 

roMt Mutton, 
glazed Pigeons, 

Fritters. Ac. 

Serre a Piieasant 
dry, with salt and 
ginger: 



a Heronsewe with 
salt and powder 
(blanche T) 



Treat open- 
clawed blxdB like 
capons. 



TN the fyrst course, potage, wortes, gniell, & four- 
-■- menty, with venyson, and mortrus and pestelles of 
porke with grene sauce. Rested capon, swanne with 
chawdron. In the seconde course, potage after the 
ordynaunce of the cokes, with rosted motton, vele, 
porke, chekyns or endoured pygyons, heron-sewes, 
fruyters or other bake metes / & take hede to the 
fesande : he shall be arayed in the maner of a capon / 
but it shall be done drye, without ony moysture, and he 
shall be eten with salte and ponder of gynger. And 
the heronsewe shall be arayed in the same maner with- 
out ony moysture, & he shulde be eten with salte and 
poudre. Also ye shall vnderstande that all maner of 
fowles hauynge open clawes as a capon, shall be tyred 
and arayed as a capon and suche other. 



Dinner OourteM 

from Midkulmoe ^ 

to okrittrnM, of Chrystynmasae. 



% From the feest of saynt Myghell vnto the feest 



First Ooone: 
legs of Pork, Ac. 



Second Course : 



IN the fyrst course, potage, befe, motton, bacon, or 
pestelles of porke, or with goose, capon, mallarde, 
swanne, or fesande, as it is before sayd, with tartes, or 
bake metes, or chynes of porke. In the second course, 
potage, mortrus, or conyes, or sewe / than roste flesshe, 
motton, porke, vele, pullettes, chekyns, pygyons, teeles, 

• The feast of St John's Beheading is on Ang. 29. 



THE BOKB OF KBRUYNGB : WYNKYN DB WORDB. 19 

wegyons, maUardes, partryche, woodcoke, plouer, byt- widgeon, 
ture, curlews, heronsewe / venyson roost, grete byrdes, 
snytes, feldefayres, thnisshes, fruyters, chewettes, befe Pieidfares. 
with sauce ffelopere, roost with sauce pepcyll, & other '^th Baaom 
ba^ke metes as is aforesayde. And yf ye kerue afore Pegyii. 
your lorde or your lady ony soden flesshe, kerue awaye cut the akin off 

e boiled meats. 

the skyMue aboue / than kerue resonably of y flesshe Carvecarenuiyfor 
to your lorde or lady, and specyally for ladyes, for y * !*/*»• *heyi 

" x.»v ^ f f Ladies; they soon 

wyll soone be angry, for theyr thoughtes ben soone 8«t angry, 
changed / and some lordes wyll be sone pleased, & some 

m 

wyll not / as they be of compleccyow. The goos & ^^« 1^*^*1^^ 

swanne may be cut as ye do other fowles y^ haue hole ^^'^• 

fete, or elles as your lorde or your lady wyll aske it. 

Also a swawne with chawdron, capow, or fesande, ought 

for to be araycd as it is aforesayd / but the skynne must 

be had awaye / & whan they ben kerued before your 

lorde or your lady / for generally the skynne of all 

maner cloven foted fowles is vnholsome / & the skynne ThesUnofcioven- 

' "^ footed birds Is 

of all maner hole foted fowles bew holsome for to be unwholesome; 
eten. Also wete ye well that all maner hole foted ©f whoie-footed 

'^ birds 

fowles that haue theyr lyuy^ig vpon the water, theyr 
skynnes ben holsome & clene, for by y clenes of the wholesome, 
water / & fysshe, is theyr lyuynge. And jrf that they 
ete ony stynkynge thynge, it is made so clene with y because the water 
water that all the corrupcyon is clene gone away frome ti^ out of*^m"^ 
it. And the skynne of capon, henne, or chekyn, ben not cwckens' sUn is 
so clene, for the[y] ete foule thynges in the strete / & °**^ "^ ^""' 
therfore the skynnes ben not so holsome / for it is not because their 

. e , , nature Is not to 

theyr kynde to entre in to y ryuer to make theyr mete enterjnto the 

voyde of y fylth. Mallarde, goose, or swanne, they 

ete vpon the londe foule mete / but a-non, after theyr River birds 

dc^jiflfi ^lifilf foul 

kynde, they go to the ryuer, & theyr they dense them stink in the river. 

of the}T foule stynke. A fesande as it is aforesayd / but 

y skynne is not holsome / than take y heddes of all Take off the heads 

«,j,, J jT_i ^j 1 of all field birds, 

felde byrdes and wood byrdes, as fesande, pecocke, 
partryche, woodcocke, and curlewe, for they ete in for they cat 



20 



SEWYNOE OF FYS8HE. KERUTNQE OF FTS8HE. 



worms. toadB.and theyi degrees foule thynges, as wormes, todes, and other 

the like. 

suche. 



titwyngt of 
Fyuhe. 

Firat Course ; 
Hoacalade, 



Salens. See, 
baked Garnet. 



.Second Course : 
Jelly, dates, Ac. 
For a standard. 

Mullet. Chub. 
Seal, Ac. 



^ Here endeth the feestes and the keruynge of 
flesshe, And here begynneth the sewynge of fysshe. 

^ The fyrst course. 

TO go to sewynge of fysshe : musculade, menewes in 
sewe of porpas or of samon, bacon herynge wit^ 
suger, grene fysshe, pyke, lampraye, salens, porpas 
rosted, bake gumade, and lampraye bake. 

^ The seconde course. 
% Gelly whyte and rede, dates in confetes, congre, 
samon, dorrey, brytte, turbot, halybut / for standarde, 
base, troute, molette, cheuene, sele, eles & lamprayes 
roost, tenche in gelly. 



TMrd Course : 



^ The thyrde course. 
Bream. Perch, • ^ Frcssho stuTgyon, bremc, perche in gelly, a loU 
pears in sugar of samon, stuigyou, and welkes ; apples & peres rosted 
[I Grig. raysyuB] with suger candy. Fygges of malyke, & raysyns,* datea 

dates capped with , '.-i j / ^ i xt. 

minoed ginger, Ac capto With mynced gynger / wafers and ypocras, they 
^e tawe. ^^" ^®^ agrcable / this feest is done, voyde ye the table. 



[Foi. B iii. b.3 m Here endeth sewynge of fysshe. And here 

Carving and " J o J 

DretHng nfFish. foloweth keruynge of fysshe. 



Put talis and 
livers in the pea 
broth and ftuiinlt7> 
How to carre 
Seal Tuxrentyne, 

baked Herring, 
white HeiThig, 



Oreen Fish, 

Merling, Hake, 
Pike, 



THe keruer of fysshe must se to pessene & fourmen- 
tye the tayle and y lyuer : ye must loke yf there 
be a salte purpos, or sele turrentyne, & do after y 
fourme of venyson / baken herynge, laye it hole vpon 
your soueraynes trenchour / whyte herynge in a disshe, 
open it by y backe, pyke out the bones & the rowe, & 
se there be mustarde. Of salte fysshe, grene fysshe, 
salt samon & congre, pare away y skyn / salte fysshe, 
stocke fysshe, marlynge, makrell, and hake, with butter : 
take awaye the bones & the skynnes. A pyke, laye y 



THE BOKB OP KEBUYN6E : WYNKTN DB WORDB. 21 

wombe vpon his trenchour with pyke sauce ynoughe. 

A salte 'lampraye, gobone it flatte in .vii. or .viii. g^^l??*^*'^ 

peces, & lay it to your souerayne. A playce, put out PWoe. 

the water / than crosse hym with your knyfe, caste on 

salte & wyne or ale. Gomarde, rochet, breme, cheuene, Gmmrd. Bream. 

base, molet, roche, perche, sole, makrell & whytynge, Boach. whiung, 

haddocke and codlynge, reyse them by the backe, & Codiing. 

pyke out the bones, & dense the lefet in y bely. 

Carpe, breme, sole, & troute, backe & belly togyder. c*n», Trout. 

Samon, congre, sturgyon, turbot, thorpole, thomebacke, £Sf^iSbu? 

hounde-fysshe, & halybut, cut them in the dysshe as y 

poipas aboute / tenche in his sauce, cut it / eles & ^ench, 

lamprayes roost, pull of the skynne, pyke out y bones, 

put therto vyneger & poudre. A crabbe, breke hym »«»dCrab. 

arsonder in to a dysshe, make y shelle clene, & put in 

the stuffe agayne, tempre it with vynegre & pouder, How to <i^»°** 

than couer it with brede, and sende it to the kytchyn 

to hete / than set it to your souerayne, and breke 

the grete clawes, and laye them in a disshe. A 

creues, dyght hym thus: departe hym a-sonder, & ^JJi^onJflsh** 

slytee* the belly, and take out y fysshe ; pare away the ^' ***^ 

reed skynne, and mynce it thynne ; put vynegre in the 

A 

dysshe, and set in on y table wrtAout hete, A lol of » JoUofstanreon. 

sturgyon, cut it in thynne, morselles, & lay it rou/ide 

aboute the dysshe. Fresshe lampraye bake : open y * ^^^^ LMnprey. 

pasty / than take whyte brede, and cut it thynne, & 

lay it in a dysshe, & with a spone take out galentyne, »«<»• (Gaientyne 

& lay it vpon the brede with reed wyne & poudre of •^^ powdered 

synamon / than cut a gobone of the lampraye, & mynce 

the gobone thynne, and laye it in the galentyne ; than 

set it vpow the fyre to hete. Fresshe heryUge with Freeh Herring. *c. 

salte & wyne / shrympes wel pyked, floundres, gogyons, 

menewes & musceles, eles and lamprayes : sprottes is Spr*^ 

good in sewe / musculade in wortes / oystres in ceuy, Mnacuiade in 

worte, OyBtere, 

oysters m grauy, menewes m porpas, samon & seele, 

geUy* whyte and reede, creme of almondes, dates in Di^^^p^ 



22 



SAUCES FOB FT88HE. THE CHAUMBEBLATNB. 



Hortrewes of 
Dogfish. 



comfetes, peres and quynces in syrupe, with percely 
rotes ; mortrus of houndes fysshe, ryse standjnge. 



Hau<y»/or Fith. 

HiiBtATd for 
Siklmon, Ac; 

VincRar for lalt 
Wtiale. Ac. : 



Gftlentjne for 
Lamprey: 
Verjuice for 
Roach, ftc. ; 
Cinnamon for 
Chnb, ftc. ; 



Green Sauce for 
flalibnt, &c. 



% Here endeth the keruynge of fysshe. And here 
begywneth sauces for all maner of fysshe. 

TlTUstarde is good for salte herynge / salte fysshe, 
-^'-«- salte •'congre, samo?i, sparlynge, salt ele & lynge: 
vynegre is good with salte porpas, turrentyne salte / 
sturgyon salte, threpole, & salt wale / lampray with 
galentyne / vergyus to roche, dace, breme, molet, base, 
flounders, sole, crabbe, and cheuene, with poudre of 
synamon ; to thomebacke, herynge, houndefysshe, had- 
docke, whytynge, & codde, vynegre, poudre of synamon, 
& gynger ; grene sauce is good with grene fysshe & 
halybut, cottell, & fresshe turbot / put not your grene 
sauce awaye, for it is good with mustarde. 



^ Here endeth for all maner of sauces for fyssche 
accordynge to theyr appetyte. 



The DuiieMqfa 
Chamberiain, 

He miut be 
cleanly, and comb 
his hair: 

see to his Lord's 
clothes, and 
brush his hose; 



in the morning 
warm his shirt. 



and prepare his 
footsheet: 



[« Fol. B 6.] 
warm his pety- 
oote, Ac ; 

put on his shoes, 
tie up his hose, 



% The chaumberlayne. 

THe caumberlayno muste be dylygent & clenly in 
his offyce, with his heed kembed, & so to his 
souerayne that he be not recheles, & se that he haue a 
clene sherte, breche, petycote, and doublet / tha7i 
brusshe his hosen within & without, & se his shone & 
slyppers be made clene / & at mome whan your 
souerayne wyll aryse, warme his sherte by the fyre / 
& se ye haue a fote shete made in this maner. Fyrst 
set a chayre by the fyre with a cuysshen, an other 
vnder his fete / thaw sprede a shete ouer the chayre, 
and se there be redy a kerchefe * and a combe / than 
warme his petycote, his doublet, and his stomachere / 
& than put on his hosen & his shone or slyppers, than 
stryke vp his hosen manerly, & tye them vp, than lace 



THE BOKB OP KERUYNGB : WYNKYN DB WORDB. 23 

his doublet hole by hole, & laye the clothe aboute his 
necke & kembe his hede / than loke ye haue a basyn, oomb his head. 
& an ewer with warme water, and a to well, and wasshe wash his hands, 
his handes / than knele ypon your knee, & aske your 
souerayne what robe he wyll were, & brynge ^i'tti such vat on the robe 

he orders. 

as your souerayne commaundeth, & put it vpon hyni ; 
than doo his gyrdell aboute hyni, & take your leue 
manerly, & go to the chyrche or chapell to your Make ready his 

Gloseb In the 

soueraynes closet, & laye carpentes & cuysshens, & lay Ohurch or chapei. 

downe his boke of prayers / than drawe the curtynes, 

and take your leue goodly, & go to youre soueraynes then come home 

chambre, & cast all the clothes of his bedde, & bete the chamber, take oir 

feder bedde & the bolster / but loke ye waste no feders ; 

than shall the blankettes, & se the shetes be fayre & 

swete, or elles loke ye haue clene shetes / than make Make his lord's 

"^ ' bed again with 

yp his bedde manerly, than lay the hed shetes & the dean sheets, 

pyUowes / than take vp the towel & the basyn, & laye 

carpentes aboute the bedde, or wyndowes & cupbordes and lay hangings 

^ > J r round the bed, 

layde with carpettes and cuysshyns. Also loke there wd windows, ac. 
be a good lyre brennynge bryght / & se the hous of 
hesement be swete & clene, & the preuy borde couered Keep the priry 

-^ *' clean, and the 

with a grene clothe and a cuysshyn / than se there be *x»rd covered 

® J J / with green doth, 

blanked, donne, or cotton, for your sonerrayne / & loke "*** provide down 

" ^ I or cotton for 

ye haue basyn, & euer with water, & a towell for your !!jp*"«; 

-^ J y ' J When he goes to 

souerayne / than take of his gowne, & brynge him a bed, let him wash; 
mantell to kepe hym fro colde / than brynge hym to m»ntie, 

^ '' ' J G J take off his shoes, 

the fyre, & take of his shone & his hosen ; than take a ^ 

fayre kercher of reynes / & kembe his heed, & put on Oomb his head. 

his kercher and his bonet / than sprede downe his put on his night- 
cap. 

bedde, laye the heed shete and the pyllowes / & whan 
your souerayne is to bedde ^ drawe the curtynes / than ^.i*^?*^^ 
se there be morter or waxe or perchoures be redy / than round him, 
diyue out dogge or catte, & loke there be basyn and drive oat the 
vrynall set nere your souerayne / than take your leue thTuSudneaT 
manerly that your souerayne may take his rest meryly. J^te^"" ^^^ 

% Here endeth of the chaumberlayne. 



24 



OF THE MABSHALL AND THE YSSHEB. 



0/the Marshal 
and Uaher. 



^ Here f oloweth of the Marshall and the Yssher. 



He must know 
the orden of 
precedence of all 
ranks. 



THe Marshall and the vssher muste knowe all the 
estates of the chyrche, and the hyghe estate of a 
kynge, with the blode royalL 



The Mayor of 
London canka 
with the 3 Chief 
Justices. 



The Knight's 
equals. 

TFoI. b6.] 



The ex-Mayor of 
London. 



The Esquire's 
equals. 



^ The estate of a Pope hath no pere. 

^ The estate of an Emperour is nexte. 

% The estate of a kynge. 

% The estate of a cardynall. 

% The estate of a kynges sone, a prynce. 

% The estate of an archebysshop. 

% The estate of a duke 

% The estate of a bysshop 

^[ The estate of a marques 

% The estate of an erle 

^ The estate of a vycount 

^ The estate of a baron. 

% The estate of an abbot with a myter 

^ The estate of the thre chefe luges & the Mayre of 

London. 
^ The estate of an abbot without a myter 
% The estate of a knyght bacheler 
^ The estate of a pryour, dene, archedeken, or knyght 
^ The estate of the mayster of the rolles. 
^ The estate of other Justices & barons of the cheker 
% The estate of the mayre of Calays. 
^ The estate of a prouyncyall, a doctour dyvyne, 
% The estate of a prothonat : he is aboue the popes 

collectour, and a doctour of bothe the lawes. 
% The estate of him that hath ben mayre of London 

and seruaunt of the lawe. 
% The estate of a mayster of the chauncery, and 

other worshypfuU prechours of pardon, and clerkes 

that ben gradewable / & all other ordres of 



THE SOKE OF KERUYNOE : WTNEYN DE WOBDE. 25 

chastjte, peisones & preestes, worsliypfall mar- 
chaimtes &, gentylmen, all this may syt at the 
squyeis table. 
^ An archebysshop and a duke may not kepe the Who mu»t dine 
hall, but eche estate by them selfe in chaumbre 
or in pauylyon, that neyther se other. 
^ Bysshoppes, Marques, Erles, & Vycouwtes, all these who 2 together, 

may syt two at a messe. 
If A baron, & the mayre of London, & thre chefe who 2 or 3, 
luges, and the speker of the parlyament, & an 
abbot with a myter, all these may syt two or 
thre at a messe 
If And all other estates may syt thre or foure at a ^>»o s »<* *• 
messe 

^ Also the Marshall muste vnderstande and knowe The Manbaii 
the blode royall, for some lorde is of blode royall & of areofroyaiwood. 
small lyuelode. And some knyght is wedded to a 
lady of royal blode ; she shal kepe the estate that she 
was before. And a lady of lower degree shal kepe the 
estate of her lordes blode / & therfore the royaU blode for that has the 

' reverence. 

shall haue the reuereTice, as I haue shewed you here 
before. 

^ Also a marshall muste take hede of the byrthe, 
and nexte of the lyne, of the blode royalL , 

^ Also he must take hede of the kynges offycers. He miut take 

heed of the King's 

of the Chaunceler, Stewarde, Chamberlayne, Tresourer, offloers. 
and Controller. 

% Also the marshall must take heed vnto straimgers, do honoar to 
& put them to worshyp & reuerence ; for and they haue ^^ ' 
good chere it is your soueraynes honour. 

^ Also a Marshall muste take hede yf the kynge and reeeiTe a 

J . J _i» -L J Mewenger ftrom 

sende to your souerayne ony message; and yf he send the King as if one 
a knyght, receyue hym as a baron ; and yf he sende a f^S^i^Jf *' 
squyre, receyue hym as a knyght / and yf he sende yoil 
a yoman, receyue hym as a squyer / and yf he sende 
you a grome, receyue hym as a yoman. 

4 



26 OF THE MARSHALL AND THE YBSHER. 

for a King's groom m AJfio it ifl noo lebuke to a knyght to sette agrome 

may sit at a 

Kniffht'8 table. of the kynge at lus table. 

HeraeDdathia ^ Here endeth the boke of eeroyce, & keruynge, 

and sewynge, and all maner of ofi^ce in his kynde vnto 
a piynce or ony other estate, & all the feestes in the 

printed by yere. Enpiynted by wynkyn de worde at London in 

Wynkyn de 

Worde. Flete strete at the sygne of the somie. The yere of our 

A.D. 151.1. lorde god M.CCCCC.xiiij. 



[SStgnksn .be. foorbt's device heie.] 



27 



NOTES. 



VVynkyn de Worde introduces some dishes, sauces, fish, and one wine, 
not mentioned by Kussell. 

The new DUhes are — 

Fayge (p. 11, 1. 10). This may be for Sage, the herb, or a vai-iety of Fritter, 
like Fruyter vaunie (p. 11, 1. 2 ; p. 13, 1. U),/ruyier say (p. 13, 1. 24), or a 
dish that I cannot find, or a way of spelling figs. 

Fruyier say, p. 13, 1. 24. If say is not for Saye, then it may be a fish, con- 
trasted with the vaunU, which 1 suppose to mean ' meat.' Sey is a Scotch name 
for the Coalfish, Merlangus Carbonarius. Yarrell, ii. 251. 

Charlet (p. 13, 1. 28). The recipe in ' Household Ordinances,' p. 463, is. 
Take swete cowe mylk and put into a panne, and cast in therto ^olkes of eyren 
and the white also, and sothen porke brayed, and sage ; and let hit boyle tyl hit 
crudde, and colour it with saffron, and dresse hit up, and serve hit forthe.^' 
Another recipe for Gharlet Enforsed follows, and there are others for Charlet 
And Gharlet icoloured, in Liber Core, p. 11. 

Jowtes, p. 14, last line. These are broths of beef or fish boiled with 
chopped boiled herbs and bread, H. Ord, p. 461. Others are made * with swete 
abnond my Ike,' ib^ See ' Joutus de Almonde,' p. 15, Liber Cure, For ' Joutes ' 
p. 47 ; • for o^er ioutes,' p. 48. 

Browes^ p. 14, last line. This is doubtless the Brus of Household Ordi- 
nances, p. 427, and the bruys of Liber Cure, p. 19, 1. 3, brewis, or broth. Bros 
was made of chopped pig's-inwards, leeks, onions, bread, blood, vinegar. For 
' Brewewes in Somere ' see H, Ord, p. 453. 

Ckeweites, p. 15, 1. 4, were small pies of chopped-up livers of pigs, hens, and 
capons, fried in grease, mixed with hard eggs and ginger, and then fried or 
bdced. Household Ordinances^ p. 442, and lAber Cure, p. 41. The Chewets for 
fish days were similar pies of chopped turbot, haddock, and cod, ground dates* 
raisins, prunes, powder and salt, fried in oil, and boiled in sugar and wine. 
Z. Curet p. 41. Markham's Recipe for 'A Chewet Pye ' is at p. 80-1 of his 
English Housmfe. Chewit, or small Pie ; minced or otherwise. R. Holme. 
See also two recipes in MS. Harl. 279, fol. 38. 

Flannes (p. 15, 1. 4) were Cheesecakes, made of ground cheese beaten up 
with eggs and sugar, coloured with saffron, and baked in ' cofyns ' or crusts, 
' A Flaune of Almayne ' or ' Crustade ' was a more elaborate preparation of 
dried or fresh raisins and pears or apples pounded, with cream, eggs, breads 
spices, and butter, strained and baked in * a faire coffyn or two.' H, Ord, 
p. 452. 

Of new Sauces, Wynkyn de Worde names Oelopere & Fegyll (p. 19, 1. 4), 
Gelopere 1 cannot find, and can only suggest that its p may be for^ and that 
" cloves of gelofer," the clove-gillyflower, may have been, the basis of it. 
These cloves were stuck in ox tongues, see " Lange de beof," Liber Cure, p. 



28 NOTBS TO BOKB OF KERUYNQE. 

26. Muffett also recommends Gilly-flour Vinegar as the best sauce for 
sturgeon in summer, p. 172 ; and Vinegar of Glove-Gilliflowers is mentioned 
by Culpepper, p. 97, Physical Directory, 1649, 

Pegylle I take to be the TykulU of liber Cure Cocorum, p. 31, made thus; 
' Take droppyug of capone rostyd wele 
With wyne and mustarde, as have )?ou cele [bliss], 
With onyons smalle schrad, and sothun in grece, 
Meng alle in fere, and forthe hit messe.' 

The new Wine is Ckimpolet, p. 7- Henderson does not mention it ; Halli- 
well has ' Campletes. A kind of wine, mentioned in a curious list in MS. 
Rawl. C. 86.' [See the list in the Notes to Russell, above, p. 86.] I sup- 
pose it to be the wine from ' Campole* The name of a ceitaine white grape, 
which hath very white kernels.' Cotgrave. 

Of new Fish W. de Worde names the Salens (p. 20, 1. 8), Cottell and Tench 
(p. 21). Torrentyne he makes sele turrtntyne (p. 20, 1. 8 from bottom) 
seemingly, but has turrentyne salts as a fish salted, at p. 22, 1, 7. 

Cottellt^, 22, 1. 14, the cuttlefish. Of these, Sepite vel Lolligines calamariat 
Muffet says, they are called also ' sleewes ' for their shape, and ' scribes ' for 
their incky humour wherewith they are replenished, and are commended by 
Galen for great nourishers ; their skins be as smooth as any womans, but their 
flesh is brawny as any ploughmans ; therefore I fear me Galen rather com- 
mended them upon bear-say then upon any just cause or true experience. 

For the Salens I can only suggest thunny. Aldrovandi, de Piscibus, treating 
of the synonyms of the Salmon, p. 482, says, " GrsBcam salmonLs nomencla- 
turam non inuenio, neqz^^ est quod id miretur curiosus lector, cum in 
Oceano tantujsn flumi^fibusqn^ in eum se exonerantibus reperiatur, ad quas 
veteres Graeci nunquam penetraruut. Qui voluerit, Saiangem appellare 
poterit. ^aXaxi enim boni, id est, delicati piscis nomen legitur apud He- 
sychium,uec prsetereaqui sit, explicatur: aut a migrandi natura icetrava^po/ioc, 
vel SpofiaQ fluviatilis dicatur, nam Aristoteles in mari dromades vocat 
Thunnos ahosque gregales, qui aliunde in Pontum excurrunt, et vix vno 
loco conquiescunt ; aut nomen fingatur a saltu, & aX/ioiv dicitur. Non placet 
tamen, salmonis nomen a saltu deduci^ aut etiam a sale, licet saliendi natura ei 
optim^ quadret saleq»^ aut muria inueturaria etiam soleat. Non enim latine 
sed a Germanis Belgisub Kheni accolis, aut Gallis Aquitanicis accepta vox 
est." See also p. 318. ' Scardula, et Incobia ex Pigis, et Plota, Sale^ia/ 
Gesner, de Piscibus, p. 273. Can salens be the Greek * awXijv, a shell-fish, 
perhaps like the razor-fisL Epich. p. 22.' — Liddell and Scott — ? I presume 
not. * Solen, The flesh is sweet ; they may be eaten fryed or boiled.' 1661, 
R. Lovell, Hist of Animals, p. 240. * Solen : A genus of bivalve mollusks, 
having a long slender shell ; razor-fish.' Webster's Diet. 

Sele turretUyne^ p. 20, 1, 8 from bottom. Seemingly a variety of seal, or 
of eel or sole if sele is a misprint. But I cannot suggest any fish for it. 

Rochetsj p. 21, 1. 5, Rubelliones, Rochets (or rather Rougets, because 
they are so red) differ from Gurnards and Curs, in that they are redder by 
a great deal, and also lesser ; they are of the like flesh and goodness, yet better 
fryed with onions, butter, and vinegar, then sodden. Muffett, p. 166. 



PREFACE TO RHODES. 



Kino Edward the Fourth had in 1461-82 a.d. "Chapleynes and 
Clerkes of the Chapell, XXVI, by the King's choyce or by the deane 
his election or denomination, of men of worshipp, endowed with 
▼ertuuse morall and speculatiff, as of theyre musike, shewing in 
descant, clene voysed, well releesed and pronouncynge, eloquent in 
reding, sufficiaunt in organes pleyyng, and modestiall in all other 
manner of behaving ^ ". Such a one, I doubt not, was Hewe Rodes 
of the Kinges Chappell before 1554, the author of the Boke of 
Nurture next following, a Devonshire worthy of Henry VIII's time, 
much impressed with the duty of teaching Children, Masters and 
Servants, Young and Old, the way they should go and the good 
manners they should use, a very Polonius in his overflow of saws and 
precepts, but alas a man who had to declare of his acquaintance and 
friends, 

In all my lyfe I could scant fynde 
One wight true and trusty. 

From his care for children, I should like to suppose Bodes to have 
been Master of the young people who in his sovereign's time repre- 
sented Edward's " Children of Chapell, VIII, founden by the King's 
Jewel-house for all thinges that belongeth to thayre apparayle, by 
the handes or oversight of the Deane, or by the maistyr of songes 
assigned to teche them ; which maister is apoynted by the seyd 

^ S<ntaehold Ordinaneea, p. 60. 
b 



11 



PBEFAOB TO RHODES. 



Dean, and chosen one of the numbyr of the seyd fely8h3rpp of 
chapelL And he to drawe these chyldren, as well in the schoole 
of facet', as in songe, oiganes, or suche other yertuous thingea." 
But thare seems to be little chance of squeezing our author in 
between William Crane, who we know was Henry the Eighth's 
Master of the Children up to a.d. 1541 * (and, no doubt, beyond), and 
Richard Bowyer, who was their Master in 1548.* We may, however, 
glean something of the position in society, the pay, and food of both 
the Gentlemen and Children of the Chapel, in Eodes's time, and this 
I proceed to do. 

Unluckily there is no full account of the members or duties of 
Henry the Eighth's ' Chapell,' in the Ordinances made at Eltham, 
A.D. 1526; but in the table of Wages and Fees, p. 169-70, the 
members are mentioned thus : 

^ Fr, Faeei, A Primmer, or Orammer for a yong scholler. Gotgrare. 

s In the Amndel MS. No. 67, Plut. dxiii F, the book of Henry YIII.'s Honse- 
hold Expenses for the 29-33 years of his reig^, Crane is still Master. Payments 
for the Children occur at fol. 144, 1. 87 ; fol. 159 b, fol. 164 by 1. 20 ; fol. 175, 1. 1 
(*' in Febr., Anno xzxij^ [a.d. 1541] Item for the children of the chapell^, bourd- 
wagee, xxrj s. Yiij d.") ; and at fol. 164 b, 1. 22, is an entry of a New Year's 
gratuity to Crane of £6. 13s. 4d. "Rewardes geven on Saterday, New-yercs day 
at Hamptonoourte, Anno xxxij**, " [a.d. 1541.] ..." Item, for Wm. Crane for 
playinge before the King with the children of the Chappelk, in rewarde, yi. H. 
Tiiij s. iiij d." Compare Lord Percy's like payments, p. xxi, below. Among these 
" Newyeres Bewardes " is one that the future editor of our Alexander Romances 
should notice, <* Item to Anthony Tote s^rraunt that brought the king a table of 
the storye of kinge Alexander ^ s. Tiij d." The Christmas and New Year presents 
to the King, mentioned in this MS. and the one that Nicolas printed, are carious. 

' To Br Bimbault's kindness I owe the following list of 

Masters of the Children of the Royal Chapel. 





A.D. 




A.D. 


Henry Abingdon 


. 1467 


Richard Bowyer 


. 1548 


Gilbert Banastre 


. 1482 


Richard Edwards 


. 1561 


William Cornish 


. 1492 


William Hunnis 


. 1567 


Clement Adams 


. 1516 


John Hunnis . 


. 1572 


William Crane 


. 1526 


Nathaniel Giles 


. 1598 



Sir H. Nicholas, in his Privy Purse Expenses of Blisabeth of York, p. 85, col. 
2, says. In the act of Resumption, 13 £dw. lY, Henry Abingdon was protected in 
the enjoyment of 40 marks per annum, which had been granted him in May, 5 
£dw. lY, "for the fyndyng instruction and goTemaunce of the Children of the 
Chapell of oure Housholde." — Mot. Pari t. 594 ; tI. 86. In the act of Resump- 
tion, of the 22 Edw. lY, Gilbert Banestre was protected in the enjoyment of the 
same salary for " their exhibition, instruction and goTemaunoe." — Ibid, yL 200. 



PBEFAGE TO RH0DB8. lU 



Chappell and Vestry. 
The Dean to eate with Mr Treasurer, or Mr Comptroller. 



Gentlemen of the ChapelL 

t. g. d. 

Master of the Children, for his wages and hoard-wages 30 

Gospeller, for wages 13 6 8 

£pistoller 13 6 8 

Verger 20 

Yeomen of the Vestry 1 1 

Children of the Chappell, ten 56 13 4 

The Chaplains were not, I assume, boarded in the Court, or at 
the King's cost, and are therefore not mentioned in the list. Besides 
their wages, the Gentlemen of the Chappell, no doubt, had regularly 
a New Yeres Eewarde, like the other of the Eoyal servants. In the 
Arundel MS., No. 67, above cited, we find at foL 164, back, this 
gift to them in 1641, " Item to y® gentilmen of the chappelle for y«*' 
I)eyne8 takinge, xiiy L vj 8, viij d" And in July, 1531, in Henry's 
Household Expenses (ed. Nicolas) is an entiy, '* Item the same 
[xxvj] daye paied to the dean of the Chapell for the kinge^ rewarde 
to the Chapell men xl «." Besides this they would share in the 
annual Chapel Feast, for which these payments appear in Nicolas's 
Hd. Expenses of Hen. VIII. " Item the vj daye [of Aug. 1530] paied 
to the dean of the Chapell for the chapelle feaste xl 8, It^m the xj 
daye [of Aug. 1532] paied to maister dean of the kinge^ Chapell the 
olde ordinary rewarde for the Chapell feaste xl 8," The allowances of 
the Grentlemen of the Chappell for board-wages are stated iu H. Orel, 
p. 212, in the Increase of Charges in the Household, given in the 
** Additions to the Ordinances made at Eltham.'* 

'* Item, that the Kings Majesties pleasure was declared the 28th 
ilay of Aprill, in the 36th. yeare of his most gracious Eeigne [a.d. 
1544] at St. James's, by the mouth of the Lord Great Master and 
Mr Comptroller, that the Gentlemen of the Chappelly Gospeller, 
Episteller, and Serjeant of the vestry, shall have from the last day 
of March forward, for their board-wages, everie of them \2d per 

b2 



J 



IV PREFACE TO RHODES. 

diem : and the Yeomen and Groomes of the Vestry, everie of them 
6d per diem ; and twelve children of the chappeU, everie of them 
28. by the weeke." 

And in a prior page (H. Ord. p. 208) we are informed that a 

daily mess of meat was subsequently given to them : 

"Item, the King's pleasure was declared by the mouth of the 
Lord Great Master at Green witch, the 14th. day of June, in the 
36th. yeare of his Graces reigne, after the accompt of his household, 
that James Hill and his fellows. Gentlemen Singers, shall have 
dayly from the kitchen, one messe of grosse meate, and from all 
other Officers like Bouche of Court among them as the Physicions ; 
and att every removeing, allowance of a Cart for the carriage of their 
stuff." 

Now the Pkydcions in 1526 were Doctor Chamber and Doctor 

Butts, and in the list of " The Ordinary of the King's Chamber which 

have Bouche of Court, and also their Dietts within the Court " (H. 

Ord, p. 166), these Physicians are put above * the Apothecary, and The 

three Chirurgions, every of them, and Edmond Harmond, and 

Phillip,' who had the care of the children * ; whence we may infer 

the social rank of our Gentlemen Singers or Gentlemen of the 

Chappell, — ^that ancient and honourable estate of the realm,^ — 

above the Surgeons, Apothecaries, and Barbers, but below the 

Physicians. This assumes that the above-mentioned grant of a 

Bouche of Court equal to that of the Physicians, raised the Gentle- 

^ See H. Ord.y p. 192. Edmond Harmaa was one of the *' Barboars" at £20 a 
year (£f. Ord., p. 166 and p. 169). I sappose he had the general household charge 
of the Children; Crane, the education of them. (The present Children live in 
Cheyne ^yalk, Chelsea, with the Rev. Mr Helmore.) The charge of their Dietts yearly 
was at first, in 1526, Edmond Harmond, Phillip, and the children, £70. lOs. 
OXd., H. Ord,, p. 192 ; but in 1539 their allowance was increased :— " Item, The 
charge of one messe of meate served to Edmond Harmon, Phillip and the children, 
by the commandment of Mr Comptroller at Hampton Court, 20th. day of June, 
Anno 31, £35. 5s. O^d. ;" and again in 1542 '* the King's pleasure is declared by 
the mouth of Mr Phillip Hobby (? Sir Phillip Hobby, Gentleman Usher of the 
Privy Chamber, p. 169) unto the Lord Great Master, the 17th day of January, in 
the 33^ yeare of his reigne at Westminster, that the children that be in the keeping 
of Philip and Edmond Harmon to be served with one messe of meate, like unto the 
other messe they had before." JST. Ord.^ p. 208. 

' Mr Thoms mentions among its members, Richard Farrant, Thomas Bird 
(father of the celebrated William Bird), Thomas Tallis, William Hynnes. Henry 
Lawes (who composed the Coronation Anthem, and was the friend of Milton), 
Thomas Purcell, the uncle of the great composer, &c,—Book of the Court [from 
Hawkins]. 



PREFACE TO RHODES. 



men of the Chappell nearly to the Physicians' level As to their 
dinner, I assume from the way in which ' messe of meate ' is used in 
the Ordinances, p. 186, that the * one messe of grosse meate* allowed 
to the Gentlemen of the Chappell, meant nearly the same as the ' Diett 
for the Phisitions and Chirurgions* given at p. 178 of Household 
Ordinances, which cost by the yeare, everie messe, £66. 7s. 5jd. 
for the Kings Highnesse and his side (p. 192), or £66. 7s. 6^d. for 
the Queenes Grace and her side (p. 193). Here it is : 

."Sonday, Tuesday, Thursday, Monday, and Wednesday. 



Dynner. 

Bread, Cheate I ^ 3 
and Manchet) 
Ale, 
Wyne, 
Beef, 

Mutton, 1 

Veale, 1 

Pigg, Goose, 1 
Baked Meate, 1 
Lambe, Chick, 1 
Fruite, 1 

Butter, 



2 4 



2 



2 gal/ 3 

qrfli 
1 mess 6 

2 

3 

2 



2 gal' 3 
qrt' 1} 
1 mess 6 



6 
3 
2 
1 



1 
1 
1 

I 
1 



2 
3 
2 

3 
2 
1 



Summe of the diner 4s 4 



Souper. 



Bread,Cheat | 
& Manchett j 



Ale 

Wyne 

Mutton, 

boyled 

androst 
Henne,Lambe 1 
Doulcetts 1 
Chickens or 

Pegions 
Pruite 1 



i 
2 

3 



1 



2gaU' 
qrt' 

2 

messes 6 

2 

3 

2 
2 



d 

4 2 

2gaU'3 
qrt' U 

2 

messes 6 



1 
1 



3 
2 



4b I Sum of the supper 



3s. 8d. 



Fiyday Dynner. 



Cheat and 
Manchett 
Ale 
Wyne 
Lyng 
Place 
Haddock 
Smelts 
Fruit 



s 



2gaU' 
qrt' 



mess 



d 
2 

3 

2 
6 
3 
2 
2 



Saturday Dinner. 



4 

2gaU' 
qrt' 
mess 



2 
3 

2 
5 
3 
2 
2 



4 

2gaU' 

liqrt' 

1 mess 

1 

1 

1 

1 



i 
2 
3 

li 
2 

5 

3 

2 

2 



Sum 



Sum 20^ 

By the day 

the weeke 1 

By the yeare 66 



(By 
^By 
(By 



3 
6 
1 



7i 



20i 



20i 



VI PREFACE TO RHODES. 

The Queen's Phisition and Apotkecaiy, one messe of the like 
Fare." 

The only distinction between the Phisition and Chinirgionheie is, 
that the former got five penny-worth of Baked Meate or Pie at dinner, 
and three pen'orth of Doulcetts (see "Russell's Soke of Kurture^ 
p. 146) at supper, more than the Chirurgion. Kthen the Oentlemen of 
the Chappell came between the two, how would the Clerk to the 
Kychyn markthe difference, I wonder) Give them Conies, 1 mess, 2^ 
(H, Ord.y p. 181), or Egges, 2id. (p. 178), for their voices at the one; 
or an extra quart of wine or gallon of Ale, 1^. {ib. p. 191) at the 
other, to cheer them up before going to bed 1 Who shall say % 

The Gentlemen-of-the-Chappell's * Bouche of Court as the Phy- 
sicians ' from the officers other than those of the Kitchen, is stated at 
p. 163-4 oi Household Ordinances: 

"Gentlemen Ushers of the Privy Chamber, and Gentlemen 
Ushers datlt watters ; for the King and the Queenes Phisi- 

CIONS, AND ClERKBS OF THE SpICERT. 

" Every of them being lodged within the court, after supper, one 
chet loafe, one gallon of ale, one quart of wyne ; and from the last day 
of October unto the first day of Aprill, by the weeke two lynckes, by 
the day one sise, four white lights, four talshidea, four faggotts, 

and and firom the last day of March unto the first day of 

November, to have the moyety of the said waxe, white lights, wood 
and coales ; which amounteth to the sume of viiiZ. vs. ob. q.^ 

This Bouche of Court, the reader will perceive, was a daily allow- 
ance of lights and fuel, and also of bread, ale, and wine, for a nightcap 
before going to bed, and perhaps for breakfast next morning. That 
some extra food was wanted will be acknowledged when the times 
for dinner and supper are stated. H. Ord., p. 15 1, 

" DTNNER AND SUPPER IN THE HALL TO BE KEPT AT HOWRES CBRTAINE. 

Cap. 44 . . it is ordeyned that the household, when the hall is 
kept, shall observe times certeyne for dynner and souper, as followeth ; 
that is to say, the first dynner in eating dayes to begin at tenn of the 

^ At p. 210 of Household OrdmaneeSf seemingly in the year 1544, the cost of the 
Surgeons' Boache is entered, ^' Item, the Bonch of Court senred for two Suigeons, 
everie of them at £6 13s. O^d. by the yeare, par mandattim Bommi Thesanrart^ 2V* 
die Martis £13 6s. Id." This would give a Gentleman of the Chappell abont £1. 
12s. a year more than a Surgeon. The Apothecary's Bouche in 1626 was only iiii/. 
xiis. id. ob. q; {R, Ord,^ p. 163). 



PREFACE TO RHODES. Vll 

clock, or somewhat afore ; and the first supper at foure of the clock 
on worke dayes ; and on holy dayes, the first dynner to begin after 
the King be gone to the chappel, to his divine service, and likewise 
at souper. 

Cap. 45. And at such time as the Kings hall is not kept, the ser- 
vice for dynner, as well in the King and Queen's chambers, as in all 
other places of the house where any allowance of meate is had, to 
be observed at one certaine and convenient houre ; that is to say, for 
dinner at eleven of the clock before noone, or neere thereupon, and 
for supper at six of the clock at afternoon, or neere thereupon ; not 
tarrying nor digressing from this order for the Kings highnesse, nor 
for such as shall attend upon his Grace in his disporte or otherwise." 

Evidently, if Hewe Kodes followed his own precept to rise at six 
of the clock (p. 14, 1. 61, below), he would need some of his bouche 
of Court before ten or eleven, to stay his stomach. 

This, then, is all I can find with regard to the status and diet of 
our author. Of the duties of liim and his fellow-gentlemen, the 
Ordinances give us only the following information, p. 160, that 
whenever the King 

"shall lye in his castle of Wind»or, his manners of Bewlye, 
Richmond, and Hampton Court, Green witch, Eltham or Woodstock, 
his hall shall be ordinarily kept and contynued ; unlesse than for any 
reasonable cause by his Grace to be approved, it shall be thought 
otherwise expedient ; and at all such tymes of keeping the said hall, 
the King's noble chappell to be kept in the same place, for the 
administration of divine service, as apperteyneth. 

" Cap. 78. Nevertheless, forasmuch as it is goodly and honourable, 
that there should be allwayes some divine service in the court, 
whereby men might be elex^ted unto the devotion, and that it would 
not only be a great annoyance, but also excessive labour, travell, 
charge, and paine, to have the King's whole chappell continually 
attendant upon his person, when his grace keepeth not his hall, and 
specially in rideing journeys and progresses ; it is for the better 
administration of divine service oideyned, that the master of the 
children, and six men, with some officers of the vestry, shall give 
their continuall attendance in the King's court, and dayly, in 
absence of the residue of the chappell, to have a masse of our Lady 
before noone, and on sundayes and holydayes, masse of the day, 
besides our Lady masse, and an antheme in the aftemoone ; for which 
purpose no great carriage, either of vestments or bookes, shall be 
required: the said persons to have allowance of board wages, or 
bouch of court, with lodgeing in or neere to the same, and convenient 
carriage ; as in such case hath been accustomed." 

Assuming, then, as certain, that the business of Hewe Eodes's 



VIU* PREFACE TO RHODES. 

life was to assist in " the administration of divine service," * and as 
possible, that he further taught the ten Children of the Chappell 
their grammar, "songe, organes, or suche other vertuous thinges," 
we need not wonder that he who had experienced the change from 
Devonshire manners to courtly ones should have desired to impress on 
others the lessons he had learnt himself, and lay down, at parson 
length, the maxims that he had drawn from his own experience and 
the sayings of the wise men of the Court. What manner of man he him- 
self was he does not tell us. The only allusion he makes to his art is 

A tendable seruaunt standeth in fauour / for his auawntage 
Promoted shal he be in offyce or fe / the easyer to lyue in age 
Vse honest pastyme, talke or sy^ngey or some instrument vse 
Though they be thy betters, they wyll not the refuse. 

Whether ho was in youth a Chorister, impressed for the service * 

and forced from his home and school like Tusser was — 

There for my voice, I must (no choice) 
Away of force, like posting horse; 
For sundry men had placards then 
Such child to take. 
Tusser, Author's Ldfe^ in Thoms's Book oftlie Court, p. 381 

(from Hawkins, ii. 526, iii. 466) — 

we do not know; nor does he tell us whether as a child of the 

' ^ It vas not until the reign of Henry YIII. that the duties of the Chapel Royal 
were performed at St James's Palace, which was first hnilt by that monarch. Thorns. 

' See flenry VI.'s precept dated 1454, authorizing this measure, in Rymer's 
Foedera, says Thorns. (Hawkins refers to Strype, Mwi, Eed.^ v. ii. p. 538-9, for 
the authority to seize children in Edward the Sixth's time.) 

1 find the following as to how Henry YI. supplied himself with Minstrels. 

De MiniBtrallia propter Solatium Regis providendis (a.d. 1456, an. 34 H. 6, Pat. 
34, H. 6. m. 19). 

Rex, dilectis sibi Waltero Halyday^ Roberto Marahail, WUlielmo Wykes^ ^ 
Johanni C^yffe, Salutem. 

SciatiB qudd Nos, considerantcs qualiter quidam Ministralli nostri jam tard^ 
Yiam universsB Camis sunt ingressi, aliisque, loco ipsorum, propter Solatium nostrum 
de necesse indigentes, Assignayimus vos, conjuuctim & divlsim, ad quosdam Pueros, 
Membris Naturalibus Elegantes, in Arte MiaistrellatCLB instmctos, ubieunque in- 
venire poterint, t&m infra Libertates, qukm extra, Capiendum, & in Servitio nostro 
ad Yadia nostra Ponendum ; 

Et ideo Yobis Mandamus qu5d circa Preemissa diligenter intendatis, ac ea faciatis 
& exeqnamini in form& pnedictd . . Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium decimo die 
Martis. Rymer, xi. 375. 

Edward lY. formed his minstrels into a Fraternity or Gild. See the Patent in 
Rymer, xi. 642-4. 



' PREFAOE TO RHODES. IX 

chappell he was whipped for any Prince's faults, as the custom was *. 
Was he ever snubbed by the Dean, I wonder, who had " all cor- 
rections of chapell-men in moribaa et sciencia — ^reserved some cases 
to the Steward and countyng house*"? — Was he ever found "de*^ 
fectife or disobedient, and putt oute of wages " on a Friday when the 
Dean " kept a conventicle with all the chapell-men, and there rehersed 
their fautes and appointed the remedies*]" Did he prove one of 
**the rascals and hangers upon thys courte," who were to "be sought 
oute and avoyded from euery office monethly ^ ? " Far be it from us 
to believe so. He was never sent to the Marchalcye Prison by sus- 
pection (we may be sure), " as a theefe or outrageous royatour, or for 
muche hauntyng sclaunderous places, company es and other *," nor was 
he "knowen for a commyn dayly dnmkyn man": he was not of 
the " pykers, malefactours of outward people or inward," nor did he 
use " to swere customably by Goddes body, or any of his other partes 
unreverently, against the Kinges vertuous disposition and the law 
of God," but lived as a man of worship, endowed with moral virtues, 
as by his ordinance he was bound to do. If he had the chance 
of playing at " pryckis " with his burly Sovereign like William 
Crane, the Alaster of the Children, up to (and perhaps beyond) 1541 
had, no doubt he took the chance, and tried to win £7. 2s. 6d. of 
his King as Master Crane succeeded in doing ^ ; but for any such 

> Bamet {Own Timet, i. 244, says Hawkins, iii. 2o2-3) mentions Barnaby 
Fitzpatric as whipping-boy to Prince Edward, and a Mr Mnrray as whipping-boy 
to Charles I. The working of the process is well explained by an old comedy of 
Christopher Tye's, quoted by Mr Thoms (from Hawkins) : 

Orami%er : So, sir, this policie was well devised. 

Since he was whipped thus for the Prince's faults. 
His grace hath got more knowledge in a month 
Than ho attained in a year before : 
For still the fearful boy, to save his breeeh, 
Doth hoorlye haunt him wheresoe'er he goes. 
I^e : 'Tis true, my lord, and now the Prince perceives it ; 
As loath to see him punished for his fieiults, 
Plies it on purpose to redeeme the boy, &c. 
' Hotmhold Ordinaneea, p. 49. ' lb. p. 66. « Jb, p. 67. 

^ The last daye [of June, 1632] paied to Willtam Crane for so moche money as 
he wanne of the kingit grace at pryckis, xix Angellw, in money currant vij 11. ij s. 
vj d. Nicolas's iVtpy l^rw Bxpitma of Henry VJU. from Nov. 1629 to Dec 1632 



X PREFACE TO RHODES. 

details about him we most wait for the publication of a later House- 
hold Book of Henry VIII. 's or an earlier one of Edward VL's than I 
have been able to find, and meantime judge Hewe Eodes from his book. 
He seems to me a regular sobersides, with little or no fun or humour * 
in him, not a man to make fast friends, though eminently respectable, 
and with an eye to the main chance, if we may judge from his 
directions to The Wayting Servant as to what company he should 
keep : 



Petit's edition. 
Tor your promocyon resort to such 

as ye may take avau^tage, 
Among gCTitylme^ for rewardes, 

to gentylwome» for mariage 
Se your eye be indyflferent, 

araonge women that be fayre 
And tell them storyes of loue, 

& so to you they wyll repayre ; 
Suche pastymes somtyme 

doth many men auaunce 
In way of maryage, 

and your good name it wy 1 ephaunce. 



Ed. of 1677. 
For your preferment resorte 

to such as may you vauntage: 
Among Gentlemen, for their rewards, 

to honest dames for maryage. 
See your eye be indifferent 

among women that be fayre ; 
And if they be honest, to them 

boldly then doe repayre ; 
Honest quallitycs and gentle 

many men doth aduaunce : 
To good maryages, trust me, 

and their names doth inhaunce. 



There you have the man, I fancy. Propriety and Deportment, 
Honesty and Gentleness, pay ; therefore pursue them. But there is 
much eke in the book that may be urged against this view of the 
author, as the reader will find if he reads the book, though still on 
me the former impression remains. It is confirmed, too, by the 

(ed. 1827), p. 227. I take this to be, not prick-song, but the prieks for shooting, 
which Ascham testifies in his Toxophilua that Henry VIII. practised : 

*' Again, there is another thing, which above all other doth move me, not only 
to love shooting, to praise shooting, to exhort all other to shooting, but also to use 
shooting myself; and that is our King [^Henry the Eighth] his most royal purpose 
and will, which in all his statutes [3 Henry VIII., cap. 3 ; 6 Hen. VIII., cap. 3 ; 
25 Hen. VIII., cap. 17 ; 33 Hen. VIII., cap. 9] generally doth command men, and 
with his own mouth most gently doth exhort mea, and by his great gifts and rewards 
greatly doth encourage men, and with his most princely example very often doth 
provoke all other men to the same." ed. Giles, 1865, p. 25. 

(Cp. 20th March, 1531. Paid to George Coton, for vii shott lost by the Kings 
grace unto him at Totthill, at 6s. 8d. the shotte, xlvj s. viij d., and the other entries 
from Nicolas, in Hansard's Archery, p. 40.) See Note at end of Preface. 
^ May not he be allowed some for lines 441-4, p. 36, 

A wonderfull thing this is to doe, 

and easy to be done : 
To leaue pleasure, and keepe sylence, 
and to follow reason. 



PREFACE TO RHODES. XI 

" fulsome panegyric " on Queen Mary, on which Warton remarks »in 

his notice of Kodes's other poem. Warton (iii. 265, ed. 1840) says 

of Bodes, 

" In the following reign of Mary, the same poet printed a poem 
consisting of thirty-six octave stanzas, entitled, *The Song of the 
Chyld-Bysshop, as it was songe before the queenes maiestie in her 
priuie chamber at her manour of saynt James in the ffeeldes on saynt 
Nicholas day and Innocents day this yeare nowe present, by the 
chylde bysshope of Poules churche with his company. Londini, in 
aedibus Johannis Cawood, typographi reginae, 1555. Cum privilegio, 
Ac* By admitting this spectacle into her presence, it appears that 
her majesty's bigotry condescended to give countenance to the most 
ridiculous and unmeaning ceremony of the Roman rituaL As to the 
song itself, it is a fulsome panegyric on the queen's devotion, in 
which she is compared to Judith, Esther, the queen of Sheba, and 
the virgin Mary." 

One good quality Rodes certainly had, modesty as to his poetical 
powers. He says, 

I am full blynde in Poets Arte, 

thereof I can no skill ; 
All elloquonce I put apart, 

following myne owne wyll. 
Corrupt in speeche, be sure, am I, 

my breefes from longes to know. 
And bom and bred in Deuonshyre to, 

as playne my tearmes doe show. 
Take the best, and leaue the worst, 

of truth I meane no yll : 
Tlie matter is not curyous, 

the intent good, marke it well 
Pardon I aske if I offend 

thus boldly now to wryte : 
To Mayster, seruaunt, yong and olde, 

I doe this booke commit, 
Eequyring Mendly youth and age, 

if any doe amis. 
For to refourme and hate abuse, 

and mend where neede there is. 

* In quarto, bl. lett (Warton), a.d. 1665. See in Dibdin's Ames, vol. iv. p. 
394. Bitson observes on this statement of Warton's as to Bodes's poem, that 
it "seems to require some further authority," Bibliogr, Fo&t., p. 315, and in a note 
says, ** Herbert, in p. 1794, asserts a copy of this book to be in possession of 
* Francis Douce, esquire ; ' who never had, nor saw, nor (except from what Warton 
says) ever hear'd of such a thing." Modem inquirers after this poem are in Donee's 

o2 



XU PREFACE TO RHODES. 

Tlie Book of Nurture consists of four Parts, whereof the second 
is divided into two. First comes an exhortation to Parents and 
Masters to hring up their Children vertuously, and keep their Serv- 
ants and household in good order. Second : are, 1. The Maner of Sein- 
ing a Knight, Squyre, or Gentleman at Meals ; 2. How to order your 
Maysters Chamber at night to bedwarde (when he goes to bed). 
Third comes the expansion of Stans Pu^r ad Mensam, turned into 
" The Booke of Nurture and Schole of good Maners for Man and 
for Chylde." Fourth comes the most elaborate part of the book, 
directions "For the Wayting Seruaunt," pp. 24-46, comprising 
maxims and advice not only for him, but for the world of men in 
general. Into this, the edition of 1577 (which is printed here) has 
introduced " Tlie Eule of Honest Lining," two pages and a half of 
prose maxims not ditfering much from those that have preceded 
them in verse. I do not mean to pick out the plums from the text, 
or even point to where they are, because I feel sure that no Member 
is so lost to all sense of propriety as not to read this volume through 
from beginning to end. If there should be one in that unhappy 
condition, let him beg his dearest friend to give him a dose of 
Wilyam BuUeyn's boxyng & neckweede, according to the prescrip- 
tion following the notes to Eussell, and, being smoked, he will be 
cured. 

Hewe Eodes's Boke of Nurture was printed at least three times 
in early days. First by Thomas Petit, in small 8vo, bl. lett., before 
1554, for he printed no book after that date * : secondly by ITiomas 
East, in oblong 4to, in 1568 ; thirdly by H. Jackson, in small Svo, 
in 1577. See Warton, v. iii. p. 265, ed. 1840 ; Ritson's BibL Poet., 
p. 314-15; and Brydges's Censura Literaria. Of the first edition 

Goso ; neither Mr J. Gough Nichols, who has long heen hunting for Boy-Bishop 
material, Dr Bimhault, Mr W. G. Hazlitt, nor any other likely men whom I have 
asked, hare ever heard of it. Warton must of course have seen a copy. Who will 
tell me where one is ? 

* Mr Payne Collier thinks that another edition is included in the following entry 
on the Register of the Stationers' Company : 

'^ To John Kynge, to prynte these hokes folowynge ; that ys to saye, a Jeste of 
syr frnweiYe ; the boke of Carvynge and sewynge ; syr lamwell ; the boke of 
Cokerye ; the boke of nurture for mens servauntes" Extracts, p. 15 (Shakspere Soc., 
1848). 



I 



PREFACE TO RHODES. XIU 

only one copy is known to the Librarians, collectors, and Mends of 
whom I haye made inquiry. It is in the Bodleian, is without a title, 
and two leaves of the text are gone. Of the second edition I have not 
been able to hear of a copy. Of the third there are at least two copies 
known, one in the British Museum, and the other -among Malone's 
books in the Bodlei&n. I had at first resolved to print the texts of 
tlie first and third editions opposite one another, so as to bring out 
their differences fully, leaving blanks for the missing leaves of the 
first edition, to be filled up whenever these leaves should turn up 
and I could reprint them ; but on the strong remonstrance of Mr 
H. B. Wheatley against reprinting an imperfect printed book, I 
gave up the plan, and have printed only the 1577 text from the 
British Museum copy, adding the principal variations of the first 
edition at the end. Of this first edition I hope to hear of a complete 
copy soon, and to reprint it directly afterwards. 

Some of the alterations from the earlier text are worth notice as 
signs of the times. Thus the leaving out of these lines 

" To helpe a preest to say masse / it is greatly to be com77iended 
Thou takest on hande an au/^gels office / the preest to attend " 

of the first edition's injunctions for conduct in church, marks the 
Keformation. Why the early true statement, 

"Pore men faythfuU, and gentylmen deceytful in lyuynge 
The gredy myndes of rulers / hath caused blode shedynge " 

should have been altered to the later goody 

" Pore men must be faythfull, 
and obedient in lyuing, 
Auoyding all rebellyon 

and rygorous bloodshedding," 

I cannot suggest, unless the 1577 editor was more of a Tory than 
Rodes. The minor alterations in this later edition are so many that 
they must have been made, I fancy, by another hand after Rodes's 
death. Of the lines changed we may note 

** WiVi moch flesshe <& lytel bread/ fyl not thy mouth lyke a barge" 

altered and weakened to 

" Cram not thy mouth to full, ne yet 
thy stomack ouercharge." — ^1. 271-2. 



Xiv PREFACE TO RHODES. 

Also 

" Lyght in speche and slowe in dedea / yuys it is great shame " J 

let down to * 

" But to be slow in godly deedes 
increaseth a mans shame/' 

But in 1. 539-40 the sentiment of the later text 

" But in redressing things amis, 
thou highly God shalt please '* 

is a decided improvement on the selfish ease of the earlier 

" The lesse thou medlest / the better shalt thou please ; " 

and the same may be said of the last lines of the 1557 edition, 

** He that doth haunt to wysdoms bowre 
remaynes his countreys Mend," 

beside those 'of the earlier text, 

" He that w}ll not for wysdome seke / is not his owne frende," 

If the present reprint should call forth a copy of East's edition 
of 1568, which must curely be now standing on the shelves of some 
library, we shall know perhaps whether Eodes is answerable for the 
alterations of the original text. Of the 1577 edition I have only 
altered the stops, and the printer has numbered the lines. The 
sidenotes are added for convenience sake, not because the text is 
hard enough to want a running commentary. 

Comparing it with the earlier and later treatises on like subjects, 
two points of manners may be noticed ; first, that handkerchiefs for 
the nose were then coming into vogue ; and secondly, that tooth- 
picks had not appeared. How to blow the nose in a genteel way 
before company without a handkerchief^ was evidently a difficulty 
with early writers on deportment. They could only treat it as so 
many authors and editors have done since with their difficulties, 
— shirk it as if they knew all about it, and trust to their readers' 
ingenuity. The writer of the Poem on Freemasonry that Mr Halh- 
well has printed from MS. Bibl. Eeg. 17 A. says, p. 38, 1. 711-12, 

From spyttynge and snyftynge kepe f e also, 
By privy avoydans let hyt go. 



PREFAOB TO RHODES. XV 

that is, get on as well as you can. At dinner also he tells his pupil, 

1. 743-6, 

Kepe f yn hondes fayr and "wel 
Fram fowle sniogyng^ of py towel ; 
J)eron j>ou schalt not py nese snytey 
Ny at J)e mete py toj^e poxx pyke. 

The Boke of Curtasye, ab. 1460, L 89-92, says, 

Yf fy nose pon dense, as may be-falle, 
Loke py honde povi dense wythc-alle ; 
Priuely with skyrt do hit away, 
Oper ellis thurghe thi tepet pat is so gay. 

John Eusscll, likewise handkerchiefless, only says, 1. 283-4, 

Pike not your^ nose / ne fat hit be droppynge wit/i no peerlis clerc, 
Snylf nor snitynge hyt to lowd / lest youre souerayne hit here. 

But by Kodes's time the handkerchief had partially come in^, as 
witness lines 261-4, 

Blow not your nose on the napkin 
where you should wype your hande, 

But dense it in your handkercher, 
then passe you not your hand ; 

though the earlier method was still permitted, for we read at lines 

289-92, 

If thou must spit, or blow thy nose, 

keepe thou it out of sight, 
Let it not lye vpon the ground, 
but treade thou it out right. 

The Schoole of Vertue, a.d. 1577, directs the nose to be cleaned 
on a napkin once a day in the morning ^, like the shoes and teeth : 

A napkin se that thou haue in redines 
Thy nose to dense from all fylthynes. 

Last comes The Booke of Demeanor^ L 45-52, in a.d. 1619, 

Nor imitate with Socrates, 
to wipe thy snivelled nose 

' Compare one of Henry VIII.'s New Year's g:iftB, an© xxxij, " Item, to y« 
Yingei lannd^r that gave y« Idng handkerchen xxs." MS. Arundel No. 97, fol. 167, 
back. The Duke of Somerset in the Tower, asks to have allowed him, among other 
things *4j. night kerchers ; item vj. hande kerchers." The Dnchess asks also for 
" rj. hand kerchers" besides " ifj. froc kerchers, whereof iij. fyne." Ellis, Letters, 
series II. y. ii. p. 215. 

* Compare Ehodea, p. 15, 1. 70. 



XVl PREFACE TO RHODES. 

Vpon thy cap, as he would doe, 

nor yet upon thy clothes. i 

But keepe it clene with handkerchiffe, ^ 

provided for the same, 
Not Avith thy fingers or thy sleeve, 

therein thou art too blame ; 

but still ' filthiness or ordure * may be cast on the floor so that it be 
trodden out with haste, L 105-8. Have not we cause to be grateful 
to Cotton and Silk ? 

With regard to the picking of teeth *, some of the English and 
French books, like the Freemasonry one above, and the Boke of 
Curtasye, forbid it to be done at all at meals : 

Clense not thi tethe at mete sittande, 

With knyfe ne stre, styk ne wande. — B, of C. L 93. 

Others only forbid picking with the knyfe, as The LytyUe Cfkildrenes 
Lytil Boke, L 39, 

Pyke not fi tethe with thy knyfe. 

It was reserved for Bodes to reconcile the difficulties by a stroke of 

genius, 

Pick not thy teeth with thy Knyfe 

nor with thy fyngers ende ; 
But taJce a stick 

(I hope the reader will think of a walking-fitick as I did on first reading 

the passage) 

or some clene thyng, 
then doe you not ofiende, 1. 248. 

* 

Other details I must leave the reader to notice for himself. 

3, ^i^ Oeorge's Square, N. W. 
September, 1866. 



P.S. By way of further illustrating the status, pay, and work 
of the Gentlemen and Children of the King's Chapel in Henry the 
Eighth's time, I add as an Appendix to this Preface, all the particu- 

^ See the note at the end of Rodes Various Readings. 



PREFACE TO RHODES. 



XVU 



lars of the Earl of JSTorthuinberland's Chapel-Gentlemen and Children 
that I can gather from his Household Books as published by Bishop 
Percy, and afterwards reprinted. The particulars are put under 
these heads : — 

I. The Number of the Grentlemen and Children. 
II. Their Food, Lights, and Fuel. 

III. The Washing of their Surplices. 

IV. Their Wages. 

V. Their Beds, and the Carts for removing them. 
VI. Their Extra Gratuities for Acting Plays, Ac. 
VII. The Kinds of Voices or Singers. 

VIII. Their Arrangement and Days of Attendance, and their Keep- 
ing of the * Orgayns.' 
The bits about their sleeping two and three in a bed (p. xix), acting 
Miracle-Plays (p. xx), playing on the * Orgaynes * (p. xxv), are in- 
teresting, as well as the allusion to the Boy-Bishop (p. xx). 



THE FIFTH EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND'S GENTLEMEN 
AND CHILDREN OF THE CHAPEL: 

2 AXD 3 HBNRY Yni., A.D. 1510-11. 

I. " In the iij**' Yere of the reigne of oure Sovereigne Lord Kyngc 
Henry the viij*^" Algernon Percy, fifth Earl of Northumberland, 
had, "daily abidynge in his Household," Grentillmen of the Chapell — 
ix, Viz. The Maister of the Childre j — ^Tenors ij — Countertenors 
iiij — ^The Pistoler j — and oone for the Orgayns. Childer of the 
Chapell — vj. {Percy or Northumberland Household Book, p. 44.) 
This was a variation on the number given in p. 40, for there we find 

Grentyllmen and Childeryn of the ChapeU. 

Item Grentyllmen and Childryn of the Chapell xiiij Viz. 
Gentillmen of the Chapell viij Viz. y Bassys — ij Tenors — and iiij 
Countertenours — ^Yomen or Grome of the Vestry j — Childeryn of 
the Chapell v Viz. ij TribiUs and iij Meanys [Altos] = xiiij. 

II. Their food was, for 'Braikfast' daily every Lent, on ' Sonday, 

Tewisday, Thursday and Setterday.* 

Braikfast for ij Meas of Gentilmen o'th' Chapel, and a Meas of 
Childeryn. 

d 



XVUl PREFACE TO RHODES. 

Item iij Loofs of Brede, a Gallon dimid of Bere, and iij Pecee of 
Salttisch, or ells iiij White Herryng to a Meas — ^iij. {ib. p. 74.) 

At p. 75, in tlie ' Ordre of all suche Braikfasts that shal be 
lowahle dayly in my Lordis hous thorowte the yere/ * as well on 
Flesche Days as Fysch Days, in Lent and out of Lent.* * Begyn- 
nynge on Sonday the second day of February, which was Candlemas 
day last past. In the secund Yere of the reign of our Soveieigne 
Lorde Kyng Henry the viij^** ' the allowance is : 

Braikfasts for ij Meas of Crentylmen o' th' Chapel, and a Meas of 
ChUder. 

Item iij Loif of Houshold Breid, a Gallon dimid of Bere, and i\j 
Feces of Beif boy led — j. 

Among "Braikfastis of Fysche . . allowid" them "on Setter- 
days . . oute of Lent," at the same date, are 

Braikfasts for ij Meas of Gentilmen o' th' Chapel and a Meas of 
Childer. 

Item iij Loifs of Houshold Breid, a Grallon dimid of Bere, and 
a Pece of Saltfische — j. 

Their "service of Meat and Drynk to be servyd upon the 
Scamlynge Days * in Lent Yerely, as to say, Mondays and Setter- 
days," was for " X Grentilmen and vj Childre of the Chapell = ii^ 
Measse." 

Service for Gentyllmen and Childeryn o* th' Chapell. 

Item to every Meas a Loof of Breide, a Potell of Bere, iiij White 
Herrynge, and a Dysch of Stokfisch = viij Dyschis. 

On Kogation Days, from Tuesday May 27, 3 Henry VIII, the 
Meat and Drink allowed them for supper was : 

Service for iiij Mease of Gentyllmen and Childre of the Chapell 
at Suppar upon Tewisday in the Eogacion days : Furst, x Gentyl- 
men and vj Childre of the Chapell — iiij Meas. 

Item to every Meas a Loof of Bred, a Pottell of Bere, Half a 
Dysch of Buttre, and a Pece of Saltt-fysche — ^viiij Dyschis. 

Their daily extras, or *' Lyverays of Breid, Bere, Wyne, White- 
Lights and Wax," were "for Gentyllmen of the Chapell and 
Childer . . a Loof of Houshold Breid, a Gallon of Bere, and i^ 
White Lyghtts." 

> Seamhling-Dayt. Days in Lent, when no regular meals were provided, but 
every one scrambled and shifted for himself as he could. (Percy in) HaUiwelPs 
Gloss. 



PBEFACE TO RHODES. XlX 

Their daily Lyverey " of Fewell, as to say Woode and Cooles," 
was * The Maister and Childer of the Chapell j -p^ or ' pek.' 

III. The allowance for the washing of the Surplices and Altai- 
Cloths IB given at pp. 242-4 : " ther shal be paide fore the Holl Wesh- 
ing of all mannar of Lynnon belonging my Lordes Chapell for an Holl 
Yere, but xvij^. iiijci. And to be weshid for Every Penny iij 
Surpleses or ig Albes. And the said Surplesses to be Weshide in 
the Yere xvj tymes aganst thees Feests following," &c. 

TV. Their yearly wages were, " Gentilmen of the Chappell x (as 
to saye, Two at x Marks a pece — ^iij at iiij ? a pece — Two at v Marks a 
pece — Oon at ii\j Marks — Oon at xl s, — ande Gone at xx 8, — Viz. ij 
Bassis — i^ Tenors ande vj Countertenors) — Childeryn of the Chapell 
vj After XXV 8, a pece." 

The times and sources of the payment of the wages are stated at 
p. 27, as follows. 

CHAPELL WAGIS. 

• 

Item to be payd to th' hands of Sir John Norton my Chamber- 
layn and Mr. Gefferay Proctor my Treasurer for the contentacion of 
my Chapell Waigies for oone hole Yere as aperyth more playnly by 
the ChequireroUe and the Stile of the same what they shall have the 
Somme of xxxvZ. xva to be payd quarterly Viz. To be payd for the 
fyrst quarter at Cristynmas next after the said Michaelmas begynn- 
ynge the said Yere viy?. xviij>. ixtZ. of the Money of my Lands of 
Cumberland cummynge to the Coffers at the said Michaelmas upon 
the Auditt And to be payd for the secund quarter at our Lady day 
in Lentt viijZ. xviij*. ixd. to be payd of the Revenuys of my Lands 
of Northumberland of this Yere dew at Martynmas after the said 
Michaelmas aforenamed and payable at Candlemas and to be payd to 
theme at the said Lady day And to be payd for thyrd quarter at 
Midsomer foloynge viijZ. XYUJ8. ixd. to be payd of the Revenuys of 
my Lands in Yorkschyre dew and payable at Whitsonday afore said 
Midsomer and paid at the said Midsomer to theme And to be 
payd for the iiij^ quarter at Michaelmas foloynge endynge the 
said Yere in full contentacion viijZ. xviiJA ixd. to be payd of the 
Revenuys of my Lands of Yorkschyre of the said terme of Whitson* 
day by-past afore the said Michaelmas and payable at Michaelmas 
and payd to theme at the said Michaelmas in fiill contentacion of 
the said hole Yere And so the hole Somme for full contentacion 
of the said Chapell Waigies for oone hole Yere ys = xxxyl. xy8. 

V. The Gentlemen of the Chapel slept two in a bed, and the 

children three in a bed, and on their removing with Lord Percy 

d2 



XX PREFACE TO RHODES. 

from place to place, they were allowed the Beds and carriages 
following : 

Item Yt is Ordynyd, at every Eemevall that the Deyn, Subdean, 
Prestes, Gentilmen, and Children of my Lordes Chapell, with the 
Yoman and Grome of the Vestry, shall have apontid theime ij 
Cariadges at every Heme vail, Viz. One for ther Beddes, Viz. For vj 
Prests iij Beddes after ij to a Bedde ; For x Gentillmen of the Chapell 
V Beddes after ij to a Bedde And for vj Children ij Beddes after iij 
to a Bedde And a Bedde for the Yoman and Grom o*th Vestry In 
all xj Beddes for the furst Cariage. And the ij<** Cariage for ther 
ApareUs and all outher ther Stuff, And to have no mo Cariage 
allowed them but onely the said jj Cariages allowid theime." p. 389. 

VI. Besides assisting in the performance of Divine Service, the 

Gentlemen and Children of the Chapel played Mysteries or Religious 

Plays before their Master, for which they received special gratuities ; 

and on the eve of the day of St Nicholas, patron of Schoolboys, Dec. 

6, the Boy-Bishop's* day, an extra payment was made, — for the 

ensuing day's festivity, I suppose : — 

Item My Lord useth and accustomyth to gyfe yerly upon Saynt 
Nicolas-Even, if he kepe Chapell for Saynt Nicolas, to the Master of 
his Childeren of his Chapell for one of the Childeren of his Chapell, 
yerely vj«. viiyl. And if Saynt Nicolas com owt of the Towne wher 
my Lord lyeth, and my Lord kepe no Chapell, than to have yerely 
iij^. iiij^. vjs. viijt^. 

Item tMy Lord useth and accustomyth to gyfe yerely, if his 
Lordship kepe a Chapell and be at home, them of his Lordschipes 
Chapell if they doo play the Play of the Nativite^ uppon Cristynmes- 

^ See in the Notes to North. Ho. Booky p. 441, and mBrancTt Pop, Antiquities, 
ed. 1841, V. 1, p. 233, *an inventory of the splendid Robes and Ornamenta belong- 
in? to one of these (Boy, called also) Beam Bishops.* 

' The only Miracle- Plays that Roberde of Branne (following "William of 
Waddington) allows to he played by clerics, are this Play of the Nativity, and that 
of the Resurrection mentioned below, and both must be played in the Church, not 
in ways or groves (or greens), — that would be sin : 

To make men be yn bclcue gode 
pat he ros wy)? flesshe and blode. 
And he may pleye wy)70utyn plyghte 
Howe god was bore yn ^oU nyghte. 
To make men to beleue stedfastly 
pat he lyghte yn j^e vyrgyne Mary. 
^uf |?ou do hyt yn weyys or greuys, 
A syghte of synne truly hyt semys. 
{Handlyng Synne, 1. 4^10-55, p. 146-7.) 



Hyt ys forbode hym yn f)e decre 

Myr&cles for to make or se ; 

For myr&cles 3yf |?ou bcgynne, 

Hyt ys a gaderyng, a syghte of synne. 

He may yn f^e chcrche l^urghe {'is rcsun 

Pley |>e resurrecoyun, — 

pat ys to sey, how God rcis, 

God and man yn my3t and los — 



PREFACE TO RHODES. ZXl 

Day in the monmynge in my Lords Chappell befor his Lordship — 

XX8. 

Item My Lord usith and accustomyth, if he keepe Chapell, to 
gyfe yerly in reward, * when his Loi-dschip is at home, to the 
Childeren of my Lordis Chapell for synginge of Gloria in Excelsis at 

the Mattyns-tyme upon Cristynmas-Day in the mornynge vJ5. 

viy'fl?. 

Item My Lorde useth and accustomyth to gyf Yerely, when his 
Lordshipp is at home, in reward to them of his Lordship Chappell, 
and other his Lordshipis Servaunts that doith play the Play befor 
his Lordship uppon Shrof tewsday * at night, yerely in reward x*. 

Item My Lord usith and accustomedith to gyfe yerely, if his 
Lordship kepe a Chapell and is at home, in rewarde to them of his 
Lordshipe Chapell and other his Lordshipis Servauntes that playth 
the Play of Resurrection * upon Estur-Day in the Momnynge in my 
Lordis * Chapell ' befor his Lordshipe xx*. 

VII. The eleven Gentlemen and six Children of the Chapel 
were as follows, p. 324 : 

The Gentlemen ande childrin of my Lordis Chappell Whiche 
be not appointid to attend at no tyme but oonely in excercising of 
GoDDis Service in the Chapell Daily at Mattins, Lady-Mass, 
Highe-Mass, Even-Song, ande Complynge. 

Gentlemen of my Lordis Chappell 
FuRST A Bass . Item A Thirde Countertenour 



Item A Seconde Bass 
Item The Thirde Bass 
Item A Maister of the Childer, 
A Countertenor 



Item A iiij*** Countertenor 

Item A Standing Tenour 

Item A Second Standing Tenour 

Item A iij** Standyng Tenour 



Item A Seconde Countertenour i Item A Fourth Standing Tenour 



See the Play of ** The Birth of Christ," No. xv in the Coventry Mysteries, p. 146- 
155, and that of ** The Salutation and Nativity," * The Wryghtes and Sklaters 
plaie,' No. vi in the Chester Flays, p. 94-118. In the Towneley Mysteries we have 
six Pla3rs to make up the Nativity, 1 Crosar Augustus, 2 Annunciatio, 3 Salutacio 
Elizabeth, 4 Prima Pagina Pastorum, 5 Sccunda Pagina Pastorum, 6 Oblacio 
Magorum. 

^ There Ib no allusion to the Shrove Tuesday Play in Brand, i. 36-52. The 
Shrove I^tesday's trayedy of Microeosmus, Act 5, was one of another kind. id. p. 
41, col. 2. 

« See the Play Resurrectio Domini in " The Towneley Mysteries," (Surtees 
Soc., 1836,) p. 254-269 ; " The Jiesurreetion,** No. xxiv. in " The Coventry 
Mysteries '* (.hakspere Soc.), p. 338-53; and the ^* Mystery of the Resurrection " 
in E^iquim Antiqttay vol. ii, p. 144-51. 



xxu 



PREFACE TO RHODES. 



The Nombrb of thois Parsons as Gentlemek of my Lordis 

Chappell .^j 

Childrin of my Lordis Chappell (p. 325) 



Item The Fyrat Child a Trible 
Item The ij^ Child a Trible 
Item The iij* Child a Trible 
Item The iiij*** Child a Second 
Trible 



Item The y^ QJiild a Second 

Trible 
Item The vj«» Child a Second 

Trible 



The I^oumbre of thois Parsons as Childrin of my Lordis 

Chappell ^yj. 

YIII. The arrangement and days of attendance of the Grentlemen 

at the diflferent Chapel Services were as foUows (p. 367) : 

The ordertnqe of mt Lordes Chappell in the Queare at 
Mattyngis Mas and Evynsongb To stonde in Ordure as Hereafter 

Followith sydb for side Dailyb. 

The Deane side 
The Deane 
The Subdeane 
A Basse 
A Tenor 
A Countertenor 
A Countertenor 
A Countertenor 



The Seoounde Syde 
The Lady-Masse Priest 
The Gospeller 
A Basse 
A Countertenor 
A Countertenor 
A Tenor 
A Countertenor 
A Tenor 



The ordubynge of my Lordes Chappell for the Keapinge of our 
Ladyes Masse thorowte the Weike (p. 368) 



Sondat 
Master of the Childer, a Counter- 
tenor 
A Tenoure 
A Tenoure 
A Basse 

TWISDAY 

Master of the Chillder, a Coun- 

rter]-tenour 
A Countertenoure 
A Countertenoure 
A Tenoure 

Thubbdaie 
Master of the Chillder, a Counter- 
tenor 
A Countertenoure 
A Countertenoure 
A Tenoure 



Monday 
Master of the Childer, a Counter- 
tenor 
A Countertenoure 
A Countertenoure 
A Tenoure 

Wbdynbday 
Master of the Chillder, a Counter- 
tenor 
A Countertenoure 
A Tenoure 
A Basse 

Fryday 
Master of the Chillder, a Counter- 
tenor 
A Countertenoure 
A Countertenoure 
A Basse 



PREFACE TO RHODES. 



XXUl 



Sattubdat 
Master of the Chillder, a Counter- 
tenor 
A Countertenor 
A Countertenoure 
A Tenoure 



Fbtdat 
And upon the saide Friday 
th 'ool Chappell and every Day 
in the weike when my Lorde 
Rhall be present at the saide 
Masse. 



The ordurynob for keapynge Weikly of the Orgayns * Oon after 
An Outher As the Namys of them hereafter followith Weikely 

The Maister of the Chillder yf he be a Player The Fyrst Weke 

A Countertenor that is a Player the ij*** Weke 

A Tenor that is a Player, the thirde Weike 

A Basse that is a Player, the iiij*^ Weike 

Ande every Man that is a Player to kepe his cours Weikely. 

The ordurynqe for stonding Eegtor-ohore at the Deske, As to 
say, at Mattyngis, Highe-Masse, and Evyn-Songe, Oon on aither 
syde As the Namys of them hereafter followith Weikely 

The First Weike, a Tenoure on the oone side and a Countertenor 
on the outher side 

The Secounde Weike, a Countertenor on the oon side and a 
Tenor on the outher side 

The Thirde Weike, a Tenor on the oon side and a Countertenor 
on the outher side 

The Fourth Weike, a Countertenor on the oon side and a Tenor 
on the outher side. 

The ordurynge of my Lordes Chapell in the Queare at Matt- 
ynges, Mas, and Evyn Songe, to stonde in Order as hereafter 
followith, SYDE for syde. 

ThB DeAVB BTDB ThB BBOOKDB 8YDB 



The Deane 

The Subdeane 

The GospiUer 

A Countertenor 

A Basse 

A Countertenor 

A Tenor 

A Basse 

A Countertenor 



The Lady Masse Preist 

The Morrowe Messe Preist 

A Countertenor 

A Basse 

A Tenor 

A Countertenor 

A Basse 

A Countertenor 

A Tenor 



The ordurynge of my Lordes Chappell for the keapinge of oure 
Lady Masse thorowe oute the Weike 

^ Dr Bimbatilt says that Orgaym in the plural is the rc^ar name for what we 
eall the Organ* In old time, one pipe was called an Orgayny the collection of them 
Orgayn$» See in Eymer, torn. z. p. 387, col. 2, a.d. 1428, An. 6 Hen. VI., " £t a 
Bobert Atkynmme, pur Carier les Organes Portatift du Roy par di?erBe8 foits a Pee 
(ftsaavoir) de Wyndetore juaquee Eltham, & de Eltham jusques Hertford, Vi «. yiiiil 



XXIV 



PREFACE TO RHODES. 



SONDAT 

The Maister of the Chilldren, a 

Count[er]-Tenor 
A Countertenor 
A Tenor 
A Countertenor 
A Basse 

Tewxsday 
The Master o'th Chilldren, a 

Countertenor 
A Countertenor 
A Tenor 
A Countertenor 
A Baisse 

Thursday 
The Master o'th Chilldren, a 

countertenor 
A Tennor 
A Countertenor 
A Countertenor 
A Baisse 

Sattubday 
The Master o*th Chilldren a 

Countertenor 
A Countertenor 
A Tennor 
A Countertennor 
A Baisse 



Monday 
The Master o* th Chilldren, a 

Counter-tenor 
A Countertenor 
A Tenor 
A Tenor 
A Baisse 

Weddeynsday 
The Master o*th Chilldren, a 

Countertenor 
A Countertennor 
A Countertennor 
A Tennor 
A Basse 

Friday 
The Master o'th Chilldren a 

Countertenor 
A Countertenor 
A Tennor 
A Countertenor 
A Baisse 

Fbyday 

Uppon Fryday the HooUe 

Chappell, and every day in the 

Weike when my Lorde shall be 

present at the sayde Lady-Masse. 



The orduryngb of the Basses in my Lordes Chappell for the 
settyngo of the Queare dayly at Mattynges, Masse, and Even Songe 
thorowe owte the Weike, As the JSTaymbs of them. With the Dates 
and Tymes that they shall kepe, Hereafter FoUowyth. 

The Basses 

The Fyrst Bais to set the Queyre all Sonday, and at Mattyngs 
on Friday. 

The ij^ Bais to set the Queare all Monday, and at Mas on 
Fryday, p. 374. 

The iij** Bais to set the Queare all Tewisday, and at Evyn-Song 
on Friday. 

The iiij*** Basse to set the Queare all Weddynsday, and at 
Mattyngs on Sattuiday. 

The v*** Bais to set the Queare all Thursday, and at Masse on 
tSatturday. 

The ordurynge for the keapynge Weykely of the Orgaynbs oone 

aft(>r an outher, as the Names of them hereafter foUowith. 



PREFAOB TO RHODES. 



XXV 



The Orgatnb Platers 

The Master o'th Chilldem, if he be a Player, the fyrst Weike. 

A Coiintertexmor that is a Player, the Secoonde Weike. 

A Tenner that is a Player, the Thyrde "Weyke. 

A Baisse that ys a Player, the Fourthe Weike. 

And every Man that ys a player to kepe his Conrs Weykely. 

The ordurtnoe for stondynge RbotortOHORE at the Deske, Viz. 
at Mattyngs, Highe Mas, and £vyn-Songe, one after an other, stde 
for STDE, as the Namts of them hereafter foUowith (p. 375). 

Tewisday. ^ 

A Bais on the oon Syde 

And a Baise on the outher Syde 

Thursday. 



Moin>AT. 

Fyrst a Bayse on the oon Syde 
And a Baise on the outher Side 

Wbddynsday. 

A Countertenor on the oon Syde 
And a Countertenor on the 
outher Syde 

Phyday (m). 

A Tennor on the oone Syde and 
A Countertenor on the outher 
Syde 



A Countertenor on the one Syde 
And a Tenor on the outher Syde 

Sattubday. 

A Countertenor on the oon Syde 
And a Tenor on the outher Syde 



Of Wolsey's chapel. Cavendish says (voL i p. 35, ed. Singer, 1825) : 

** Now I will declare unto you the officers of his chapel, and 
singing men of the same. First, he had there a Dean, who was 
always a great clerk and a divine ; a Sub-Dean ; a Eepeater of the 
quire ; a Grospeller, a Pisteller ; and twelve singing Priests ; of 
Scholars he had &rst, a Master of the children; twelve singing 
children ; sixteen singing men ; with a servant to attend upon the 
said children." 

For an account of Cardinal Wolsey's Minstrels, see Stowe's 
AnncdSy p. 535 ; Hawkins' Hist. MimCy iii. 67. The King borrowed 
Wolsey's minstrels, and made them play all night without resting, 
which killed the shalme-player, 'who was very excellent in that 
Instrument^' — ^unless the King's players poisoned hiTn firom jealousy. 

Hawkins, Hisi. of MusiCy iii. 417, note, says that the first regular 
establishment of a company of players was that of the children of 
Paul's in 1378, the next that of the parish clerks of London at 
Skinner^s-well ; the third that of the Children of the Royal Chapel 
under their master Edwards, by license from Queen Elizabeth ; fourth, 
that of the Children of the Revels. 

One of the last two is Shakespere's * aiery of little children, little 
eyases,' Hamlet^ act ii sc. 6. 



XXVI 



NOTE TO PRICKS, p. ix. 



What the pricks were I can't quite make oat. T. Roberts, in the Glossary to 
his English Bowman^ 1801, p. 292, has the following : 
Pbiok mark. — The white Mark or Target shot at. 

V^x^Zoting. 1 -^0^^ «t P"* Mark.. 
Pricks. — The place where the pricks or marks are placed. 
— thaft. — An arrow used in prick-shooting. 

Fbiokbb. — The needle or instrument with which the target card is pricked or 
marked. 

In the well-known Archery Statute, 33 Henry YIII. cap. 9, the word prick is 
used for target or butt, and prkk-shaft for arrow. '^ That no man under the Age 
of Twenty-four Tears shall shoot at any standing iVu^ except it be at a Rover,* 
whereat he shall change at every Shoot his Mark, upon Pain [to forfeit] for every 
Shoot doing the contrary to, d. ; and that no Person above the said Age of 
Twenty-four Tears shall shoot at any Mark of eleven score Tards or under, with 
any Prick-shaft or Flight under the Pain to forfeit for every Shoot, Six shillings 

Eight-pence and also that Butts be made on this side the Feast of St 

Michael the Archangel next coming in every City, Town and Place, by the Inhabit- 
ants of every such City, Town and Place according to the Law of ancient Time used." 
Palsgrave has * Pricke, a marke — marque,* and Prompt * Prykke, merke, meta* 

It seems clear that the btttts were for near or short shooting, and the pricks for 
long ranges, which is, I suppose, the meaning of " a mark of compass f." 

" MoU. Out upon him, what a suiter have I got, I am sorry you are so bad an 
Archer, sir. 

Ears. Why Bird, why Bird ? 

Moll. Why, to shoote at Buts, when you shou'd use priek-shaJU, short shooting 
will loose ye the game, I as[8ure] you, sir. 

Ears. Her minde runnes sure upon a Fletcher, or a Botcyery " 

1633, Rowley. A Match at Midnight, Act ii. sc. 1 (ref. in Richardson). 

" The Cornish men," says Carew X, ^^ " well skilled in near shooting, and in well- 
aimed shooting ; — ^the huts made them perfect in the one, and the roaving in the 



* An aooidental mark, in ooatndlstinetion to butts and targets : trees, bashes, posts, moasds of 
earth, landmarks, stones, Ac, are roving marks. Hansard's Archery, i». StfS. 

t And first for shooting in the long-bowe a man most observe these few rules : first that hee hane 
a good eye to behold and disoeme his marke, a knowing iudgment to vnderstand the dlstanoe of 
f^roQod to tidce the true aduantage of a side-winde, and to know in what oompaeat [trajectory] his 
arrow most fiie. G. M[arkham], Coimtrey CwtentaunU, 1615, p. 107, referred to by Strxitti 

; Carew's Cornwall, 1002, Bk. i. fol. 7S, in Stmtt's Sporto and Pastimes, p. 40. 



NOTES. XXVll 

other, for the pricket, the first oomipters of archery through too much precisenefis, 
were formerly scarcely known, and little practised." 

Ascham seems to use the word prieka for — 1. the uprights of a target, or a pair 
of taigets, one at the top and the other at the hottom of the range, as in the engrav- 
ing in Strutt ; 2. the target itself; and, 3. the white in the centre of it, or piece of 
wood (HaUiweU), 

Off the marke he welde not fayle, 
He cleffed ihepreke on thre. — £obin Hood, L 91. 

I. and II. *■ A pair of winding pricks * is one of the * things that hinder a man which 
looketh at his mark to shoot straight,' i&. p. 161. 'If the pricks stand of a straight 
plain ground, they he the hest to shoot at. If the mark stand on a hilUside . . a 
man's eye shall think that to he straight which is crooked,' ib. p. 159, pricks being 
here equivalent to mark. * To shoot straight, they have invented some ways . . to have 
some notable thing betwixt the marks ; and once I saw a good archer which did cast 
off his gear, and laid his quiver with it, even in the midway betwixt the pricks,* ib, 
p. 159. (Markham, in his Art o/Arehcrie, 1634 (which seems little more than his own 
Introduction, and a copy of parts of Ascham's Toxophilus), has * betwixt the marks ' 
in both places : p. 165. * And once Theard in Cambridge the down-marke at Twelue- 
soore-priiai; for the space of three markes was thirteene score and an halfe, p. 151.) 
' I suppose it be a great deal more pleasure also to see a soul fly in Plato, than a 
shaft fly at the pricks,* ib. p. 12. < Ton may stand sometime at the pricks, and look 
on them which shoot best,' ib. p. 90. 

' I fortuned to come with three or four that went to shoot at the pricks,* p. 1 1 ; 
< the customable shooting at home at butts and pricks,' p. 82. *Tou must take heed 
also, if ever you shoot where one of the marks, or both, stands a little short of a high 
wall, for there you may be easily beguiled. . . For the wind which cometb indeed 
against you, redoundeth back again at the wall, and whirleth back to the prick, and 
a little farther, and then tumeth again,' p. 156. * Use of pricking^ and desire of near 
shooting at home, are the only causes of strong shooting in war,' p. 80. 

III. In the singular, * the prick, at other times called the tchitc, is the white spot 
or point in the midst of the mark,' says Dr Giles, ift. p. 91, in a note to ' at all times 
to hit the pricks shall . . no shooter ever do.' * The best end in shooting, which 
you call hitting of the prick,* p. 91. < And by & by he lifteth his arme of pricks 
heyght.' (Folio 54, ed. 1571.) But yet at p. 99, * what handling belongeth 
to the mark ? Tox. To mark his standing, to shoot compass . . to consider the 
nature of the prick, in hills and dales, in straight plains and winding places, and also 
to espy his mark.' * Other men use to espy some mark almost a bow wide of the 
prick, and then go about to keep himself on the hand that the prick is on,' p. 160. 

Having referred the question of the various meanings of the word prick to the 
best authority in Britain, Mr Peter Muir, Bowmaker to the Royal Archers at 
Edinburgh, he answers:— 1st. See Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, page 62, ed. 1838, 
« The marks usually shot at by Archers for pastime were Butts, priekss, and 
Boa^^ers** The Butt, we are told, was a level mark, &c. The Fricke was * a 
marke of compass,' but certain in its distance, and to this mark strong swift arrows 
of one flight were best suited. 2nd. In Roberts' English Bowman, page 241 
(London, 1801), Ib the following, in an article, sect. v. *• Of Prick shooting : '— ** In 
archery we frequently find mention of prick shooting. Prick-marks and Prick- 
shafts are noticed in Stat of the 33rd H. YIII. o. 9, before cited. The latter, we 
know, are arrows considerably lighter than those used in other kinds of shooting 



XXVm NOTES. 

except flight shooting. The ancient prick-mark was frequently called the JFhiU, 
and consisted prohahly of a card or piece of stiff white paper. In the Garland, 
indeed, we read of jniek u>atub and willow ioanda, prohably peeled sticks. One 
thing we may collect, which distinguishes this kind of shooting from others, namely, 
that the prick or mark was generally fixed to one spot, and at a less distance, than 
in other kinds of shooting, and not varied daring the shooting. Hence the Statute 
terms it a standing prick, or mark. Prick being a Saxon word for pointy seems to 
indicate that this kind of shooting was chiefly confined to small marks, &c. Carew 
observes it * required too much precieenesa,* Holinshed and Ascham allude to it as 
^shooting round eompaee* The marks used for this kind of shooting for two 
centuries past consisted either of a small circular piece of white paper fixed to a poat 
{uMind) or of a target Modem prick shooting is practised by the Boyal Archers 
at Edinburgh, and is their favourite, at' a small round taiget fixed at 180 yards. 
Within 80 years they shot at a square mark of canvas on a frame, and called '* the 
Clout ;" and an arrow striking the target is still called '^ a douty They count 
arrows in the ground within four bow-lengths, or 24 feet of the target, the nearest 
arrow only counting, which is decided by a cord from the centre of the target, and 
may have been the origin of the **■ mark of compass." The Boyal Archers still shoot 
at Butts 100 feet at the small paper which is enclosed [four inches in diameter, with 
a white dot as a centre, and four rings outside it]. Till within these few years the 
Kilwinning Archers (the oldest club in Britain) shot Butts at a white paper two 
inehoi in diameter. Lately they adopted a mark 12 inches, with a two-inch white in 
the centre, and other two rings outside of different values.*' 

Mr Wright glosses prieke as " a game like bowls." Bowls was a game known 
in early times. Among the sports to make a young lady fofget her lover is this, 

A hundred knightes, truly told. 

Shall play with bowle in alleys cold, 

Tour diseases to drive away. 

Squyer of Lowe Degre, EUis. Spec p. 337. 
If any reader of this note feels certain as to the meaning of prpekie, he knows more 
about it than I do. 



PSS.— Note to seoond edition, p. xiii. L 3. Mr W. G. Hazlitt tells me that Mr 
Corser, of Stand, near Manchester, has two editions of Bodes between Petit's and 
that of 1577. 

P. xiv. 1. 10 from foot, then eoming into vogue. And yet in a.d. 1344-5 monks 
were expected to have handkerchiefs. Prof. Morley, abstracting chap. 17 of Biehard 
de Bury's Philobiblon, says, " Perhaps you will see a bnll-necked youth sitting 
sluggishly at his study, and when the oold is sharp at winter-time, and his wet nose, 
at the pinch of frost, runs into drops, he does not condescend to use his handkerehief 
till he has wetted the book beneath with its vile dew. I would give such a one, 
instead of a book, a cobbler's apron."— JSh^/isA Writers, voL ii. Pt. I. p. 66, The 
continuation of the passage should be read. 




W0b |^|^0jtl'tS8 




ttH at M^i^^^* 



(tt: 1 5 77-) 



I 



The boke of Nur- 



ture, or Schoole of 



pb mmters : 

bxttt) foxtl^ JStnns fitter ab nttn- 

sam. Ikblg tonttteb, b- 

rg ntrtssais for sU 



[COMPYLED by] 

[Hugh Rhodes of the Kinges ChappellJ 

[* born and bred in Deuonshyre to/ p. i/)*. 1. ii.] 



If Imprinted at Lon- 

don in Fleetestreete, beneath 

the Conduite^ at the Signe 

of S. lohn Euaungelist, 

by H. lackson. 

1577- 






i 



Sfh^ §0^ 0f ^tttito^, 



for Meriy Seruauntes^ and 

THere is fewe thinges to be vnderstand more neces- ^^ Pamut and 
sary then to teache and goueme Children in learn- ^^J^'hing or 
ing and good manners, for it is ahye seruyce to God, it ^^^J'^J^^**^*' 
getteth flEinour in the syghte of men, it multiplyeth 
goods, and increaseth thy good name, it also prouoketh 
to prayer by whiche Gods grace is obtayned, if thus 
they bee brought vp in vertue, good maners, and Godly 
learning. The cause of the world being so euill of onr evii uving u 
lyuing as it is, is for lack of yertue, and Godly bringing ^y brinKinK 
vp of youth. Whych youth sheweth the disposytions "^' 
and conditions of their Parentes or Maysters, vnder 
whome they haue bene gouemed. For youth is dis- 
posed to take such as they are accustomed in, good or 
euilL For if the behauyoure of the ffouemour be euill, a«i« the Governor 

. " 10 is the Child. 

needes must the Chylde be euill. 

And thus by the Chylde yee shall perceiue the 
disposytion of the Crouemour. For of euill examples, From bod ez- 
many daungers, & abhominable sinnes foUow. For the r^iL'br.in.. 
which both the Discyple and the Mayster shall suffer 
euerlasting paynes. 

It is also necessarye for Fathers and Maysters to 
cause their Chyldren and seruantes to vse fayre and children mast be 
gentle speeche, with reuerence and curtesye to their andgmtieipeech. 
Elders and Betters, rebuking as well their ydle talke 
and stammering, as their vncomly iestures in going or 
staTtding. And if yee put them to schoole, see that 



6 THE BOKE OF NURTURE FOR MEN, SERUAUNTES, AND CHTLDREN. 



Schoolmasters 
moBt fear God, 
and panish 
•harply. 



Parents must 
teach children 
God's laws. 



Look to the 
characters of new 
Her^'ants. 



Reprove tale* 
tellers. 



Don't dress chil- 
dren or servants 
■umptaonsly, 



or let them speak 
words of Tillany. 



Stop the vices 
they are Inclined 
to. 



Make them read 
the Bible and 
Godly books, 

and not wanton 
stories and wagt 
of love. 



their maysters be such as feare God, and lyue vertu- 
ouslye, such as can punishe sharpely with pacience, and 
not with lygour, for it doeth oft tymes make them to 
rebell and run away, wherof chaunceth ofte times much 
harme. Also their Parentes must oft tymes instruct 
them of god and of his lawes, and vertuous instructions 
of hys worde, and other good examples, and such lyke. 
And thus by litle and litle they shall come to the 
knowledge of reason, fayth, and good christen lining. 
For as S. Paule sayth vnto Timothy : He that doth not 
regard the cure and charge of them that are rnder the 
charge of his gouemance, he denieth the faith, and is 
worse then a Pagan. And take good heede of anye 
newe seruauntes that you take into your house, and 
howe yee put them in authorytye among your children, 
and take heede howe they spende that is giuen them : if 
they be tale tellers or newes caryers, reproue them 
sharpely, and if they will not leame nor amende, auoyde 
them thy house, for it is great quyetnesse to haue people 
of good behauiour in a house. Apparell i^ot your 
chyldren or Seruauntes in sumptuous appareU, for it 
increaseth piyde and obstynacye, and many other euils, 
nor let your Chyldren go whether they will, but know 
whether they«goe, in what company, and what they 
haue done, good or euilL Take hede they speake no 
wordes of villany, for it causeth much corruption to 
ingender in theTTi^ nor shew them muche familiaiitye, 
and see that they yse honest sportes and games. Marke 
well what yice they are specially inclined vnto, and 
breake it betymes. Take them often with you to hearo 
Grods word preached, & then enquyre of them what 
they heard, and Yse them to reade in the Bible and 
other Godly Bokes, but especyally keepe them from 
reading of fayned fables, vayne fantasyes, and wanton 
stories, and songs of loue, which bring much mischiefe 
to youth. For if they leame pure and cleane doctryne 



HUGH RHODES S SOKE OF NURTURE. 



in youth, they pome out plentye of good workes in age. 
K any stryfe or debate bee among them of thy house, settle au disputes 
at nighte charytably call them togyther, and wyth ^^^ ^^R^**^*"- 
wordes oi stiypes make them all to agree in one. Take 
heede, if thy aeruaunt or Chyld murmure or grudge stop aii gnimb- 
agaynstthee, bieakeitbetyme. And when thou hearest ^^' 
them sweare or curse, lye & fyght, thou shalte reproue «wearing, lying, 
them sharpelye. And yee that are friends 



or Kynne shall labour how 

to make them loue and 

dreade you, as well for 

loue as for 

feare. 



Make yoaraelf 
loved as well as 
feared. 



8 



Sqnjrt, or ^ortltman^ 



Foraervanu. L^lTst jee muBt be dilligent to know your Maystera 
Sili^^i^ pleasure, and to knowe the order and custome of 

his house, for dyuers maysters are of sundry condicions 

and appetytes. 

And if thou be admitted in any ofi^ce, as Butler or 
TakeaninTentory Fanter, — ^in some places they are both one, — ^take an 

of all yoa hav6 

ohaivBot Inuitory of such thinges as ye take charge o£^ and see 

how it is spente : For it pleaseth a Mayster much to 

As Panter. have ^^^ & true reckoning. Then in your offyce of the 

JqaLw^Md youp Fantrye, see that your bread be chipped and squared, & 

offl«Si^r™**" note how much you spend in a daye. And see your 

napry be cleane, & sort euery thing by it selfe, the cleane 

from the foule. Keepe euery house of offyce cleane, 

Topnpanjirr and all that belongcth to it. When your Mayster will 

goe to his meate, take a towell aboute your necke, then 

Dnasyooroap- take a cupbord cloth, a Basen, Ewer, & a Towell, to 

Lay your doth, aray* your cupbord : couer your table, set on bread, salt & 

and teanchen; trenchers, the salt before the bread, and trenchers before 

the salte. Set your napkyns and spoones on the cup- 

a trencher, nap- bord ready, and lay euery man a trencher, a nap- 

ewymanT*"*'*** kyn, & a spoue. And if you haue mo messes then 

aooordingtothe ^^® ^^ 7^^^ maisters table, consider what degree 

rank of each. ^^^^ Y)q of, and thereafter ye may serue them : and 

then set down euery thing at that messe as before, 

If many people except your Caruing kniues. If ther be many Gentie- 

forth^iotar men or yomen, then set on bred, salt, trenchers & 

ey are sea gpoones, after they be set, or els after the custome of the 



HUGH RHOBES'S SOKE OF NUBTURE. 9 

house. And some do vse to set before euerye man a some Panten 

ffivo oacli wiAw A 

lofe of bread, and his cup, and some vse the contrary. loafandacup; 

Thus muste you haue respecte to the order of the house. 

And in some places it is vsed to set drink and a lofe or 

two. In some places the Caruer doth vse to shew and «>™« OMrers mw 

"^ (or amnge. 1. 668 

set down, and goeth before the course, and beareth no «««««) the 

^ diBhes, bat carry 

dysh, and in some place he beareth the first dish, and none, others carry 

J ' ^ -> the flTBt dtoh. 

maketh obeysaunce to hys Maister, and setteth it downe 
couered before the degree of a Knight, or else not vsed, 
& take the Couers and set them by. Also the Caruer AUarveforthe 

*' guesta at their 



hath authoritye to Carue to all at hys Maisters messe, Master's i 

and also vnto other that syt ioyning by them, if he list: 

see ye haue Voyders ready for to auoyd the Morsels ^^J^iSOTe 

that they doe leaue on their Trenchours. Then with JJJ^Si^i^ 

your Trenchour knyfe take of such fragmentes, and put ^^**^™ ^^ 

them in your Voyder, and sette them downe cleane trencher-knife. 

agayne. All your Soueraygns Trenchours or bread, 

voyde them once or twyse, specially when they are wet, ^^ tocher 

or gyue them cleane, and as yee see men leaue eating of ^*>«n^«t. 

the fyrst and seconde dish, so auoyde them from the 

Table. And then if so be ye haue any more courses ^^ ^^"^ " 

•^ •' more oootms, be 

then on or two, ye may make the more hast in voyding, J|*^ *° remov- 

and euer let one dish or two stande til the next course, 

and then take yp al, and set downe firesh, and cleane 

voyders withall, and let them not bee to full before ye 

empty them, and then sette cleane agayn. And looke M»d take away the 

r J 9 '-0 J aanoewithiU 

what sauce is ordayned for any meate, voyd the sauce m«at. 
thereof when yee take awaye the meat ; & at the degree 
of a knight ye may set downe your cup couered, and 

ri MS Inl 

lifte of the couer and set it * on agayne, and when he 

listeth to drinke, and taketh of the couer, take the couer 

in thy hand and set it on agayne. When he hath 

dronken, loke the cup of Wyne or ale be not empty, ^^^ioL. 

but ofte renued. Also the Caruer shall break his dish The cm™ must 

carve with clean 

before his Mayster, or at a syde Cupboorde, with cleane '°^^«"- 
knyues, and see there lacke not breade nor drinke ; and 

2 



10 THB MANNER OF BERUINO A KNIGHT, 8QT7TBB, OR GENTLEMAN. 



When dealing 
the table, take 
1. the lowest mess, 
8. the spoona, 

3. brotha and 
baked meata, 

4. Tdiden, 

& dlahes of meat 
Then set do¥m 

fimit-cheese ; 
remove it: then 
ale and wlno. 

['iPriiUed borad.]: 

Sweep off the 
plecee and crumbs 
with your 
trencher-knife : 
remove the bread, 
voider, salt, and 
make your bow. 



If your Master 
washes at table, 
put a towel by 
him, a basin 
before him, and 
pour out water. 

Remove the basin 
and Jug. and then 
the table-cloth 
with the towel 
Inside. 



For Coneeita or 
dessert (apples, 
nuts, Acl), 

lay a towel on the 
table, and a loaf or 
two. 



when men bane well eaten, and doe begyn to wax 
weary of eatyng, or yf ye perceyne by the countenance 
of your Mayster when ye shaU. take vp the meate, & 
Yoyd the table, begin at the lowest messe, take away 
your spoones, if there be any, how be it ye may auoyd 
them, after Broths & baked meat are past, take away 
your voiders^ ; and your dishes of meat, as they were set 
down, so take them yp in order. Then set downe 
cheese of firuytes, and that ended, yoyd your cheese and 
firuits, and couer your Cup, Ale, or Wyne : Fyrst voyde 
the Ale, and then the Wyne : Then set a broad* voyder 
and put theiin the small peces of Bread, and small 
crooms, with Trenchers and napkins, and with your 
trencher knyfe or napkin make clean the table, then set 
away your bread whole, and also your voyder, then take 
yp the salte, and make obeysaunce : and marke if your 
Mayster vse to wash at the table, or standing : if he be 
at the table, cast a clean Towell on your table cloth, 
and set downe your basen and Ewer before your souer- 
aigne, and take the ewer in your hand, and gyue them 
water. Then f oyd your Basen and Ewer, and fold 'the 
bold cloth together with your towell thenn, and so take 
them of the boord. And when your soueraygne shall 
wash, set your towell on the lefte hand of him, and the 
water before your soueraygne at dinner or supper; if it 
be to bedwarde, set yp your basyn and towell on the 
cupbord agayne. And if your Mayster "will haue any 
conceites after dinner, as appels, Nuts, or creame, then 
lay forth a Towell on the boord, and set thereon a lofe 
or two, see also ye haue your trenchers and spones in a 
readynes if neede requyre, then serue forth your 
Mayster wel, and so take it yp againe with a yoyder. 



[^ A Yoider or yessell, to take yp the Table with, dicitur wu- 
culum frafftnmiariuntf vel anaUetarium, Anaketa^ fragmentes of 
meate. Broken meates, fragmenta. Withals. Fr. Fortoire, Any 
thing that helpes to carry another thing ; as a Voyder^ Skep, 
Scuttle, Wheelbarrow, &c. Cotgrave.] 



11 



How to order your Maysters 
Chamber at night to bed- 
war de. 



AEay your Cupboord with a Cupboorde Cloth, wyth Put on your cup- 
yoiir Basyn, Ewer, Candle light, and Towell; if ye jug. candle, and 

towol' 

haue helpe, set one to beare a torch or some other lighte 

before him, and an other fellowe to beare a Towell, and 

bread for your table as you shall see neede. And if ye ^y^^ >»^« 

haue Banket dishes, whatsoeuer it be, as fruites put in dbhesof ftutte. 

sundry Dyshes, and all other confections^ and conceyts 

of Spyceiy, also when the Dyshes are empty, auoyde remove them 

them from the Table ; if your Soueraign be a Knight or ^^^en empty. 

Squyre, set downe your Dishes couered, and your Cup 

also. And if your Soueraygne be not set at the Table, KeepiwidisheB 

lette your Dishes stande couered tyll hee be set, and S![rt«fiBMt*^ 

when he is set, then take the Yoyders & vncouer them: 

when your mayster intendeth to bedward, see that you ^^ j^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

haue Fyre and CandeU suffjrcyent. Ye must haue ^^ ""*"^ 

clean water at night and in the morning. If your 

Mayster lye in fresh sheets, dry of the moystnesse at the Dry damp sheeta. 

fyre. If hee lye in a strange place, see his sheetes be 

cleane, then folde downe his bed, and warme his night see they arociean: 

wann the nifl^t 

Kercheife, and see his house of ofifyce be cleane, helpe kerchief. 

of his cloathes, and drawe the Curteynes, make sure the 

fyre and Candles, auoyde the dogs, and shutte the dores; torn out the doga. 

and at night or in the morning, your Mayster being 

alone, if ye haue any thing to say, it is good knowing 

his pleasure. In the morning if it be cold, make a fyre, on coid momtnga 

and haue readye cleane water, bring him his petticote ^in«yom-' 



I 



12 HOW TO ORDBB TOUB MATBTBR8 OHAMBISR. 

mMter'f pettioota wanne, YfUh. his doublet, and all his apparell cleane 
brosht. and his shoes nu«ie deaae. and help to araye 

Il!S»^th*im"*'d ^'"^> truss© ^ pojmtes, stryke vp his Hosen, and see 
all thing cleanlye aboute him ; giue him good attend- 

utend to him ance, and eepecyeJly among stiaungers, for attendannce 
W011 

doth please Maysteis very well Thus doing wyth 

dillygence, God will piefeiie you to honour and good 

Fortune. 



13 



Sitfeff0U flf 000i manners for man 
anlr fat CJQiIk 



AL ye that wysdom seeke to learn, 
aad would be called wyse : 
Obedience leain you in your youth, 
4 in age auoyde you vyca 
I am full blynde in Poets Arte, 

thereof I can no skill : 
All elloquence I put apart, 
8 following myne owne wylL 
Corrupt in speeche, be sure, am I, 
my breefes from longes to know, 
And bom and bred in Deuonshyie to, 
12 as playne my tearmes doe show. 
Take the best^ and leaue the worst, 

of truth I meane no yU : 
The matter is not curyous, 
16 the intent good, marke it welL 
Pardon I aske if I offend 

thus boldly now to wryte : 
To Mayster, seruaunt, yong and olde, 
20 I doe this booke commit 

Eequyring friendly youth and age, 

if any doe amis. 
For to refourme and hate abuse, 
24 and mend where neede there is. 
Set your yong people forth with spede 
good manners for to leame : 



Learn Obedience 
in youth. Avoid 
vice In age. 

(I am no poet. 



bat follow my 
own will. 



and QM Devon- 
shire terma; 

so take the good, 
and leave the Ul. 
in what I say. 



I ask pardon if I 
offend in teaching 
masters and 
servants.) 



Set young people 
to learn good 
Manners. 



14 THE BOOKB OF NUBTUKB AND SOHOOLB OF GOOD MANNERS. 



Be gentle to your 
elders. 



Be good before 
70a teach good. 



A good Father 

miUcesgood 

children. 



Without Good 
ICanneraand 



Tlrtttonsoondl- 
ttone you're not 
worth » fly. 



Don't answer your 
Parents. 



Dread Ood. 



be not haughty. 



rise early. 



at six o'clock 



Vnto your Elders gentle be, 
28 agaynst them say no harme. 

If youth doe euill, their Parentes sure 

reape this reporte fall soone : 
They that should teach other folkes good, 
32 belyke themselues haue none. 

A good Father, good children makes, 

grace being them within ; 
For as they be vsed in youth, 
36 in age they will begin. 

He that good manners seemes to lack, 

no wyse man doth set by ; 
Wythout condicions yertuous, 
40 thou art not worth a flye. 
Eeuerence to thy parentes deare, 

so duety doth thee bynde : 
Such children as vertue delight, 
44 be gentle, meeke, and kynde. 
Agaynst thy Parentes multiplye 

no wordes, but be demure : 
It will redowne vnto thy prayse, 
48 and to thy Mends pleasure. 
A plant without moysture sweete 
can bring forth no good flower : 
If in youth ye want vertue, 
52 in age ye shall lack honour. 

Fyrst dread you God, and flye from sin, 

earthly thinges are mortall : 
Be thou not hawty in thy lookes, 
56 for pryde will haue a falL 
Eyse you earely in the morning, 
for it hath propertyes three : 
Holynesse, health, and happy welth, 
60 as my Father taught mee. 

At syxe of the clocke, without delay, 
vse commonly to ryse, 



HUGH BHODBS'S BOKB OF NURTUBEL 



15 



And giue Grod thanks for thy good rest 
64 when thou openest thyn eyes. 
Pray him also to prosper thee 
and thyne affayres in deede : 
All the day after, assure thy selfe, 
68 the better shalt thou speede. 

Or &om thy chamber thou doe passe, 

see thou purge thy nose cleane, 
And other fylthy thinges lyke case, 
72 thou knowest what I meane. 

Brash thou, and spunge thy cloaths to, 

that thou that day shalt weare : 
In comly sorte cast vp your Bed, 
76 lose you none of your geare. 

Make cleane your shoes, & combe your head, 

and your doathes button or lace : 
And see at no tyme you forget 
80 to wash your hands and face. 
Put on clothing for thy degree, 

and cleanly doe it make : 
Bid your fellow a good morrow 
84 or you your way forth take. 
To Mends, father and mother, 

looke that ye take good heede : 
For any haste them reuerence, 
88 the better shalt thou speede. 
Dread the curse of Parents thyne, 

it is a heauy thing : 
Doe thou thy duety vnto them, 
92 &om thee contempt doe flyng. 

When that thy parents come in syght, 

doe to them reuerence : 
Aske them blessing if they haue 
96 bene long out of presence. 
Cleanly appoynt you youx array, 
beware then of disdayne : 



thank God 



and say your 
prayen. 



dean your nose 



and other filthy 
things, 



■puoge your 
clothes, 



make ap your bed, 



clean your shoes, 
button your 
clothes. 



wash your hands 
andfkoe. 



Wish your mates 
good morning, 



pay your respects 
to your Parents, 



do them reverence 
when yon see 
them. 



Have your dress 
clean. 



16 THE BOOKB OF NURTURE AND 80H00LE OF GOOD MANNERS. 



Be gentle of 
Kpeech, 



irrnUc demflreljr. 
don't scold: 



foul ipeeohla 
hAteftU. 



At Church, dont 



sleep, or talk. 



or stare about 



like a fool: 



but 

[1 see maj be talL 

sb.l 

hear Ood'a word, 
ask Hla pardon, 



and then go home 
to dinner. 



Whether you 
serve or dine. 



be well-mannered. 



If you dine with 
your Master. 

let him besin. 



Don'tpreeioptoo 
high. 



Be gentle then of speech ech tyde, 
100 good manners doe retayne. 

As you passe by in towne or streete, 

sadly go forth your way : 
Gase you, ne scofife, nor scold; with man 
104 nor chyld make ye no fray. 

Fayre speech gets grace, & loue showes well 

alwayes a gentle blood : 
Foule speech deserues a double hate, 
108 it prooues thou canst small good. 

When that thou comest to the Church, 

thy prayers for to say, 
See thou sleepe not, nor yet talks not, 
112 deuoutly looke thou pray, 
Ke cast thyne eyes to ne fro, 

as thinges thou woiddst still see ; 
So shall wyse men iudge thee a foole, 
116 and wanton for to bee. 

When thou are in the Temple, see ' 

thou do thy Churchly warkes ; 
Heare thou Grods word with diligence, 
120 craue pardon for thy fSactes. 

When those thinges you haue done, 

repajrre you to your dinner ; 
Draw home to your maysters presence, 
124 there doe your true indeuour. 
Kit be yourhapto serue, to syt, 

or eate meate at the Table, 
Enclyne to good manors, and to 
128 nurture your selfe inable. 

And if your soueraygne call you 

wyth him to dyne or sup, 
Giue hini preheminence to begin, 
132 of meate and eake of Cup. 

And of this thing beware, I wish, 
prease not thy selfe to hye ; 



\ 



HI70H RHODES'S BOKB OF NURTURE. 



17 



Syt in the place appoynted thee, 

1 36 for that is curtesye : 

And when thou arte set, and Table 

couered thee before, 

Pare not thy nayles, fyle not the cloth ; 

140 see thou obserue this lore. 

And if thy mayster speake to thee, 

take thy cap in thy hande; 

If thou syt at meate when hee talketh 

144 to thee, see thou stande. 

Leane not asyde when thou shalt speke, 

Tpright be thou standing ; 

Hold still thy hands, moue not thy feete, 

148 beware thou of tryfling. 

Stand sadly in telling iij tale 

whensoeuer thou talkest; 

Tryfle thou with nothing, stand vpiight 

152 whensoeuer thou speakeet. 

Thwart not thou with thy fellow, 

nor speake wyth hye voyce : 

Poynt not thy tale with thy fynger, 

156 vse thou no such fond toyes. 

Haue audyence when thou speakest, 

speake with authoritye, 

Else if thou speake of wisedomes lore, 

160 little will it auayle thee. 

Pronounce thy speeche distinctly, 

see thou marke well thy worde, 

It is good hearing of a Chylde : 

164 be ware wyth whome ye borde. 

Talke not to thy soueraygne deare 

no tyme when he doth drinke ; 

When he speaketh, giue audyence, 

168 and firom him doe not shrinke. 

Before that you doe syt, see that 

your knyues be made bright, 

8 



ait In the place 
appointed 70a. 

At Table.-S 



don't pare yoor 
nails. 



Whenyonr 
Master speaks to 
yon, take off jout 
eap, 

and stand np. 

When speaking, 
stand upright, 
keep your hands 
and feet stiU 



stand quiet. 



and don't play 
with anything. 



Don't cross yoor 
companions or 



point yoor tale 
with yoor finger. 



Speak with 
authority. 



Pronounce your 
words dlstinctiy. 



Mind whom yon ■ 
Jest with. 

Listen when your 
master speaks. 



Have your knives 
bright 



18 THE BOOKE OF NURTURE AND SOHOOLB OP GOOD MANNERS. 



and your hands 
clean. 



When speaking to 
a man, 

don't look about 
yon. 



Hare yoor knife 
sharp and dean. 



Try your soup 
before putting 
bread in It. 



If another shares 
your dish, don't 
crumble bread in 
it, as your hands 
nifty be sweaty. 



Cut nice Uti of 
bread to put in 
your broth. 



and don't sup that 
up too loudly. 



Don't dip your 
meat in the salt- 
cellar. 



Your hands cleane, youi nayles parde : 
172 it is a goodlye sight. 

When thou shalt speake to any man, 

lole not to fast thyne eye, 
Grase thou not to and fro as one 
176 thats voyde of curtesye, 

For a mans countenaunce ofte tymes, 

discloseth still his thought : 
His lookes with his speeche, trust thou me, 
180 will iudge him good or nought 

Looke that your knyfe be sharp & kene 

to cut your meate withall ; 
So the more cleanlyer, be sure, 
184 cut your meate you shalL 

Or thou put much bread in thy pottage, 

looke thou doe it assay : 
Fill not thy spoone to full, least thou 
188 loose somewhat by the way. 
If any man eate of your dish, 
crom you therein no Bread 
Lest that your hands be found sweaty ; 
192 thereof take ye good heede : 

They maye be corrupt, that causeth it, 

for it IB no fayre ysage. 
Of bread, slyce out fayre morsels 
196 to put into your pottage ; 
Fill it not to full of bread, 

for it may be reprooueable 
Least that thou leaue parte, for then to 
200 measure thou arte varyable. 

And suppe not lowde of thy Pottage, 

no tyme in all thy lyfe : 
Dip not thy meate in the Saltseller, 
204 but take it with thy knyfe. 

When thou haste eaten thy Pottage, 
doe as I shall thee wish : 



HUGH RHODES'B BOKB OF KUBTURE. 



19 



Wype cleane thy spone, I do thee reed, 
208 leans it not in the dish ; 

Lay it downe before thy tienchonre, 

thereof be not afrayde ; 
And take heede who takes it vp, 
212 for feare it be conuayde. 

Gut not the best peece for thy seife, 

leane thou some parte behynde : 
Bee not greedye of meate and drinke ; 
216 be liberall and kynde. 

Burnish no bones with thy teeth, 

for that is ynseemely ; 
Eend not thy meate asunder, 
220 for that swarues fix)m curtesy ; 
And if a straunger syt neare thee^ 

euer among now and than 
Beward thou him with some daynties : 
224 shew thy selfe a Gentleman. 
If your fellow sit &om his meate 

and cannot come thereto, 
Then cutte for him such as thou haste ; 
228 he may lyke for thee doe. 

Belche thou neare to no mans face 

with a corrupt fumosytye, 
But tume finm such occasyon, friend, 
232 hate such yentositye. 

£ate you small morsels of meate, 

not to great in quantitye ; 
If ye lyke such meates, yet follow not 
236 euer your owne fiEuitasye. 

Defyle not thy lips with eating much, 
« as a Pigge eating drafife ; 
£ate softly, and drinke manerly, 
240 take heede you doe not quafife. 

Scratche not thy head with thy fyngers 
when thou arte at thy meate ; 



Wipe your q)oon 
deui, pat it down 
before your 
trencher. 



and take care it is 
not stolen. 



Don't be greedy. 



Bnzniah no bones 
with joor teeth. 



tear not yonr meat 
aeonder. 



Help 



todaintiei. 



and for absent 
mates oat oir their 
shares. 



Beloh near to no 
man's Ikce. 



Bat only small 
pieces. 



andnottoomnch, 
like a pig at wash. 

Bat and drink 
qoletly. 



DontsonatdiyoQ 
head at meals. 



20 THE BOOKB OP NURTURB AND SCHOOLE OF GOOD MANNERS. 



Don't spit over the 
Uble, 



or pick your teeth 
with a knife. 



Take a stick. 



With pntrlfled 
teeth 



toQoh not the food 
that Is for others. 



Don't pick your 
hands. 



Wipe your month] 
whm yon drink. 



Dont blow yonr 
nose on the napkin 



but <m your 
handkerchief. 



Don't cnun yoor 
plate or mouth 



toofull: 



keep from all ez- 



Nor spytte you ouer the table boorde ; 
244 see thou doest not this forget. 
Pick not thy teeth with thy Knyfe 

nor with thy fyngers ende, 
But take a stick, or some cleane th3mg, 
248 then doe you not offende. 

If that your teeth be putrifyed, 

me thinke it is no right 
To touch the meate other should eate j 
252 it is no cleanly sight. 

Pick not thy handes, I thee requyre, 

nor play not with thy knyfe ; 
Keepe still thy hands and feete also ; 
256 at meate tyme vse no stryfe. 

Wype thy mouth whew thou shalt drink 

Ale, Beare, or any Wyne ; 
On thy IS'apkin thou must wype styll, 
260 and see aU thing be cleane. 

Blow not your nose on the napkin 

where you should wype your hande; 
But dense it in your handkercher, 
264 then passe you not your band. 

Wyth your napkyn you may oft wipe 

and make your mouth full cleene, 
Some thing that thou canst not espye, 
268 of others may be seene. 

Fill not thy trenchour, I thee rid, 

with morsel^ great and large ; 
Cram not thy mouth to fcdl, ne yet 
272 thy stomack ouercharge, 

But temper thou thy selfe with drinke, 

so keepe thee from blame : 
Dronkennesse hurteth thy honestye, 
276 and hyndreth thy good name. 

Keepe thou thy selfe from, all excesse 
both in meate and in drinke ; 



HUGH RHODES S BOKB OF NURTURE. 



21 



And euer vse thou temperaunce, 
280 whether you wake or wynke. 

Fyll not thy mouth to full, leaste thou 

perhaps of force must speake ; 
Nor blow not out thy crums 
284 when thou doest eate. 

Fowle not the place with spitting 

whereas thou doest syt, 
Least it abhore some that syt by : 
288 let reason rule thy wyt. 

If thou must spit, or blow thy nose, 

keepe thou it out of sight, 
Let it not lye vpon the ground, 
292 but treade thou it out right 

Wyth bones & voyd morsels fyll not 

thy trenchour, my friend, full : 
Auoyde them into a Y oyder, 
296 no man will it anuH 

EoU not thy meate wythin thy mouth 

that euery man may it see, 
But eate thy meate somewhat close, 
300 for it is honestye. 

If that thy Soueraigne profer thee 
to drinke once, twyse, or thryse. 
Take it gently at his hand ; 
304 in Court it is the guyse ; 

When thou hast dronke, straighte set it downe, 

or take it his seruaunt ; 
Let not thy mayster set it downe ; 
308 then is it well, I warrant. 

Blow not thy Pottage nor Drinke, 

for it is not commendable ; 
For if thou be not whole of thy body, 
312 thy breath is corruptable. 

Cast not thy bones vnder the Table, 
nor none see thou doe knack ; 



Don't flU your 
month too ftill, 



or blow out your 
cnunlMs, 



or spit all about 
you. 



If yon must ipit 
or suite. 



tnaditintothe 
ground. 

Turn bones, tec. off 
your plate into a 
Voider. 



Dont roll your 
food about in your 
mouth. 



If your Sovereign 
oflJBrs you his cup. 



take it from him, 



drink, and put it 
down. 



Dont blow on 
your soupor drink. 



your breath may 
stink. 



Dont throw your 
bones under the 
table. 



22 THE BOOKE OF NURTURE AND SOHOOLE OF GOOD MANNERS. 



Don't stretch your 
anns. lean back. 



score the table. 



or lean on It. 



Eat what la set 
before you. 



Don't stare about 



or wac your head. 



scratch It. or pat 
your finger In yonr 
month. 

Don't look at what 
oomee out of yonr 
noee, 

or break wind. 



When the table Is 
cleared, 



put your trencher 
andleartaigslnthe 
Voider, 

with your napkin 
and the crumbs. 



Begladtopli 
othen. 



Stretch thee not at the Table, 
316 nor leane not forth thy back. 
Afore thy meat, nor afterward, 

with knyfe scortche not the Boorde ; 
Such toyes are not commendable, 
^320 trust thou me at a woorde. 

Leane not Tpon the Boord when that 

your mayster is thereat, 
For then will all your Elders thinke 
324 you be with him lack mate. 
Be not ashamed to eate the meate 

which is set before thee ; 
Mannerly for to take it, friend, 
328 agreeth with curtesye. 

Cast not th3me eyes to ne yet firo, 

as thou werte full of toyes : 
Vse not much wagging with thy head, 
332 it scarce becommeth boyes. 

Scratch not thy head, nor put thou not 

thy fynger in thy mouth : 
Blow not thy nose, nor looke thereon ; 
336 to most men it is loath. 

Be not lowde where you be, nor at 

the Table where you syt ; 
Some men will deeme thee dronken, 
340 mad, or else to lack thy wit. 

When meate is taken quyte awaye, 

and voyders in presence. 
Put you your trenchour in the same, • 
344 and all your resydence. 

Take you with your napkin and knyfe 

the croms that are fore thee ; 
In the Voyder your Napkyn leaue, 
348 for it is curtesye. 

Be gentle alway, and glad to please, 
be it night or daye ; 



HUGH BHODES'S BORB OF NURTURE. 



23 



Wyth tongue nor hand, no lygor vse, 
352 let reason rule alwaye. 

When that the meate is taken vp, 

and the Table cloath made cleane, 
Then giue good eare to heare some grace, 
356 to washe your selfe demeane. 

And whyle that grace is saying, friend, 

looke that ye make no noyse, 
And thanke you Grod for your good fare, 
360 him as your soueraigne prayse. 
When ye begin from boorde to ryse, 

say to your fellowes all, 
" Much good do it ye," gently : then 
364 they curteous will ye calL 

Then goe you to your Soueraygne, 

giue him obeysaunce duely ; 
That done, withdraw your selfe asyde ; 
368 at no tyme prooue vnruely. 
If ye see men in counsell set, 

prease not to come to neare ; 
They will say that you are vntaughte 
372 if you to them giue eare. 

Whysper not thou with thy fellowes oft, 

giue thou no euill language ; 
Men are suspicious found, and wyll 
376 thinke it no good vsage. 

Laugh not to much at the Table, 

nor at it make no game : 
Yoyde slaunderous and bawdy tales, 
380 vse them not for shame. 

Or thou be olde, beware, I lid, 

least thou doe get a fall : 
If ye be honest in your youth, 
384 in age ye may be lyberalL 



When the cloth is 
doared. 



hear Onoe, 
and wash. 



During Grace 
make no noise, 



bat thank God. 



Rise from table, 



ny to your com- 
iwnions, " Much 
good do it ye," 



bow to your 
Master, and 
withdraw. 



Go not too near 
men consulting 
together. 



Don't whisper to 
people. 



or langh too much 
at table. 



Tell no bawdy 
stories. 



Take care lest 
yon get a fall. 



24 



f Jfor % Magting Seraaunt. 



SerreGodflnt. 



Dreasaoeordtaigio 
your degree. 



Make Mends with 
honest men In 
authority. 



Seek for pure 
Mendshiik. 



Iton't look too 
much at yonr 
clothes, 



or talk too load. 



Don't be alothftd 



or enytons. 



TF ye will "be a Seruingman, 
-■' with attendaunce doe begin : 
Fyrst serue God, then the worlde, 
4 and euer flye from sinne. 
Apparell thee after thy degree, 

youth should be cleane by kynde : 
Pryde and disdayne goes befoie, ] 
8 and shamefastnes behynde. 

Aquaynte your selfe with honest men 

that are in authoiytye ; 
Of them may you leame in youth 
12 to auoyde all ne<fessitye. 

Still search thou must for friendship pure, 

and beware of flattery : 
With lewde persons, I thee counsell, 
16 haue no familyaryty. 

Beholde not thy selfe in thy Apparell, 

in church, ne in Streete ; 
To gase on thy selfe, men will thinke 
20 it is a thing vnmeete. 

Crye, ne yet speake, with to lowd voyce 

whereas thou doest walke. 
For lyght-witted or dronken, sure, 
24 men will name thee in talke. 
Be not thou slothfull, for it is 

the gouemour of all vyce ; 
Nor be enuyous to any, 
28 for then ye be not wyse. 



HUGH RHODES'S BOKE OF NURTURE. 



26 



Please thy friends ; delight not in sloth ; 

that Yyce wasteth goods. 
It dulleth wits, ranckleth flesh, 
32 and palleth ofte fresh bloods. 
If you come to another mans house: 

to sporte and to playe, 
If the goodman be set at meate, 
36 letume, and go your way. 

If case thou be aduaunced, friend, 

and plaste in high degree. 
Be lyberall and gentle found, 
40 beloued shalt thou bee. 

Be not to liberall nor to scant, 

vse measure in eche thing : 
To get in one yeare, and spend it in 
44 another, is no lyuing. 

It is better to saue somewhat 

with good prouysion. 
Then to wish agayne for that is spent, 
48 for that doth breede deuysion. 
Measure expence, spend warily, 
and flye farre from excesse : . 
Inough is a feast ; more then ynough 
52 IB counted foolishnesse. 

A dilligent seruaunt taking payne 

for his mayster truth to show. 
No doubt his mayster will consyder, 
56 and agayne for him doe, 

A mayster will know where he is, 
and sometyme for his pleasure 
A seruaunt to suffer in anger, 
60 to his mayster is a treasure; 
A seruaunt not reformable, that 
takes to his charge no heede, 
Ofte tymes falleth to pouertye, 
64 in wealth he may not byde. 



AToid Sloth. 



which makes flesh 
rank. 



If he whom yon 
visit 



Is at dinner, 

so away. 

Ifyoaare 
promoted. 



beUheral. 



but practise 
moderation In all 
things. 

Don't spend all 
yoor Income : 



save. 



Spend warily, 
avoid excess. 
Enough Is a feast. 



A tmthAil servant 
will be rewarded. 



and one who will 
put up with anger 
is a treasure. 



A careless servant 



cannot be rich. 



26 



FOR THE WATTING BERUAUNT. 



B«gln no qnaml : 



batifanyoiM 
■trlkeyoa. 



defend yoozwlf. 



«nd play the mui. 



Don't swear. 



To be onfidthftil 



is diiigraoeftiL 

Don't answer 
yourmMtfr; 



few words we 
best: 



many, bad. 



Don't be too free 
with people above 
yoo. 



Beqal<±aiid 
attentive. 



Be manly at ueede, begin no quarrell 

in wrong, ne yet in right ; 
A iust quarrell defendes it selfe ; 
68 in wrong doe not fyght. 

Forbeare if thou mayst : if any will 

stryke, then take thou heede, 
Defend thy selfe ; the law will aquyte 
72 thee if thou stand in neede ; 

A man of his handes with hastynesse 

should at no tyme he fylde : 
Auoyde murther, saue thy selfe, 
76 play the man, being compelde. 
Be seruiceable and cleanly, 

and neuer sweare thou oath : 
Be wyse, ready, and well aduysed, 
80 for tyme tryeth thy troth : 

K case thou be not faythfull found, 

and in all thinges trusty, 
Thou doest thy mayster no worship 
84 nor thy selfe honesty. 

Be not checkmate with thy mayster ; 

for one word giue not fower ; 
Such a seruaunt contynueth to long 
88 if he passe but one hower. 
Few wordes in a seruaunt wyse 

deserueth commendation ; 
Such Seruauntes as be of to muche speeche 
92 are yll of operation. 

Be not to bold with men that be 

aboue thee in degree, 
In age, byrth, or substance ; leame thou 
96 to handfast honesty. 

Take payne in youth, be quick, 

attendaunt be, and wyse : 
Be dilligent for to detecte 
100 a seruaunt gyuen to vycft 



HUGH RH0DB8S SOKE OF NURTURE. 



27 



Put thou thy mayster to no payne 
by fraude nor fayned subtiltie ; 
Wyse men will say little, and suffer 
104 to see thy iniquitie. 

A man that sayth little shall peiceiue 

by the speeche of another : 
Be thou stil and see, the more shalt thou 
108 perceyue in another ; 

Goueme thou well thy tongue, and let 

thy wordes not mayster thee. 
If ye foUow wyll, ye are lyke 
112 ne to thryue, beleeue mee : 
Obstinacy is follye in 

them that should haue reason : 
They that will not knowe howe to 
lid amend, their wits be very geason. 
In displeasure forbeare thy fellow, 

lay all mallice apart. 
Nor meddle not with such as you 
120 know to be ouerthwart. 
A hasty or wilfull Mayster 

that ofbe chaungeth seruaunt, 
And a seruaunt of fleeting, 
124 lack wit and wysdome, I warrant. 
Chaunge not ofte thy seruyce, 

for it sheweth a seruaunte to light ; 
He careth for no man, nor non& for him, 
128 in wrong nor in right. 

A plyaunt seruaunt gets fauour 

to his great aduauntage ; 
Promoted shall he be in offjoe or fee, 
132 easiler to lyue in age. 

Vse honest pastyme, talke or syng, 

or some Instrument Tse : 
Though they be thy betters, 
136 to heare they will thee not refuse. 



Dont deeeire 
your master. 



Be qiiiet, and 
learn 1)7 oUien' 
talk. 

Control your 
tongue. 



Self-wUl won't 
thrive. 



Obstinacy to folly. 



When out of 
temper, keep 
clear of com- 
panions. 



Master and 
servant changing 
often, 



lack wit. 



and no one cares 
for them. 

A pliant nervant 



gftB promotion. 



Amuse yourself 
by singing or 
playing. 



28 



FOR THE WATTING 8BRUAUNT. 



Speak only when 
youlre spoken to. 

Anodate with 
those who dax 
adranoe yoa. 

Look ont for a 
well-t<Hlo wife. 



Oentie qualitiea 
often 



aecaregood 
marriagaa. 



A gentle wife la 
atrearare: 



an angry one, 
man's greatest 
trouble. 



Foolish women 
are like a feather 
Intiieah*. 



Fnlgentins likens 



[I oHg. aparte] 

agoodmanto 
Christ; 

to rule hinwelf . 
And to oh^ man 



To prate in thy maysters presence, 

it is no humanity e; 
But to speake when he talketh to thee 
140 is good curtesye. 

For your preferment resorte 

to such as may you yauntage : 
Among Gentlemen, for their rewards ; 
144 to honest dames for maryage. 
See your eye be indifferent 

among women that be fayre. 
And if they be honest, to them 
148 boldly then doe repayre ; 
Honest quallityes and gentle, 
many men doth aduaunce 
To good maryages, trust me, 
152 and their names doth inhaunce. 
Of worldly pleasure it is 

a treasure, to say truth. 
To wed a gentle wyfe ; of his 
156 baigayne he needes no ruth. 
What is most trouble to man 

of all thinges that be lyuing ? 
A curst wyfe shortneth his lyfe, 
160 and bringeth on his ending. 

Women nyse, and not wyse, waketh 

men when they should take sleepe : 
Lyke a feather in the weather, 
164 of such I take no keepe. 

Fulgentius declareth, vpon the 

maryage.in Cana Galile, 
The condicions of men and women : 
168 a parte * I will shew ye. 

He lykeneth Christ to a good man, 

the Authour of verity, 
To rule himselfe: and in all thinges 
172 to obey to man truely 



HUGH RHODES'S BOKE OF NURTURE. 



29 



He lykeneth a good woman to 

the myrrour of humillitye ; 
In them is roted pacience, sound fayth^ 
176 loue and charitye : 

Fayth and trust in good women both, 

in eche deede, and in woorde ; 
Louing God, obeying their husbands, 
180 cleane at bed and at boorde. 
Lykened women to ydols, taken 

for Gods, yet were Deuils : 
ludge so of women which be corrupte 
184 with such euils. 

Women to blame, or yet defame, 

I will disprayse none: 
Say as ye list, women are yU 
188 to trust, all thinges but one. 
Fayre and good are two quaUityes, 

scantly in one body seene : 
Fayrenesse is scone seene, her pacience 
192 and goodnesse is yU to deeme. 
For to saue that a man would haue, 

is at large without a keeper : 
Who can stay that will away, 
196 or without restraynt let her ? 
To wed a woman that is 

good, fayre, and eke wyse, 
Is to haue ynough for himselfe, sure, 
200 and for her as much thryse. 

The company of women being yong, 

wanton, foolish, and light, 
Makes the body and head feeble, 
204 and doth cleane wast the sight. 

Such be yU to please, their harte and 

eye is vnsatiable ; 
An old man, and a yong woman, 
208 to content is yncurable. 



he likeoB a good 
woman to the 
Htrrorof 
Humility. 

AUloflore, 

trartworthy In 
deed and word. 



clean at bed and 
board. 



Yet some are 
refnilar devile. 



Idlipraieeno 
women, 

but they are 111 
to trust. 



Fair and good are 
seldom seen 
together. 



Wlio can stop a 
woman who will 
go wrong? 
A woman good, 
fUr, and wise, is 
aprlxa. 



Company with 
wanton women 



weakens men's 
body, head, and 
sight 



A young woman 
Is nerer content 
with an old man. 



30 



FOB THE WATTING 8EBUAUNT. 



Excited woman 
don't heed nmob. 



To arokl lechery. 



look not &t fklr 
women. 



Don't be fkmllUr 
with wanton 
women. 



Thielaenoogh 
ftbont women. 



TUce warnlns by 
others' foUy. 



Follow the stepe 
of an honest man. 



Better be poor 
and mirthftU, than 
rich and aorrow- 
ftal. 



212 



216 



220 



224 



228 



ATotd bad diet 



232 



236 



240 



and btd company* 244 



When womena wits are mooued, 

of reason they take no heede : 
To please them agayne, mnste bee by 

lone, dread, or else fond meeda 
Pryde, couetousnes, and letchery, 

if thou wilt from them flee, 
From gay Apparell, treasurey and 

fayre women, draw thy eye. 
Be not to bold in worde and deede, 

for it is little honesty. 
In Chamber with wanton women, 

Yse no familiarity. 
To them tell thou nought that wil not 

beleeue thee at thy woide : 
It appeareth by them, their good 

wyU they may lyttle aforde. 
Of women ye haue herd part» wherby 

ye may perceyue my mynde : 
For few wordes to wyse men is beet^ 

and thus I make an ende. 
I hold thee wyse and well taught, 

& * thou arte lyke to be iollye, 
That can beware to see the caie 

of another mans follye. 
Take the myrrour of an honest man,. 

and marke how well he doth : 
Follow his steps, imbraoe vertue, 

then doest thou well forsooth. 
It is better to be poore and 

to lyue in rest and myrth, 
Then to be riche with sorrow, 

and come of noble byrth. 
If thou wilt haue health of body, 

euill dyet eschew : * 
To get a goed name, 

euill company doe not pursue. 



HUOH RHODBS'S BOKE OF NURTURE. 



31 



Euill ayres coirupt mans body, 
ill company doth the same : 
Vse good company, thereof 
248 commeth honesty and good fame. 
All byrdes doe lone by kynde, that are 

lyke of plume and feather, 
Grood and bad, ye* -wyld and tame, 
252 all kyndes doe draw togyther. 
Great diuersytie between pryde, 

and honesty is scene : 
Among the wyse it is soone iudgde, 
256 and knowne what they hane beene. 
By condicion and fashion 

all thing sheweth as it is, 
lagged or ragged, prowde or meeke, 
260 wyse men call it excesse. 

Many haue cunning and vertue, 

without due gouemaunce : 
Wo worth reason yU vsed, 
264 for it lacketh remembraunce. 
Better to speake little for profyt, 

then much for thy payne : 
It is pleasure to spend and speake, 
268 but harde to call agayne. 
Vse thou not hastye anger, 

a wyse man will take leasure, 
The custome of sodayne mallyce 
272 will tume to displeasure. 

Fyrst thinke, then speake, and then 

do all thinges with discretion : 
Giue with good will, and auoyde thy 
276 ennemye with prouisyon. 

Euill men take great payn to buy Hell — 

and all for worldly pleasure — 
Dearer then good men buy heauen, 
280 for God is their treasure. 



Seek good eom- 
panions: 



like draws to 
Uke. 

[i»the] 



The difference 
between pride 
and propriety 
soon shows. 



Sverythlnur is 
known by its 
make. 



Woe to reason 
ill need. 



Speak Uttle. 



Be not quickly 
angry. 



First think, then 
speak. 



Bad men buy hell 



dearer than good 
ones do heaven. 



32 



FOR THE WATTING SERUAUNT. 



Learn, or be 

tgaonnt. 

The proved man'i 

gloss teaches 

more than the 

text. 



Be glad of fair 
reproofs. 



Thank hfan who 
gives 70U food 



or does jon food. 



Don't idle joor 
tbne away, 



but learn in joor 
youth. 



and take pains. 



Bo moderate if 
yoa are rich. 



Learn or ye be lewde, 

follow the proued mans aduyse, 
Thou shall peiceyue more by his glose 
284 then by the letter is. 

Be thou content with feyre rebuke, 

and haue thy fault in mynde : 
The wyser that thou doest, of troth 
288 the better shalt thou fynde. 
If thou bee wyse, consyder 

thy Mende both in worde and deede : 
And thank him that geueth thee cloth, 
292 drinke, meat, and also breade ; 
Tume not thy face lyke to a Churle, 

as Yoyde of aU meekenesse : 
To the77i that do thee good, geue thanks, 
296 and shew lyke gentlenesse. 

Many couet much, and little paynes 

therefore intende to take : 
If case thou wilte a Mayster please, 
300 from sloth thou must awake. 

Of one thing take good heed, spend not 

thy tyme, I wish, in vayne ; 
For tyme mispent and ouergone 
304 cannot be calde agayne. 

Seeke thou in youth, and thou shalte fynd, 

to be one not vntaught : 
Wyse or fonde, foolish to rule, 
308 or to be set at nought. 

Take payne in youth, if case thou wilt 

of men be called wyse, 
Or thou must take it in thy age, 
312 or be fraught full of vyce. 

Keepe measure euer in happye welth, 

a tyme to thee is lent : 
Better is it to saue, then to 
316 suffer when all is spent. 



nUGH RHODESS BOKB OF NURTURE. 



33 



To remember before, what wyll fall, 

it shall giue thy harte ease ; 
Fortune doeth ebbe and flowe, be sure ; 
320 good forwit doth men please. 

Lyue iustlye, doe well, and haue well, 

let men say what they list : 
Be euer secrete to thy selfe, 
324 beware of had I wist. 

A Byrd is better in thy hande, 
then in Wood two or three ; 
Leaue not certayne for vncertayne, 
328 my friend, I counsell thee. 

Take heede betyme, if thou be wyse, 

for tyme hath no measure : 
Prayse goodnesse still, blame euill men, 
332 loue is a lasting treasure. 
Better is truth with pouertye, 

then ryches are with shame : 
Couetousnesse quayleth gentlenesse, 
336 letchery bringeth ill name. 
Sufferaimce asswageth yre, 

and mendeth thinges amis : 
In little medling rest is wonne ; 
340 hate stryfe if thou seeke blisse. 
Be not hasty in a matter, 

but marke thou well the ende ; 
Be thou not Foe vnto thy selfe, 
344 though another thee oifende. 
Presume thou not to hye, I rid, 
least it tume thee to blame : 
In trust is treason ; be ruled 
348 by reason ; flye thou shame. 
No maystry is it to get a friend, 

but for to keepe him long : 
As to thyne owne selfe, so doe to 
352 thy friendes eche one among. 



Pmdenoe will 
secure yon ewe. 



Do light, what- 
ever men may 
8«y. 



A bird in the 
hand b l)etter 
than two in the 
wood. 



Take heed * 
bctimeA. 



Truth and poveity 
are better than 
riches and shame. 



To suffer calms ire. 



Be not hasty. 



Presume not 



Do tnyour frientbi 
as to youreelf. 



i 



34 



FOB THE WATTING 8ERUAUNT. 



Wbon trnsted, be 
trae. 



Squabble not 
with your 
neighboor. 



Fck>Ih quarrel 



wise men lire in 
peace, but angry 
folk do not. 



Be irentle to a 
willing aervant. 



Don't be revenge- 
ful. 



Don't chide too 
often. 



Forbear where 
you can conquer. 



A good man does 
good. 



My friend, where thou art put in trust, 

be true in word and deede : 
In a little falshood is great shame ; 
356 in truth is there much meede. 

Brable not thou with thy neyghbour, 

but let him lyue in rest ; 
For discorde often tymes constraynes 
360 thy friendes thee to detest. 

Among fooles there is much stryfe, 

disdayne, grudge, and debate : 
With wyse men there is rest & peace, 
364 after a blessed rate : 

Knowne there is no quyetnesse 

where angry folkes doe dwell : 
Ten is nyne to many, be sure, 
368 where men be fierce and felL 
Shew gentlenesse to thy seruaunt 

thats willing to amende, 
Wysedome willeth thee to forbeare 
372 though he doe thee offende. 
In mallyce be not vengeable, 

as S. Mathewe doth speake, 
Due correction is needefull, sure, 
376 for blessed are the meeke. 

Chyde not very often, for therein 

gentlenesse is none : 
Pl*ooue and then chuse : of two harmes leame 
380 alwayes to make but one. 

To forbeare where thou mayste ouercome, 

is gently still to doo ; 
For so shalte thou cease mallyce, 
384 and make a friend of thy foe. 

A good man doth good, and therein 

doth alwayes take great payne : 
If his deedes be contrary found, 
388 aU that he doeth is vayne. 



HUGH RHODES S BOKE OF NURTURE. 



35 



Correct not faults in other, 

and thy selfe do vse the same, 
For so shalt thou be laught to scome 
392 and be reprooued with shame. 

Fynd thou no fault in discreete men, 

of good perseueraunce ; 
But fyrst see thou correct thy selfe 
396 of wilfull ignoraunce. 

Controle not so your fellowes faultes 

as ye of cryme were cleare, 
But momsh him secretlye, and keepe 
400 thy mayster from all yre. 

Keleeue and comforte other when 

thou ioyste prosperitye, 
And thou of other shalt haue helpe 
404 in thy aduersytye. 

If thou be come of noble stocke 

and gentle curteous plant, 
Thy condicions and behauyour 
408 will show thee, I warrant. 
Subdue the euill mynded men, 

that order will not byde : 
Beware of common grudge and hate 
412 at euery tyme and tyde ; 

Ne yet conceaue thou in thy mynde 

that thou canst all thinges doe, 
Least in trying somthing thou 
416 canst notattayne thereto. 

A hye mynded man thinketh no wight 

worthy to match with him. 
But when he is to highest power, 
420 yet he is not worth a pin. 

Those vndemeath thy gouemaunce, 

doe charitably blame, 
And vse thou gpntle speech eche hower, 
424 BO shalt thou* get good name. 



Don't correct in 
othera the faults 
you commit 
yourself. 



but correct them 
in yonrself. 



and admonisli 
others secretly. 

Help, and ron 



■hall be helped. 



If you are well 
bred. 



your behariour 
wUl show it 



Avoid grudging. 



Don't think you 
can doererytbing. 



The conceited 



isn't worth a pin. 



Always speak 
gently. 



36 



FOR THE WAYTING 8ERUAUNT. 



Kebuke men 
when alone with 
them. 



Dou't excite 
angry men. 



Don't disdain 
your fellows. 



Forbear in auger. 



It Lb 80 easy to be 
quiet and 
reasonable ! 



Better be ruled 
tlaanmle. 



LoTe Tirtue. 



Be uving. 



Talk breeds lies. 



A fool will neyer 
betau^L 



A wyse man will rebuke his fault 

when he is all alone, 
And spye it out from tyme to tyde 
428 when he hath euiU done. 
Moue no man that is angry 
and will he so to often : 
A smalle sparke kyndles a great fyre 
432 if it be forste to bume. 
To thy fellow be not cojdsh, 

nor haue of him disdayne ; 
If vnkjrndnesse doe happen, 
436 quickly be friendes agayne. 
To forbeare in anger is 

the poynt of a friendly leeche ; 
When the rage is past, men repent 
440 their euill corrupt speeche. 

A wonderfull thing this is to doe, 

and easy to be done : 
To leaue pleasure, and keepe sylence, 
444 and to follow reason. 
For farre more better is it 

to rtde then to be ruled ; 
Disdayne not therefore gouemaunce 
448 least your name be defyled. 

Loue thou vertue, and hate all vyce ; 

see that thou no tyme waste ; 
Spend in measure as thou doest get ; 
452 make spare of that thou haste. 
Babble not ouer much, my friende, 

if thou wylt be called wyse ; 
To speake or prate, or vse much talke, 
456 ingenders many lyes. 

A foole will be alwayes teaching, 

but will no tyme be taught : 
Contrary him in his sayinges, 
460 he setteth thee at nought. 



HUGH RHOEtES 8 BOKE OF NURTURE. 



37 



All men be knowen by the workes 

they vse to go about : 
A stedfast mans words ye neuer needs 
464 for to suspect, nor doubt. 

If ye baue sturdy Sampsons strength 

and want reason withall. 
It helpeth you nothing, this is playne, 
468 selfe will makes you to fall 

Many haue knowledge, and yet lacke 

that should belong thereto : 
And some are in authoritye 
472 that very little good doe. 
All pollicie no one man hath, 

though he be of hygh science ; 
One hath great learning, another hath 
476 got in tyme experience. 

Cunning with pryde in an officer fell 

is sure a heauy case : 
The pore man prowd, the riche a theefe, 
480 both of these doe lack grace. 

There is a tyme for all things founde, 

to be merry and glad : 
He that hath cunning without grace, 
484 of troth is but ill clad. 

Put not yong men in authority 

that are to prowde and lyght : 
A man tryed well in youth, 
488 his experience is of might. 

Many take much pryde in their owne skill, 

and carpe as they were cunning ; 
But in the ende his peeuish pryde 
492 makes all not worth a pudding. 
A fooles displeasure to a wyse man, 

is found profytable ; 
For his good will is vnstcdfast, 
496 liis lust is vnsatiable. 



A msQ ia known 
by his work. 



strength without 
reason is no good. 



Some in authority 
do very little 
good. 

No one ctui 
manage every- 
thing. 



Cunning, pride, 
and cruelty are 
bad in officers. 



There's a time fo 
all things. 



Put not young 
men in authority. 



Peevish pride 
ruins fverything. 



38 



FOB THB WATTING 8EBUAUNT. 



Don't answer & 
yroud nuty man, 



beat him. 



Btedfutnen iB 
profitable. 



If 70U play with 
an Inferior, 



play gently. 



[I MS. VeuMtrt] 



Boast not of 
hawdinest, 



but be cleanly in 
speech as well as 
dress. 



Honesty Is worth 
more than velret 
hoods. 

Keverence yonr 
elders. 



Eeply not thou agaynst a prowde, 

and yll mans tale to much. 
For he thinkes of hymselfe, bee sure, 
500 no man hath wysedome such ; 
Better is it to beate a prowde man 

then for to rebuke him, 
For he thinkes in his owne conceyte 
604 he is wyse and very trim. 
Stedfastnesse in a man 

aduaunceth his good name, 
But to be slow in godly deedes 
508 increaseth a mans shame. 
If thou play, game, or sporte, 

with thy inferyour by byrth, 
Yse gentle pastyme, men will then 
612 commend you in your myrth. 
1 Beware of subtle craft and guyle, 

therewith be not infect ; 
If euill be done where thou arte, 
516 men will thee soone suspect. 

Boast not of bawdinesse, for therein 

shalt thou, sure, be knowne 
To be found letcherous, and thy 
520 yll name will be soone blowne. 

A man cleanly arayed, oughte cleane 

and pure wordes to preache : 
As thou wouldest be cleane in arraye, 
524 so be cleane in thy speeche. 
Be not to bolde in your array, 
nor yet boast of your goods : 
More worth is honesty, be sure, 
628 then gawdy veluet hoodes. 

To giue reuerence to thy Elders, 

be thou stUl glad and fayne, 
Or else they will haue, leame thou this, 
532 of thee no small disdayna 



HUGH RHODES'S BOEE OF NUBTX7BE. 



39 



Eeporte no slaunder, ne yet shew 

the fruites of flattery ; 
It shewes that mallyce raygns in thee 
536 as voyde of curtesye. 

Meddle little, and thou shalt fynde 

therein a double ease : 
But in redressing things amis, 
540 thou highly God shalt please. 

Aduise well what thou speakest, friend, 

to whome, where, how, and whan ; 
So shalt thou get thee perfyte loue, 
544 and proue a wittye man : 

Thinke or thou speake ; for feare of yre 

take good heede at the least ; 
By thy speeche men will perceyue 
548 thee to be man or beast. 

Prease not thy selfe, if thou be wyse, 

to haue the soueraygntye : 
Good deeds and wisdom shal thee get 
552 in tyme authority e. 

At thyne owne conceite laugh not, 

nor make thou any game : 
Auoyde thou slaunderous baudy tales ; 
556 for why, they purchase shame. 
Laugh not to much, I thee aduyse, 

therein take thou no pleasure ; 
Much laughing, friend, some men doe say, 
560 a cockscombe doth procure. 
To sad, it is not best, 

the meane is aduauntage : 

Myrth for pollicy sometyme 

564 is wysedome and no rage. 

Or ye begin, marke well the ende, 

and thereof take good heede ; 
A good forethought is founde a friend 
568 at eueiy tyme of neede. 



Dont repeat 
•landen, or 



meddle in othera' 
affftln, 



but set wrong 
thlngB right. 



Mind whom yon 
speak to. 



and think before 
yon speak. 



Don't strive too 
much for power. 



or laoi^ at yoor 
own Jokes. 



Aroid bawdy 
tales. 



Much langfalng 
procures a cock's 
oomb. (8eep.60n.) 



Keep to (he 
middle. 



Forethought is 
ever a friend. 



40 



FOB THB WATTING SERUAUNT. 



Don't answer 
hastily. 



Get before yon 
spend. 



A bird in the 
hand is worth 
ten in the air. 



Don't slander any 
one behind his 
back. 



Refrain from 
wrath. 



Honest men speak 
honest words. 



When out, leave 
when the score is 
paid. 



Pay your debts 
punctually. 



and keep your 
promises. 



Be not Iiasty^ aunswere to giue 

before thou it debate, 
Lest thou repent thee afberwardes 
572 when it will be to lata 

Get ere thou spend, then shalt thou bid 

thy friendly friend good morrowe ; 
But if thou spent before thou get, 
576 thou shall feele much sorrowe : 
A byrd in hand, as some men say, 

is worth ten flye at large : 
He that may be free and will not, 
580 take vpon him no charge. 

Disprayse not any man in absence, 

nor yet be vengeable : 
For small faultes, small correction 
584 is moste commendable. 

Refraine from wrath, and correct thou 

with meekenesse at leysure : 
To vtter mallice sometyme, friende, 
588 bringeth thee displeasure; 

Know honest men haue honest wordes 

early and also late : 
Before thy equals and thy betters, 
592 playe thou not, friend, check mate. 
At thy friendes house, or else where, 

see that by night or day 
When the reckoning is past, and payde, 
596 then boldly go thy way. 

When thou borrowest, koepe thy day 

though it be to thy payne ; 
Then shalt thou the sooner borrow 
600 of thy lender agayne. 

Loke thou keepe promyse and thy day, 

thereon haue thou thy thought, 
Or else of thee and thyne, know well 
604 it may be dearer bought. 



HUGH RHODEB'S BOKE OF NURTURE. 



41 



Some men to borrow euer loue, 

and neuer pay agayne : 
Euer needy still some be found, 
608 putting their friendes to payne. 
Alway to begge and borrow still, 

cannot long t3rme indure : 
Such men do fayle, when they thinke 
612 • themselues to be most sure ; 
No heauynesse its to a man 
that nothing hath to lose ; 
Great greefe to them that plenty hath, 
616 so sayth the common glose. 

If that thou -spent past thy degree, 

thy stock thou soone shalt slake : 
Take heede betyme, so you may sleepe 
620 when other men doe wake. 
Past thy degree, couet thou not 

thy post for to mayntayne : 
Spend not thy goods to prodigallye, 
624 spend not thy store in vayne. 
Looke before thou leape, I wish ; 

more ease thou mayst take : 
If that thou leape or thou doe looke, 
628 wysedome will thee forsake. 

Good counsayle in thy words to take, 

shall thee content and please : 
Be comfortable to thy friends, 
632 and to thy selfe wish ease. 

Be not mooued if case thy friend 

tell thee thy faultes full playne : 
Requyte him not with mallyce great, 
636 nor his good will disdayne. 

A mans wysdome is prooued playne 

when he is ill sayd vnto : 
To suffer wrong is vertue pure, 

640 fond fooles cannot doe Bo. 

6 



Some men borrow 
and uevn* pay. 



but that must 
end In fkilure. 



which ia no 
trouble to a man 
who has nothing. 



Don't spend more 
than your Income, 



or too prodigally. 



Look before you 
leap. 



Take good counsel 
in your speech. 



Don't be angry 
with the friend 
who tells you 
your faults. 



Wise men can 
snflJBT wrong ; 



fools can't. 



42 



FOR THE WATTING SBRUAUNT. 



Make hay while 
the ran shines. 



Wait for your 
master if yon 
want to see him. 



Borrowers seek 



their own ad- 
Tantage, not 
yours. 



Give to the Poor. 



Bpeak the truth 
boldly and gently. 



Mock no man. 



Don't abuse your 
enemy. 



QuietnesH Is a 
good defence. 



An unstable 
Gentleman Is 
folly's child. 



When occasyon comes, thy profyt take, 

tyme laateth not for euer : 
Tyme flits away, thy welth augments 
644 as pleaseth God the giuer. 

If with thy mayster thou wilt speake, 

his leysure leaxne to see : 
It were contrary equitye 
648 - that he should wayght for thee. 
Some men are euer borrowing found, 

wythout respect of tyme : 
They gape for their commoditye, 
652 the[y] sieldome wish for thyne. 
Vse thou gentle condicions, friend ; 

giue the pore of thy good ; 
Part thou therof toward their want, 
656 giue them reliefe and fo[o]d. 

To speake the truth be bold and mylde, 

for that is very good ; 
For fayned speech, and ^Ishood vylde, 
660 becommeth vyllaines blood 

Mocke thou no man, of what estate 

or calling that he be ; 
For that is the custome of Chiirles 
664 voyde of all curtisye. 

To ill thy foe, doth get to thee 

hatred and double blame ; 
It is a Christyan propertye, 
668 to hyde thy brothers shame. 
A still man is a Castle which 
will him defend from woe : 
A busy tongue makes of his friend 
672 oft tymes his daynfull Foe. 
A Gentleman vnstable found, 
is deemde a chylde of folly : 
A shamelesse lyfe in any man, 
676 declares he is not hoUy. 



HUGH RHODES R BOKE OF NURTURE. 



43 



A Gentleman should mercy vse 

to set forth his natiuitye : 
He should be meeke and curteous, 
680 and full of humanitye. 
Pore men must be faythfull, 

and obedient in lyuing, 
Auoyding all rebellyon 
684 and rygorous bloodshedding. 

Keepe grace and godly gouemaunce 

alwayes within thy mynde : 
If thou be wanton in youth, 
688 vyce will raygn in age by kynde. 
Boast thou not of thy blood ne byrth, 

or great soueraignty : 
For thy good deedes, assure thy selfe, 
692 shaU get thee fame and glory. 

To one vnknowne to thee, my friende, 

at no tyme shew thy mynde ; 
For some men be tickle of tongue, 
696 and play the blabs by kynde. 
To men not acquaynted, giue 
no credence nor no trust ; 
Some sortes will customably lye, 
700 but from such flye thou must 

To Ytter greefe, doth ease the mynde, 

as wyse men seeme to say ; 
But faythfull friendes at no tyme will 
704 their friendes great greefe bewraye. 
If other men record thy saying, 
it may seeme somewhat true : 
y tteraunce of counsayle maketh, 
708 some states to wayle and rew; 

Keepe counsayle if to Prynce ne Land 

they bring no greefe nor payne ; 
To catche ^ ech trustlesse traytor, see 
712 thou faythfull doe remayne. 



A Gentlemui la 
oonnd. by his 
Urth. to be 
courteous. 



Poor men must 
be obedient. 



Use self-restrftint 



Don't boast of 
your high birth. 



Don't tell secrets 
to strangers. 



ortnistthoae 
yon don't know. 



Telling one's 
troubles eases the 
mind, but 

fsithfol Mends 
will conoeal their 
Mends' grief. 



Keep your own 
counsel. 



[l^Orlg. Co tache] 



44 



FOR THE WATTING SEBUAITNT. 



Fly from flattery. 

IJiaTe hardly 
found one man 
tnie. 

Prove your 
fHendfl, 



and don't change 
a true one for a 
new one. 



Befiise not a 
fHmid's rebuke. 



Greet your ttUnd 
gladly. 



Estimate gifta by 
the donora' 
wealth. 



and giTe some- 
what back again : 

Empty fists retain 
no Hawks. 



Be courteous to 
strangers. 



and entertain 
them liberally. 



Be friendly with the faythfuU man, 

but yet flye from flatteiye : 
In all my lyfe I could scant fynde 
716 one wight true and trusty. 

Fyrst seke a friend, then proue thou him 

that thou wilt trust ynto ; 
So shalt thou know in tyme of neede 
720 what he for thee will do. 

K case thou haue a trusty friend, 

chaunge him not for a new : 
They that trust vnto themselues, 
724 be no friendes faythfull true. 

Heare thou thy enimyes tale, I wishe, 

euen to the latter end ; 
And refuse not the sweete rebuke, 
728 of him that is your friend. 

If thy Mend come vnto thy house 

for loue or pure amitie, 
Exyle sadnesse, and show to him, 
732 friendly familiaritya 

If giftts thou receyue of any wyght, 

well ponder their degree : 
A kynde pore mans harty rewarde 
736 is worth the other three. 

Of whomsoeuer thou receyuest^ 

giue somewhat, friend, agayne. 
For empty fystes, men vse to say, 
740 cannot the Hawke retayne. 

If that a straunger syt thee neare, 
see thou make him good cheare, 
For so he may reporte thy name, 
744 be sure, both farre and neare. 
Ketayne a straunger after his 

estate and degree ; 
Another tyme may happen he 
748 may doe as much for thee. 






HUGH RHODES S SOKE OF NURTURE. 



45 



Of secrete and close matters speake 

not, if thou wilt be sage : 
Talke discretelye, let not thy tongue 
752 go clack in an outrage. 
Honest men be euer content 

with such as they doe fynde 3 
Take all thinges therfore in good part, 
756 vse thou a quyet mynde. 

Commaund not in another house, 

nor practyse to contende, 
So shalt thou be esteemed wyse, 
760 and men will thee commende. 
A man that is a niggard churle 

no tyme is lyberall : 
He commeth not of gentle blood 
764 that to his coyne is thrall 

Sit thou not in the highest place, 
where the good man is present, 
But gyue him place : his maners marke 
768 thou with graue aiiuysement. 
Eegard honest condicions, Mende, 
* where ere thy steppes be bent, 

Or else some men with thee wyll not, 
772 assured, be content. 

In sport and play with man and wyfe, 

with yongman, mayde and chylde, 
Be thou still meeke, and honest to, 
776 gentle and also mylde. 

Suspect no counsayle if it be 
agaynst thee neuer moued : 
By foolish thoughts the wysest heads 
780 are often tymes deceyued. 

If thou come to a strange mans house, 

knock ere that thou go in ; 
Ne yet presume thou not to farre, 
784 though he bee of thy kin. 



Keep secrets. 



Be content. 



and tftkf all 
things quietly. 



A niggard is 
always stingy. 



The slave to bis 
coin is not well 
bom. 



Always behave 
nicely, 



and be gentle in 

play. 



Don't be too 
soBpicious. 



Knock at a house 
before going in. 



46 



FOR THE WATTINO BERUAUNT. 



When sent with a 
meiwage, know It 
well, and speak it 
boldly- 



Read godly books. 



He wlio seelu 
Wisdom. U hlB 
country's Mend. 



If case ye be of message sent, 

know you the same throughout : 
Then mayst thou speake boldly, be sure, 
788 and neuer stand in doubt 

Delight to reade good Godly bookes, 

and marke the meaning well, 
Thereof comes vertue, knowledge, 
792 pure wysedome, and sweete counsel! 
Here of this matter thus, my firiend, 

I seeme to make an ende : 
He that doth haunt to wysdoms bowre 
796 remaynes his countreys friend. 



HUGH RHODES'S BQKE OF NURTURE. ^'^ 



t %\t '§\k d Ponest f rahtg. 



Xf thou desyre temperance^ cut away all super- 
fiuitye, and brydle in thy desyres within thy mynde ; 
consyder to thy selfe what nature req[u]yreth, and not 
what sensuall concupiscence appeteth. 

Put a biydle ^ a measure to thy concupiscence, & 
cast away the things that draw thy mynde with secrete 
pleasure. 

Eate without surfet 

Drinke without dronkennesse. 

Let thy lyuing be of light repaste ; come not for 
wanton pleasure, but for desyre of meate; let hunger 
moue thy appetyte and not sauery sauces. 

Thinke that all thing may be suffred but vilany 
and dishonesty; abstayn euer from wordes of rybaudry, 
for a tongue euer lyberall nourisheth folly. 

Loue rather wordes profytable then eloquent and 
plesaunte, right wordes then flattering. 

Thou shalt sometyme myxe with sadnesse thy 
merry iestes, but temperately, and without hurt of thy 
dignitye and honesty ; for laughing is reproueable if it 
be out of measure ; if lyke a chylde, it is efPase and 
wanton ; if lyke a woman, foolish. 

If thou be a continent man, auoyde flattery, & let 
it be as paynefull to thee to be praysed of lewd and in- 
honest persons, as if thou be praysed for lewd and in- 
honest deedes. 

Be more ioyous and glad when thou displeasest 
euill persons ; and take the euill iudgements of them 
touching thee, as a true prayse of thee. 



48 THB RULB OP HONEST LIUINO. 

It is a very hard work of continence to lepell the 
paynting glose of flatterings whose words resolue the 
hart with plesure. 

Alure not the lone of any man by flattery, nor set 
not open the waye by that meane to get theci lone and 
friendshyp ; thou shalte not be mad hardye, nor pre- 
sumptyons ; submit thy selfe and stoope not to low, but 
keepe a meane grauity. 

Be aduertised with good wil, and take rebuke 
paciently. 

If any man chyde thee with cause, be thou assured 
that he doeth profyte thee. If so be without thanke, 
that hee wyUeth thy profyte. 

Thou shalte not feare sharp words, but dread fayre 
wordes. 

If thou be a continent man, regard the moouinges 
and afflictions of thy soule and body, that they be not 
out of order; nor therfore doe not set Hghte by them, 
because they be vnknown, for it forceth not if no man 
see them, whan thou thy selfe seest thenL 

Be actiue and styrring, but not of light fashyon, 
constant, but not obstynate : let it not be vnknown nor 
greuous to thee thou hast not knowledge of any thing. 

Cherish al that be thy Peeres; disdayne not thy in- 
feiyours by pryde; cast not away thy superiours that 
Hues vpright. 

In requyting a good toume, shew not thy selfe neg- 
ligent,* nor contrarye : bee not an exactour of another 
man. 

Be lyberall to euery man. 

To no man flattering. 
^ Famiher but to few. 

EquaU to all men. 

Be not light of credens to new raysed tales, nor 
crymes, nor suspicious to maligne no man. 

Slack and slow to yre. 

Prone, inclyned to mercy. • 



HUGH RHOD£S*S BORE OF NURTURE. 49 

Stable in aduersytye. 

And hider of yertue, as other be of vice. 

Be a dispjser of vayne gloiye, and no busy bragger 
of the vertues with the which thou art indued. 

Despyse no mans foUye and ignoraunce: be thou of 
fewe wordeSy but suffer other to speake. 

Be sharpe, but not cruell, nor desgyse him that is 
merry. 

Be desyrous of wysedome, and apte to leame it. 

Men leame when they teache. 

Be content to departe to a man wylling to leame 
suche thinges as thou knowest, without arrogance and 
pride. 

Desyre to haue knowledge of suche thinges which 
thou knowest not, wythout concealement of thy igno- 
raunce. 

He that spendeth much 

and getteth nought, 
He that oweth much 

and hath nought, 
He that looketh in his purse 

and fyndeth nought^ 
He may be sony 

and say nought. 

% He that may and will not, 
He then that would shall not, 
He that would and cannot, 
May repent and sighe not 

% He that sweareth 

tyU no man trust him. 
He that lyeth 

tyll no man beleue him, 

He that boroweth 

till no man will lende him, 

7 



50 THE RULE OF HONEST LIUIXO. 

Let him go where no 
man knoweth him. 

% He that hath a good Mayster 

and cannot keepe him, 
He that hath a good seruaunt 

and not content with hym, 
He that hath such condicions 

that no man loueth hjni. 
May well know other, 

but few men wyll knowe hym. 



1 C^U8 tn^ttii % ^ooht of l^itrtare or goutr- 
nimnu of ||ont^, teit^ SUnns ^utr 
H^ nunsam. (Compgkb bg 



[Note.—? Should not 1. 169, p. 28, be * He lykeneth a good 
man to Christ.' In 1. 172, 'to obey to man trucly,* should man be 
God, or does the line refer to the good woman, as I have made it } 
L. 560. A Cockscombe. ' Natural idiots and fooles haue, and still 
do accustome themselves to weare in theib cappcs, cocker feathers, 
or a hat with a neck and head of a eock on the top, and a bell 
thereon, &c., and thinke themseWes finely fitted and proudly attired 
therewith.' Minshew.] 



THE PRINCIPAL VARIOUS READINGS 



OP DOUCE*S IMPERFECT COPY OF 



|etot ^ohs's §0ke af 'guxtm, 

Printed by Thomas Fetyt {before 1554.) 



\Title page wa?iiing,'] 

p. 5. Heading adds, * with Stans paer ad mensam, newly corrected, 

very ytjle and necessary vnto aU youth.' 
1. 3-4. it encreaseth faaor,/or it getteth fauour in the syghte of men. 
6. it encreaseth prayer / & by prayer grace, & to vse chyldren 

in yertue and good lemynge,/(?r it also .... learning. 
9. 'is for lacke of vertue in youth,' ybr 'is, is . . youth.' 
14. coffuersacyonybr behauyoure 

20. & dothe dayly/br euerlasting paynes. 

21. * for a gouemour to vse them to fayre speche, & to sette 

well theyr wordes with a good aduisemeut without stamer- 
ynge. And yf ye put them to scole awaye frome you, se 
ye put them to a dyscrete mayster that can,' /or *for 
Fathers . . . such as can.' 
p. 6. L 7. the worde of god/or hys worde 
12. renyeth/or denieth 

14. * Also to appose your seruauntes yf they can theyr byleue : 
also yf they brynge anye thynge home that is mysse taken, 
or tell tales, or newes of detraccyon, ye shall then ' for 

* if they be tale tellers or newes caryers * 

18. fassyouybr behauiour 

19. that are of lefull dyscrccyon inserted after seruauntes. 
25. to moche camall loue/or inuche familiaritye 

28. and somtyme vse them /or Take them often with you 
30. ' herde preached, k vse them not to rede fayned fables, or 
vayne fantases, or of folysshe loue : it is tyme loste ' for 

• heard . . youth ' 

1. 36. & 1. 1, p. 7. thou /or they. 

^ro»i the 2. of ^ among,* /?. 7, /. 2, to p. 13, /. 10, is lost in 

Baucis copy, which begins again with /. W^p* 13, 
Borne and bred in Beuenshhyre / my termes wyl wel showe 



V 
V 



52 VARIOUS READINGS. 

p. 13. 1. 20. . . , my selfe/br this booke 

21-4. I wolde refourme both youth & age / yf any thynge be amys 
To you wyl I shewe my mynde / refourme ye where nede is 
p. 14. 1. 56. Stande not to fast in thy conceyt. / 57-8 omitted. 
p. 15. 1. 63-6. Loke thou forget not to blysse the / ones or twyse 

In the momynge vse some detiocyon / & let for no nede 
92. , , . y« contrary wyl be to thy dispraysyng 
p. 16. L 107-8. Grentyl is to vse fayre spech / it requyreth nothyng but good 
111-12. Knele / sytte / stande / or walke / deuoutly loke thou do pray 
To helpe a preest to say masse / it is greatly to be co/vmended 
Thou takest on hande an au^rgels office / the preest to attend 
117. . , • 'chyrche*/?'' 'Temple, see* 
119-22. Cojnmunicacyo;i vse thou not /to women preestes nor clarkes 
When your deuocyo/r is done / and tyme is towardes dyner 
131. Gyue him reuerence 
p. 17. L 145-6. Leane not on the one syde / when thou speakest for nothyng 
161. . . , 'with a pause 'ybr 'distinctly* 
168. . . . that is good I thynke 
p. 19. L 228. . . , that is gentelly do 
p. 20. 1. 271-2. mih moch flessbe & lytel bread / fyl not thy mouth lyke a 

barge 
after 1. 276 insert A pynte at a draught to powre in fast / as one in haste 

Foure at a mease is .iii. to many / in suche I thynke waste 
p. 21. 1. 288. . . . when thou haste forgette 

p. 22. 1. 323-4. For then wyil yoKr souerayne / thynke in you cbecke mate 
331-2. Moche wagynge with thy heed / semeth thou arte not wyse 
345-6. Take your napkyn & stryke forth the crommes before the 
p. 23. 1. 351. With tonge & hande be not ragyous 
361. Then perceyue ye a tyme to ryse 
368. ... as best is for you honestly 

372. . , . that is sure and clere 

373. Speke not moch in thy felowes ere 

p. 25. 1. 37-40. yf fortune the auaunce / and put the in some hye degre 

Be thou lyberall & gentyll / yf thou wylte be ruled by me 

48. ... for it is euyll deuisyon 

49. , . . spende gladly . . . 

61. . . . reformable / nor of reason wyl take no hede 
81-2. omitted. 

95-6. . . substaunce / lowlynesse wyll do the honesty 
99-100. Do thy dilygenoe, suffre a tyme / an yll 8eruau;»t is ful of 
vyce 
p. 27. 1. 129. A tendable seruaufft 
p. 28. 139-40. omUted. 

147-52. And tell them storyes of loue, & so to you they wyll repayre 
Suche pastymes somtyme, doth many men auaunce 
In way of maryage, and your good name it wyl enhaunce 



HUGH RHODES*S BOKB OF NURTURE. 53 

p. 29. 1. 201. The best Ijeng with a woman when she is yonge clene & 

lyght 

And when thou wylte feble the body and bed / & wast the 

sjght 
What people are yl to please / whose hert & eye is insaciable 
p. 30. 233. Make thy myrrour 

235. Do thou lyke to them 
262. , . , & knowlege without gonemawis 
p. 32. 1. 307-8. Wyse or folysshe, to rule or be ruled / or to be set at nought 
309-11. If thou wyll take no payne in youth / & wyll be called wyse 
Thou muste take payne in age / and be full of vyce 
p. 33. 1. 329. Take hede to day before to morowe 
331. Blame no goodnes, prayse no euyU 
335-6. Couetyse auoydeth gentylnes / and lechery good fame 
340. ... in a busy tonge none ther is 
p. 34. L 355. In lytell valowe lyeth moche shame 
357. Be not busy with 
359-60. For suche of tymes byddeth them / vnto an euyll feesle 
1. 363-6. An yreful body is neuer quyet, nor in rest where he doth dwell 
L 367. One amonge .x. 
1. 377. To chyde and braule seldom 

383-4. Malys had in a frendly wyse / maketh a frende of thy fo 
385-6. And thou be good thou mayst do good / that is very playne 
p. 35. 1. 399-404. To do you a pleasure at nede / ye shall fynde them nere 

And thou wylte do for no man / in thy prosperyte 
Who then shall do for the / when thou arte in thy aduersy tc 
411-12. Beware of comon grudgers / for they wyll fayle the at nede 
415-16. When such men thynke them self most sure / sodaynly they 
fal 
421-4. In auctoryte, & vnder thy gouernaunce / do no man blame 
Fynd few fautes, vse gentyl speche / to get the a good name 
p. 36. 1. 427-30. Without bye wordes / ptfrceyuynghym selfe he hath yll done 

Tempt no man that is moued / multiplyeng from .ii. to ten 
431-2. In malis be not sdau/ederus / to thy felowhaue no dysdayne 
445. For it is sayde of olde / better it is 
447. Be gentyll & beware of dysdayne 
451-3. Be not couetyse, spende in mesure / accordyng as thou hast 

Beware of moche speakynge 
455-6. It is wysdome to speake lytell / for moche is taken for yyce 
p. 37. 1. 463-4. An honest man wyl vse his wordes / to put no man in dout 
467-70. In myne owne turne sodaynly / may I take a fall 

There is that can good skyl / and lacketh it shuld go therto 
482-4. ... to be mery or sad, to seme god or deuyll 

Cwmyngnot vsed grace without gouernau/«ce / is very euyll 
491. They do forget honesty e 
493. Displesure of them that lacke maner, 



54 VARIOUS READINGS. 

p. 38. 1.499-500. He may not he agaynsayd, he thynketh hym selfe none sdclj 
503-4. They thynke theyr owne conce^te wyse, yet it is very thyn 
505-8. Trauers not in one tale / stedfastnes wyl enhau^sce thy name 
Lyght in speche and slowe in dedes / y wys it ia great shame 
517-20, Bost the of no bawdynesse / for to haue it knowen 

Do well yet some wyl say yll / an euyl name is sone blowen 
523-4. Vse wordes lyke apparel / or let apparel be lyke your speche 

528. . . , then all your gardes and hoodes 
531-2. yf thou be as good as they / els shalt thou haue dysdayne 
p. 39. 1. 539-40. The lesse thou medlest / the better shalte thou please 
543-4. To be beloued / is the propertye of a wyse man 
547-50. For thy speche is sone p^rceyued / thy tale shall iudge the 
best 
Prayse not thy selfe / bycause thou woldest haue souereynte 
556. , . , Yse them not for shame 
558. ... for ynough is a treasure 
559-60. Moche laughyng is reputed / in suche as lacketh nurture 

562. . . , to be mery amonge is auauntage 
567-S. For with a good forethought, ye may make a frend at nede 
p. 40. 1. 575-6. And so content with a lytell payne, then after with sorowe 
599-600. Be as glad to brynge it / then thou mayst borowe agayne 
603-4. yf thou fayle then foloweth payne / then is it derely bought 
p. 41 1. 621-2. A prodygal man / wyl aboue his degre couet to mayntayne 

So may not he prosper / spendynge hia goodes in vayne 

628. . . , then apereth thy wysdome to late 

629-36. He that worketh by good couffsell / doth many a man please 

It is to his frende great pleasure / & to hym selfe greate ease 

He thou hast displeased haue in suspect / yf he speke playne 

Such malys is ofte in mynd / tyll he be payed home agayne 

p. 42. 1. 641-4. When y» hast loue, seke for profyte / loue endureth not euer 

It ebbeth & floweth / it lasteth no lenger the;i pleseth y« 
gyuer 
646. , , . gentelly go and se 

It it (sic) agaynst maner / he shulde ryse and eome to the 
651. Alway crauyng / carynge for them selues / and not for thyue 
654. ... y^ pore asketh nought els of thy good 
659. Fayre speche with a subtyl tonge, 
663-4. An honest man to mocke or rebuke / it is agaynst al curtesye 
667-8. Of good sayeng cometh no yll / wherfore say well for shame 
673-6. A pore ma;i wyse is worshyp / in a gentylma» vnstable is foly 
Worshypful byrth & shamful ly fe / in a ge«tylma« is vngoodly 
p. 43. 1.677 85. A gentylman mercyful / a chorle spyteful is great diuerey te 

One lyberal, another couetous, sheweth theyr natyuyte 
Poore men fay thfuU, and gentylmen decey tful in lyuynge 
The gredy myndes of rulers / hath caused blode shedynge 
Grace foloweth good gouemauns 



HUGH RHODES'S BOKB OP NURTURE. 55 

p, 43, 1. 695-6. Some be lyberal of theyr tonges, counsel they can not bynde 

700. . . . gyue no seniens tyl truth by tryed out 

703-4. In my mynde I holde it best, thy counsell neuer bewray 

707-14. When counsel is closed in thy brest, vttraunce wyl the rue 

It is good to kepe dose cou;»sel, except suffioyent probacyon 

p- 44. A knot vnknyt is easy to slack, y^ people are ful of decepcion 

1. 713. Take hede to whom y^ brekest thy mynde, onely for flattery 

727-8. Better is a trewe rebuke of thy fo, then a fals prayse of thy 

frende 
731-2. Put apart al sad fantases, & shew them gentyl familyaryte 
739-40. A smal reward pleseth a frend, empty fystes ca» not hawkes 
reclayme 
p. 45. 1. 755-6. yf tliey be gentyll and pleased, men wyll report them kynde 
758. . . . but ge/itly be contented 
761-4. A ma» controUyng & yl to please, & in payment nothyng 
lyberal 
It cojinmeth nothynge of gentylnesse, to be prodygall 
769-72. Regard thy honesty in euery company, where tyme is spent 
Conuay nothyng therof to thy self / so men wyll not be 
content 
775-6. Vse gentyll pastyme / then wyll men co;nmende thy myrth 
p. 46. after ^ Go no further then behoueth the / lest thou haue blame 
1. 784 insert \ In truste is treason, be ruled by reason / euer fle from shame 
787-8. A tale well knowen may be well tolde the (trueth tryed out) 
791-6. I holde it of this matter / beste for to make an ende 

He that wyll not for wysdome seke / is not his owne frende 

p. 47-9. TAs Prose Fart of the Rule of Honest Liuing is omitted, 

p. 50. 1. 14. Hewe Rodes one of the kynges chapeU. Imprynted - 

at London in paules chyrchyarde by Thomas Petyt. 



A few notes tofiU up a page and a quarter » 

Words of villany, p. 6. Loose talk and swearing. From Roberde of 
Brunn3 downwards, and before hiiu long, no doubt, the English habit of 
swearing has beeu cause of sharp reproof. U. Brunne rebukes the gentlemen 
of his time for it : 



pys gentyl men, ^ys gettours, 
pey ben but Goddys turmentours ; 
pey turmente hym alle ^at |>ey may, 
Wy^ fals ojjys ny^t and day. 
But 3e leue ^oure fals sweryng, 



30ure vnkynde vpbreydyng, 
^e shul go a deueyl weye 
But ^5 amende 30U ar 33 deye ; 
For euery gadlyng nat wur}> a pere 
Takyth ensample at 30W to swere. 
Handling Synne, p. 26, 1. 701-70. 
.\ndrew Borde says " in all the worlde, there is not suche odyble swear- 



^(y HUGH RHODBS'S BOKE OP NURTUBB. 

a 

ynge as is vsed in Englande, specyally amonges youth and chyldren, whiche 
is a detestable thvnge to here it, and no man doth go aboate to punysshe it." 
Regyment^ fol. D .ij. back. 

In Edward the Fourth's Court the fine for swearing was that the offender 
should have " no wyne at the meles." H, Ord.i p. 68. 

House of office : Page 8, 1. 11. Compare 'And of all thynges let the 
butterye, the celler, the kytchyn, the larder house, with aU other Aouses of 
offyces be kepte cleane. Andrew Borde. Begyment fol, B. iv. 

Toothpick, p. 20, 1. 245-8. When were tooih-picks introduced into England? 

The Anglo-Saxons had them, seemingly. Mr Cockayne translates do 
medmicel on \>a eagan mid to\> gate (Leechdoms, ii. 36) by " Introduce a 
small quantity [of the eye-salve] into the eyes with a toothypielc** But the 
gar may have been a surgicai tooth-instrument, a scraper, and not a substi- 
tute at dinner for Rodes's stick. Withals, 1556, gives 'a totfae picker, 
dentiscalpium^ Thierry, in 1564 — (Estienne 1539 and -49 re-edited : Way) — 
has * Vn curedenty Dentiscalpium.* Levins in 1570 gives ** a Pike for the 
eares, teeth &c., scalprum*' Manipulum, Pref. p. vi. ed. 1866 ; and then 
come all the authorities collected by Nares, who says : - - 

Tooth-picks appear to have been first brought into use in Italy ; whence 
the traveUer who had visited that country, particularly wished to exhibit 
that symbol of gentility. 

" Now your traueller, 
Hee and his tooth-picke at my worship's messe." King John, i. 1. 

The equipment of a fine gentleman is thus described by Massinger : 

" I have all that's requisite 
To the making up of a signior : my spruce ruff, 
My hooded cloak, long stocking, and paned hose. 
My case of toothpicks, and my silver fork 
To convey an olive neatly to my mouth.** 
The Great Duke of Florence, Act iii. (p. 179, col. 2. ed. 1839). 

They were even worn at one time as an ornament in the hat : 

"Answer the time of request, Virginitie like an olde Courtier, weares her 
cap out of fashion, richly suted, but vnsuteable ; iust like the brooch & the 
tooth-pick, which were not now," AWs Welt that Ends Well, i. 1. 

See also Nares's quotations \mder picktooth, and his Editors' extract from 
the Nomenclator (P ed. 1585, not that of 1548 noticed in the Promptorium), 
'Dentiscalpium. . . Curedent. A tooth-scraper or tooth-rake, Cotgrave 
in 1611 has * Cure-dent, A tooth-picke', and Harrington, 1624, says 'cleanse 
the teeth either with luory or a Harts home, or some picker of pure siluer 
or gold.' 



JOHN CHILDS AND SON, PBINTES8. 






nndelMS. Ho. 61. I2lli Ceatiu;. WrCglK.p. 163. 



iijE WKiKi AT Cama or Qalilke. c^ eulf Uib Cfniur)} XH. Imii. Lib. 1 
" P^lemuge da Is Vie Himuinc." Fiib-tionci If ft on uOiit. Dretd. Sdts, Kniii 
Wri«ht,p. 160. 




MK. Jtea. i, B. vli. Bril. Uuj. Wrijilii. p. 1« 



SI 



.11 



SI 

II 

a Z. 

15 



lit 



\: Lib. Puta. No. «i»T. Wrigbt. f. M 



.The Habpkb IN Tun Hiu, MS. «*«.». B.vi).f<iLJIl). ma M, aoSb. EhtIj- Hih Cenliir>-. 



IX. 




Bbcbptiov of the Minbtbkl (who is at the Are). From the 15th Centary MS. "Boman de la 
Tiolette,'* at Paria. Note the Table Donnant, with fixed legs and top. Wright, p. 366. 




A BOTAL Party. From a 15th Century MS. of tlie '* Comre d'Artois," formerly in the possession of 
M. Barrois, and now of Lord Ashhumham (?). Wright, p. 363. 



wcpHuDuufaip, '^Tlie ProdiRHl Son-'^ Wri^t. p. 



s I 

I ! 
I I 
I I 





^nlury IBS. of lli« -' TretuiH ot 



I 

I'i 



J A Bbdboom Chair. ISih Cenloi? Biuiihkih Sci)iB.witb s Hnlch or Tnuun Cha 

Its. " CiHnt« d'Altoi*." Wiigbt, p. SW. From 1 1«(h Ccniury Lilln B<blc. 

Imp. Lib. Puii, No. SKIS. WrlBhl, p. Vt». 



Lad I IK Bid. 

From His Ifilh Cenlary Latin Bl 

No.teNKbon. Wiight.p.41 




HOBTELRI AT NtSHT,